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EX-23.1 - EX-23.1 - NxStage Medical, Inc.b84122exv23w1.htm
EX-31.1 - EX-31.1 - NxStage Medical, Inc.b84122exv31w1.htm
EX-32.1 - EX-32.1 - NxStage Medical, Inc.b84122exv32w1.htm
EX-21.1 - EX-21.1 - NxStage Medical, Inc.b84122exv21w1.htm
EX-32.2 - EX-32.2 - NxStage Medical, Inc.b84122exv32w2.htm
EX-31.2 - EX-31.2 - NxStage Medical, Inc.b84122exv31w2.htm
EX-10.10 - EX-10.10 - NxStage Medical, Inc.b84122exv10w10.htm
Table of Contents

 
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
Form 10-K
 
     
(Mark One)    
þ
  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010
OR
o
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the transition period from to
 
Commission File Number: 000-51567
 
NxStage Medical, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
 
     
Delaware
  04-3454702
(State of Incorporation)   (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
     
439 S. Union St., 5th Floor, Lawrence, MA
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
  01843
(Zip Code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
(978) 687-4700
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock, $0.001 par value
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes þ     No o
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes o     No þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes þ     No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes o     No o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
             
Large accelerated filer o
  Accelerated filer þ   Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes o     No þ
 
The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $394.3 million, as of June 30, 2010, based on the last reported sale price of the registrant’s common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on June 30, 2010.
 
There were 53,751,518 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of the close of business on February 14, 2011.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for its 2011 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 26, 2011 are hereby incorporated by reference in response to Part III, Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of the Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 


 

 
NXSTAGE MEDICAL, INC.
 
2010 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
             
        Page
 
PART I
  Business     4  
  Risk Factors     29  
  Unresolved Staff Comments     51  
  Properties     51  
  Legal Proceedings     51  
  [Removed and Reserved]     52  
 
PART II
  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities     52  
  Selected Financial Data     54  
  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations     55  
  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk     70  
  Financial Statements and Supplementary Data     71  
  Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure     99  
  Controls and Procedures     99  
  Other Information     102  
 
PART III
Item 10.
  Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance     102  
Item 11.
  Executive Compensation     102  
Item 12.
  Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters     102  
Item 13.
  Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence     102  
Item 14.
  Principal Accounting Fees and Services     102  
 
PART IV
  Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules     102  
    103  
    104  
 EX-10.10
 EX-21.1
 EX-23.1
 EX-31.1
 EX-31.2
 EX-32.1
 EX-32.2


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CAUTIONARY NOTICE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This report and certain information incorporated by reference herein contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, concerning our business, operations and financial condition, including statements with respect to the market adoption of our products in the United States and internationally; the growth of the home, critical care and in-center dialysis markets in general and the home hemodialysis market in particular; the development and commercialization of our products; changes in the historical purchasing patterns and preferences of our key customers, including DaVita Inc.; the adequacy of our funding; our ability to achieve and sustain positive cash flows; whether and when we might achieve improvements to our gross margins and operating expenses; expectations with respect to our operating expenses and achieving our business plan; expectations with respect to achieving profitable operations; expectations with respect to achieving improvements in product reliability; the timing and success of the submission, acceptance and approval of regulatory filings and the impact of any changes in the regulatory environment with respect to our products or business; the scope of patent protection with respect to our products; expectations with respect to the clinical findings of our FREEDOM study, and the impact of new and future changes to reimbursement for chronic dialysis treatments. All statements other than statements of historical facts included in this report regarding our strategies, prospects, financial condition, costs, plans and objectives are forward-looking statements. When used in this report, the words “expect”, “anticipate”, “intend”, “plan”, “believe”, “seek”, “estimate”, “potential”, “continue”, “predict”, “may”, and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Because these forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements for a number of important reasons, including those discussed below in “Risk Factors”, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, and elsewhere in this report.
 
You should read these forward-looking statements carefully because they discuss our expectations about our future performance, contain projections of our future operating results or our future financial condition or state other “forward-looking” information. You should be aware that the occurrence of any of the events described under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this report could substantially harm our business, results of operations and financial condition and that upon the occurrence of any of these events, the trading price of our common stock could decline.
 
We cannot guarantee future results, events, levels of activity, performance or achievements. The forward-looking statements contained in this report represent our expectations as of the date of this report and should not be relied upon as representing our expectations as of any other date. Subsequent events and developments will cause our expectations to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements, we specifically disclaim any obligation to do so, even if our expectations change.


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PART I
 
For convenience, in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, “NxStage,” “we,” “us,” and “the Company” refer to NxStage Medical, Inc. and our consolidated subsidiaries, taken as a whole.
 
Item 1.   Business
 
Overview
 
We are a medical device company that develops, manufactures and markets innovative products for the treatment of kidney failure, fluid overload and related blood treatments and procedures. Our primary product, the NxStage System One, or the System One, was designed to satisfy an unmet clinical need for a system that can deliver the therapeutic flexibility and clinical benefits associated with traditional dialysis machines in a smaller, portable, easy-to-use form that can be used by healthcare professionals and trained lay users alike in a variety of settings, including patient homes, as well as more traditional care settings such as hospitals and dialysis clinics. Given its design, the System One is particularly well-suited for home hemodialysis and a range of dialysis therapies including more frequent, or “daily,” dialysis, which clinical literature suggests provides patients better clinical outcomes and improved quality of life. The System One is cleared or approved for commercial sale in the United States, Europe and Canada for the treatment of acute and chronic kidney failure and fluid overload. The System One is cleared specifically by the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, for home hemodialysis as well as therapeutic plasma exchange, or TPE, in a clinical environment. We also sell needles and blood tubing sets primarily to dialysis clinics for the treatment of end-stage renal disease, or ESRD, which we refer to as the in-center market. We believe our largest future product market opportunity is for our System One used in the home hemodialysis market, or home market, for the treatment of ESRD using more frequent, or “daily” hemodialysis.
 
ESRD, which affects over 500,000 people in the United States and 2 million people worldwide, is an irreversible, life-threatening loss of kidney function that is treated predominantly with dialysis. Dialysis is a kidney replacement therapy that removes toxins and excess fluids from the bloodstream and, unless the patient receives a kidney transplant, is required for the remainder of the patient’s life. Approximately, 70% of ESRD patients in the United States rely on life-sustaining dialysis treatment. Hemodialysis, the most widely prescribed type of dialysis, typically consists of treatments in a dialysis clinic three times per week, with each session lasting three to five hours. Approximately 8% of U.S. ESRD dialysis patients receive some form of dialysis treatment at home, most of whom treat themselves with peritoneal dialysis, or PD, although surveys of physicians and healthcare professionals suggest that a larger proportion of patients could take responsibility for their own care. Clinical data also suggests that hemodialysis therapy administered five or six times per week, commonly referred to as daily therapy, better mimics the natural functioning of the human kidney and can lead to improved clinical outcomes, including reductions in antihypertensive medications, reduced fluid overload, reduced depression and improvements in health-related quality of life. We believe there is an unmet need for a hemodialysis system that allows more frequent and easily administered therapy at home and have designed our system to address this and other kidney replacement markets. Currently, nearly all of our System One patients in the home market receive treatment between five or six times a week in order to take advantage of these reported clinical benefits.
 
Measuring 15x15x18 inches, the System One is the smallest commercially available hemodialysis system. It consists of a compact, portable and easy-to-use cycler, disposable drop-in cartridge and high purity premixed fluid. The System One has a self-contained design and simple user interface making it easy to operate by a trained patient and his or her trained partner in any setting prescribed by the patient’s physician. Unlike traditional dialysis systems, our System One does not require any special disinfection and its operation does not require specialized electrical or plumbing infrastructure or modifications to the home. Patients can bring the System One home, plug it in to a conventional electrical outlet and operate it, thereby eliminating what can be expensive plumbing and electrical household modifications required by other traditional dialysis systems. Because of its portability, patients also have the freedom to travel with the System One. We market the System One to dialysis clinics for chronic hemodialysis treatment. The clinics in turn provide the System One to ESRD patients.


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We also market the System One to hospitals for treatment of acute kidney failure and fluid overload. It is estimated that there are over 200,000 cases of acute kidney failure in the United States each year. The clinical flexibility of our System One, coupled with its ease-of-use and portability, make our system well suited for hospital critical care environments.
 
In addition to the System One, we sell a line of extracorporeal disposable products for use primarily for in-center dialysis treatments for patients with ESRD. These products, which we obtained in connection with our October 2007 acquisition of Medisystems Corporation and certain affiliated entities, which we refer to collectively as Medisystems, include hemodialysis blood tubing sets, A.V. fistula needles and apheresis needles. Medisystems has been selling products to dialysis centers for the treatment of ESRD since 1981, and has achieved leading positions in the U.S. market for both hemodialysis blood tubing sets and AV fistula needles. Our blood tubing set products include the ReadySet High Performance Blood Tubing set, or ReadySet, and the Streamline Airless Blood Tubing set, or Streamline. ReadySet has been on the market since 1993. Streamline, our next generation product which was introduced in 2007, is designed to provide improved patient outcomes and lower costs to dialysis clinics. Our needle products line includes AV fistula needles incorporating safety features, first introduced in 1995, including PointGuard Anti-Stick Needle Protectors and MasterGuard technology, and ButtonHole needles, first introduced in 2002.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, our revenues were $179.2 million and we incurred a net loss of $31.7 million. As of December 31, 2010, we had cash and cash equivalents of $104.3 million, total assets of $286.1 million, long term liabilities of $97.6 million and total stockholders’ equity of $152.1 million.
 
Since inception, we have incurred negative operating margins and losses every quarter. At December 31, 2010, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $308.4 million. While we have achieved positive gross margins for our products, in aggregate, since the fourth quarter of 2007, we cannot provide assurance that our gross margins will improve or, if they do improve, the rate at which they will improve. Continued improvements in gross margins are dependent on many factors, including growing revenues, reducing costs of revenues by implementing design and process improvements, obtaining better purchasing terms and prices and increasing reliability of our products. Additionally, we expect our operating expenses to continue to increase as we grow our business. Our ability to become profitable and, its timing and sustainability, depend principally upon continued improvements in gross margins, growing revenues, and leverage of our operating infrastructure including any investment in selling and marketing or research and development activities.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, cash flows from operating activities were positive due to improvements in net loss versus 2009 and a $4.3 million one-time customer prepayment on first quarter 2011 orders. While we continue to make progress in improving our cash flows from operating activities, we expect cash flows from operating activities in the near term to fluctuate between negative and positive on a quarterly basis, primarily due to changes in working capital. There can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to improve cash flows from operating activities or whether we will be able to generate positive cash flows from operating activities in the future. We believe, based on current projections and the current nature of our business, that we have the required resources to fund our ongoing operating requirements. Our ability to and the rate at which we continue to improve cash flows from operating activities will depend on many factors, including growing revenues, continued improvements in gross margins, leverage of our operating infrastructure and continued sale versus rental of a significant percentage of our System One equipment.
 
We were incorporated in Delaware in 1998 under the name QB Medical, Inc., and later changed our name to NxStage Medical, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 439 South Union Street, Fifth Floor, Lawrence, Massachusetts 01843.
 
Additional financial information regarding our business segments and geographic data about our assets is contained in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7 of Part II, and in our notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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Our Products and Services
 
The System One
 
Our primary product, the NxStage System One, is a small, portable, easy-to-use hemodialysis system. Sales of the System One and related disposables accounted for approximately 64%, 58% and 52% of our total sales for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
 
The System One includes the following components:
 
  •  The NxStage Cycler.  A compact portable electromechanical device containing pumps, control mechanisms, safety sensors and remote data capture functionality.
 
  •  The NxStage Cartridge.  A single-use, disposable, integrated treatment cartridge that loads simply and easily into the cycler. The cartridge incorporates a proprietary volumetric fluid management system and includes a pre-attached dialyzer.
 
  •  Premixed Dialysate.  The System One uses high-purity premixed dialysate for hemodialysis applications. The volume of fluids used varies with treatment options, prescription, and setting. We supply our premixed dialysate in sterile five liter bags or through the use of our PureFlow SL accessory. The PureFlow SL module allows for the preparation of dialysate fluid in the patient’s home using ordinary tap water and dialysate concentrate thereby reducing the need for bagged fluids for in-home treatments.
 
ReadySet
 
The ReadySet High Performance Blood Tubing Set, which was introduced for use in hemodialysis in 1993, features a pump segment material designed to deliver reliable, accurate flows throughout the treatment. The blood tubing is designed to be easy to handle and to enable relatively fast priming, or removal of air from the dialysate solution. These technological advances are intended to optimize dose delivery. Sales of ReadySet accounted for approximately 15%, 19% and 24% of our total sales for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
 
Streamline
 
Streamline, which was introduced in 2007, is our next generation blood tubing set product. Streamline features an efficient and airless design intended to result in superior clinical and economic performance and is designed to reduce treatment time, minimize waste and optimize dose delivery. Streamline also includes our patented LockSite needleless access sites, eliminating the need for sharp needles or costlier guarded needles to be used with the tubing set in connection with dialysis therapy, thereby intended to facilitate a clinician’s ability to satisfy Occupational Safety and Health Administration, or OSHA, anti-stick requirements.
 
AV Fistula and Apheresis Needles
 
Our AV fistula and apheresis needles have been designed to achieve a smooth blood flow throughout the treatment, intended to result in less clotting, lower pressure drops, and less stress on the patient’s blood. A significant amount of our needles sold are branded MasterGuard, and include our Fingershield® anchor designed to protect the operator from inadvertent needle stick injury. We also offer ButtonHole needles, first introduced in 2002, for hemodialysis therapies as an alternative to our AV fistula needles with MasterGuard. This needle is used by patients that employ “the constant-site technique”, whereby a fistula needle is inserted in the same place each treatment. Published clinical experience suggests that the incidence of pain, hematoma, and infiltrations at the needle insertion site can be reduced by utilizing the constant-site technique. Our ButtonHole AV fistula needle has an anti-stick, dull bevel design well-suited for the constant-site technique, while also designed to reduce the risk of accidental needle sticks. Sales of needles accounted for approximately 12%, 14% and 18% of our total sales for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively.


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Our Business by Segment
 
We report the results of our operations in two segments: System One and In-Center. We distribute our products in three markets: home, critical care and in-center. In the System One segment we derive our revenues from the sale and rental of equipment and the sale of disposable products in the home and critical care markets. We define the home market as the market devoted to the treatment of ESRD patients in the home and the critical care market as the market devoted to the treatment of hospital-based patients with acute kidney failure or fluid overload. In the In-Center segment, we derive our revenues from the sale of needles and blood tubing sets used predominantly in hemodialysis performed in-center as well as apheresis, which we refer to as the in-center market.
 
System One
 
We began marketing the System One to perform hemodialysis for ESRD patients in September 2004, and we began marketing our System One specifically for home use in July 2005, after the System One was cleared by the FDA for home hemodialysis. We market the System One to independent dialysis clinics as well as dialysis clinics that are part of national or regional chains, providing clinics with improved access to a developing market, the home hemodialysis market, and the ability to expand their patient base by adding home-based patients without adding clinic infrastructure. Since Medicare regulations require that all chronic ESRD patients be under the care of a dialysis clinic, whether they are treated at-home, in-clinic or with a kidney transplant, we do not sell the System One directly to patients.
 
For each month that a patient is treated with the System One, we bill the clinic for the purchase of the related disposable cartridges and treatment fluids necessary to perform treatment. A majority of our sales to customers in the home market include the purchase rather than the rental of System One equipment. Our two largest customers in the home market, DaVita and Fresenius, purchase rather than rent all or nearly all of their System One equipment.
 
After selling or renting a System One to a clinic, our clinical educators train the clinic’s nurses and dialysis technicians on the proper use of the system using proprietary training materials. We are not responsible for, and do not provide patient training. We rely on our customers’ trained technicians and nurses to train home patients, their partners and other technicians and nurses using the System One.
 
Patient training takes place at the clinic primarily during the patient’s prescribed, often daily, two to three hour treatment sessions. Training typically takes two to three weeks and includes basic instruction on ESRD, the operation of the System One and the insertion by the patient or their partner of needles into the patient’s vascular access site. Training sessions are presently reimbursed by Medicare or private insurance, and there may be a co-payment requirement to the patient associated with this training.
 
The System One cycler sold to hospitals in the critical care market is based on the same technology platform used in the home market, but includes an additional display module, called OneView, that is designed to facilitate easier medical record charting and troubleshooting. Most of our customers in the critical care market use our System to perform prolonged or continuous renal replacement therapy, also referred to as CRRT, for their acute kidney failure or fluid overload patients. We are specifically focusing our sales efforts in the critical care market on those large institutions that we believe are most dedicated to prolonged or continuous renal replacement therapy for patients with acute kidney failure and believe in ultrafiltration as an earlier-stage treatment option for fluid overload.
 
We primarily sell the System One cycler to customers in the critical care market; we also sell related disposable cartridges and treatment fluids necessary to perform dialysis treatment. After selling or renting a System One to a hospital, our clinical educators generally train the hospital’s intensive care unit, or ICU, and acute dialysis nurses on the proper use of the System One using proprietary training materials. We then rely on the trained nurses to train other nurses. By adopting this “train the trainer” approach, our sales nurses do not need to return to the hospital each time a new nurse needs to be trained.
 
Ownership of United States dialysis clinics is highly consolidated. While there are over 5,500 Medicare-certified dialysis outpatient facilities in the United States, DaVita and Fresenius each control approximately


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30% of U.S. dialysis market. Smaller chains and independent clinics and hospitals represent the approximately 40% of remaining clinics.
 
We sell or rent the System One to DaVita and a growing percentage of our System One sales are to Fresenius. DaVita is our most significant customer for the System One segment; with direct sales to DaVita representing approximately 34% of our System One segment revenues during 2010 and 38% and 35% during 2009 and 2008, respectively. Further, DaVita is our largest customer in the home market, constituting over 40% of our home hemodialysis patients. Our sales to Fresenius grew significantly in 2010, and Fresenius is now our second largest customer in the System One segment, with nearly all of those sales in the home market.
 
In July 2010, we entered into a First Amended and Restated National Service Provider Agreement, or the Amended Agreement, with DaVita expiring on June 30, 2013. The Amended Agreement supersedes our earlier agreement with DaVita entered into on February 7, 2007. Pursuant to the terms of the Amended Agreement, we agreed to continue to supply to DaVita the System One and PureFlow SL and related supplies for home hemodialysis therapy. Under the Amended Agreement, DaVita committed to continue to purchase, rather than rent, nearly all of its future System One equipment needs. After June 30, 2013, the term of the Amended Agreement may be automatically extended on a monthly basis unless terminated by either party pursuant to the Amended Agreement.
 
The Amended Agreement includes a modest increase to DaVita’s pricing from the levels under the original 2007 agreement, and continues DaVita’s right to receive most favored nations pricing for the System One and related supplies for home hemodialysis therapy, subject to certain requirements, including DaVita achieving certain System One home patient growth targets. In addition, under the Amended Agreement, DaVita is eligible for pricing discounts based upon the achievement of certain System One home patient growth targets (reflecting home patients who have remained on contiguous home hemodialysis therapy for at least three full months with the System One) at June 30, 2011, 2012 and 2013, and which further require DaVita to continue to grow its home patient census every six months during the term of the Amended Agreement. In order to conserve our cash, the pricing discount was structured to be paid as a warrant, in lieu of cash. The Amended Agreement provides for a range of warrant levels that may be earned based on DaVita and NxStage System One home patient targets. Under this tiered structure, DaVita would be required to grow its net patients on the NxStage System One at a compounded annual growth rate of approximately 20 percent from the level at the time of entering into the agreement in order to obtain any discount, while achieving the highest discount will require a significant increase above that. If all tiers of discounts are achieved, the Amended Agreement provides that DaVita may earn warrants to purchase up to 5.5 million shares of our common stock. The warrants have an exercise price of $14.22 per share and are non-transferable and must be exercised in cash.
 
In connection with the issuance of the warrants, we entered into a Registration Rights Agreement with DaVita pursuant to which we agreed to file, on or prior to April 1, 2011, a registration statement on Form S-3 with respect to the resale by DaVita of any shares issued to DaVita under the warrant. We registered the shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of the warrant on February 16, 2011 on our automatic shelf registration statement on Form S-3 filed on November 17, 2010 (No. 333-170654).
 
In-center
 
We sell primarily blood tubing sets and needles to customers in the in-center market. In this market, our customers are independent dialysis clinics as well as dialysis clinics that are part of national or regional chains. The majority of our sales in this market are made through distributors, in order to leverage national networks, shipping efficiencies and existing customer relationships. We plan our manufacturing and distribution activities based on distributor purchase orders. Finished goods are shipped directly to distributor warehouses. We support distributor selling and marketing efforts with brand marketing support and a team of clinical educators who assist with clinical in-service activities.
 
Our In-Center segment revenues are highly concentrated in several significant purchasers. Our two largest distributors are Henry Schein, Inc., or Henry Schein, and Gambro Renal Products, Inc., or Gambro. Revenues from Henry Schein represented approximately 44%, 66% and 80% of our In-Center segment revenues during


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2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. Revenues from Gambro represented approximately 36% and 14% of our In-Center segment revenues during 2010 and 2009, respectively. Gambro was not a distributor of ours in 2008. Our distribution agreement with Henry Schein will expire in April 2012. Our distribution agreement with Gambro will expire in July 2014.
 
Sales of our products through distributors to DaVita accounted for nearly half of In-Center segment revenues during 2010, 2009 and 2008. DaVita has contractual purchase commitments under two agreements: one with us for needles and one with Gambro for blood tubing sets. DaVita’s contractual purchase obligations with respect to needles will expire in January 2013. Gambro’s long term product supply agreement with DaVita entered into in connection with the sale of Gambro’s United States dialysis clinic business to DaVita in 2005, obligates DaVita to purchase a significant majority of its blood tubing set requirements from Gambro through 2015. In June 2009, we entered into a five year distribution agreement in the United States with Gambro, which contractually obligates Gambro to exclusively supply our blood tubing sets, including our ReadySet and the Streamline product lines, to DaVita through July 2014.
 
International
 
Historically, we have focused nearly all of our sales and marketing efforts in the United States. In 2009 we began entering into arrangements with distributors to sell the System One and certain of our other products internationally. Currently, we have distribution arrangements with several international partners for the sale of our System One in Europe and the Middle East. Finished goods are shipped directly to distributor warehouses. The distributors sell or rent our products to dialysis providers or hospitals. Currently, distributors handle marketing, patient and clinic training and equipment servicing and repair. To date, our international sales have been quite limited, and we are still very early in our international commercialization efforts.
 
Marketing, Customer Support
 
We have a sales force that calls on dialysis clinics, nephrologists and hospitals. In addition to specialized sales representatives, we also employ nurses in our sales force as clinical educators to support our sales efforts. We have a staff of Customer Support Specialists to assist patients, clinics and hospitals with product orders and deliveries, and also provide technical support 24-hours a day, seven days a week through a dedicated staff of Technical Support Representatives, to respond to questions raised by patients, clinics and hospitals concerning the System One. Our direct sales efforts focus almost exclusively on the home and critical care markets as we rely heavily on distributors to sell our products in the in-center market.
 
In the home market we primarily use a depot service model for equipment servicing and repair while we generally service equipment sold to customers in the critical care market in the field. For our home market customers, if a device requires repair, we arrange for a replacement device to be shipped to the site of care, whether it is a patient’s home, clinic or hospital, and for pick up and return to us of the system requiring service. This shipment is done by common carrier, and, as there are no special installation requirements, the patient, clinic or hospital can quickly and easily set up the new machine. The nature of the hospital critical care settings, coupled with the practices of other ICU dialysis equipment suppliers, necessitates an option for on-site support for our systems installed in this environment.
 
Competition
 
The dialysis therapy market is mature, consolidated and competitive. Our System One in the critical care market competes against Gambro, Fresenius Medical Care AG, Baxter Healthcare, or Baxter, B. Braun and others. Our product lines in the in-center market compete directly against products produced by Fresenius Medical Care AG, Gambro, Nipro, B. Braun, Baxter Healthcare, JMS and others. Our competitors each market one or more FDA-cleared medical devices for the treatment of acute or chronic kidney failure. Each of these competitors offer products that have been in use for a longer time than our System One and are more widely recognized by physicians, patients and providers. These competitors have significantly more financial and human resources, more established sales and distribution channels, service and customer support infrastructures and spend more on product development and marketing than we do. Many of our competitors also have


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established relationships with the providers of dialysis therapy and, Fresenius owns and operates a chain of dialysis clinics. The product lines of most of these companies are broader than ours, enabling them to offer a broader bundle of products that may afford them a significant competitive advantage.
 
We believe the competition in the market for kidney dialysis equipment and supplies is based primarily on:
 
  •  product quality;
 
  •  ease-of-use;
 
  •  cost effectiveness;
 
  •  sales force coverage; and
 
  •  clinical flexibility and performance.
 
We presently have the only portable product specifically cleared for home hemodialysis therapy in the United States. However, on February 18, 2011, we learned that Fresenius, our second largest customer in the System One segment, with nearly all of these sales in the home market, obtained in February 2011 clearance to use its 2008K At Home hemodialysis system for use in home chronic therapy. There is also an increasing interest in the home hemodialysis market from other competitors. Baxter has a research and development collaboration with DEKA Research and Development Corporation and HHD, LLC, or DEKA, and has recently indicated that it received Investigation Device Exemption, or IDE, approval from the FDA and hopes to commence U.S. and Canadian clinical studies of DEKA’s new home hemodialysis system in 2011 and launch in international markets as early as 2011 and obtain regulatory approval for Europe in 2012. Other small companies are also working to develop products for this market. We are unable to predict when, if ever, any of these products may attain regulatory clearance and appear in the market, or how successful they may be should they be introduced, but if additional viable products are introduced to the market, it could adversely affect our sales and growth.
 
For the critical care market, we believe we compete favorably in terms of product quality and ease of use due to our System One design, portability, drop-in cartridge and use of premixed fluids. We believe we also compete favorably on the basis of clinical flexibility, given the System One’s ability to perform hemofiltration, hemodialysis and ultrafiltration. However, the fact that we are not indicated for hemodiafiltration may be perceived by some clinicians as a disadvantage of our system over others. We believe we compete favorably in terms of cost-effectiveness for hospitals that perform continuous renal replacement therapies, or CRRT. In the fluid overload market, which is a very small component of our critical care market, drug therapy is currently the most common and preferred treatment. To date, ultrafiltration has not been broadly adopted and, if the medical community does not accept ultrafiltration as clinically useful, cost-effective and safe, we will not be able to successfully compete against existing pharmaceutical therapies in the treatment of fluid overload.
 
For the in-center market, where we sell needles and blood tubing sets, we believe that we compete favorably in terms of product quality, ease-of-use, cost effectiveness, clinical flexibility and performance. We also compete favorably in terms of branding, as Medisystems has been selling products to dialysis centers for the treatment of ESRD since 1981. We compete unfavorably in terms of sales force coverage, as we rely nearly exclusively on distributors, rather than our own direct sales force.
 
Our primary competitors are large, well-established businesses with significantly more financial and personnel resources and greater commercial infrastructures than us. We believe our ability to compete successfully will depend largely on our ability to:
 
  •  establish the infrastructures necessary to support a growing home, critical care and in-center dialysis products business;
 
  •  maintain and improve product quality;
 
  •  continue to develop sales and marketing capabilities;
 
  •  continuously improve our products and develop and obtain clearance for new products; and
 
  •  achieve cost reductions.


10


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Our ability to successfully market our products for the treatment of kidney failure could also be adversely affected by pharmacological and technological advances in preventing the progression of chronic ESRD and/or in the treatment of acute kidney failure, technological developments by others in the area of dialysis, the development of new medications designed to reduce the incidence of kidney transplant rejection and progress in using kidneys harvested from genetically-engineered animals as a source of transplants. There can be no assurance that competitive pressure or pharmacological or technological advancements will not have a material adverse effect on our business.
 
Clinical Experience and Results
 
Over 100 published articles have reported on the benefits of daily dialysis therapy. Although many of these publications were based on studies that did not use our product, the literature strongly supports that daily hemodialysis therapy can lead to improved clinical outcomes, including reduction in left ventricular mass, reduction in hypertension and use of antihypertensive medications, improved nutritional status, and overall improvement in quality of life, including improvements related to overall physical and mental health, depressive symptoms, sleep, restless legs syndrome and post-dialysis recovery time.
 
In early 2006, we enrolled the first patient in our post-market FREEDOM (Following Rehabilitation, Economics, and Everyday Dialysis Outcome Measurements) study, which is designed to quantify the clinical and economic benefits of daily home therapy administered to Medicare patients with the System One versus conventional thrice-weekly dialysis. The FREEDOM study is a prospective, multi-center, observational study, which will enroll up to 500 Medicare patients in up to 70 clinical centers. Enrollment is ongoing. The study will compare Medicare patients using the System One with a matched cohort of patients from the United States Renal Data System, or USRDS, patient database treated with traditional in-center thrice weekly dialysis, to help define differences in the cost of care and patient outcomes between the daily home setting and the dialysis clinic setting. Comparing the study group of patients using the System One to a USRDS database group matched in terms of demographics, co-morbidities, geography, number of years on dialysis and other key factors, should allow a valuable comparison to be made without the time and cost challenges of a crossover study, in which patients would be followed for a given time on each type of therapy.
 
Our goal is to provide further insights into more frequent dialysis and its cost-effectiveness as well as to confirm the significant reported potential benefits of daily therapy on patient quality of life and rehabilitation. Published U.S. government data estimates the total health care cost burden of a Medicare dialysis patient at over $70,000 annually, with dialysis services representing approximately 25% of this cost, while the cost of hospitalizations, drugs and physician fees make up nearly 60%.
 
Interim four and twelve month results from our ongoing FREEDOM study show daily home hemodialysis treatment made possible by the System One therapy significantly improves select measures of patient quality-of-life as compared to conventional, thrice-weekly in-center treatment. Specific improvements identified to date include a reduction in post dialysis recovery time (the average time to resume normal activity), returning significant quality time to patients each week. Other benefits include a reduction in depressive symptoms, improvements in select physical and mental health quality of life domains, a reduction in antihypertensive medications, improvements in sleep and restless legs syndrome.
 
We also completed an approved IDE study intended to support a home nocturnal indication for the System One. Enrollment started in the first quarter of 2008 and we submitted the associated 510(k) to the FDA in 2010. We met our primary safety and efficacy endpoints for the study. Nevertheless, the FDA recently notified us that their standards for what will be required for a home nocturnal clearance may change from what was required in our approved IDE. We continue to discuss with the FDA what the pathway to clearance for our product should be, and are evaluating our next steps.
 
In addition to the FREEDOM and nocturnal studies, we have completed two significant clinical trials with the System One for ESRD therapy, a post-market study of chronic daily hemofiltration and a study under an FDA-approved IDE. We have also completed a study of ultrafiltration with the System One for fluid overload associated with Congestive Heart Failure, or CHF.


11


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In the IDE study, we compared center-based and home-based daily dialysis with the System One. That study was a prospective, multi-center, two-treatment, two-period, open-label, cross-over study. The first phase of the study consisted of 48 treatments, six per week, in an eight-week period performed in-center, while the second phase consisted of the same number of treatments performed in an in-home setting. Between the two phases, there was a two-week transition period conducted primarily in the patient’s home. Prior to study initiation, enrolled patients were to have been on at least two weeks of daily hemodialysis with the System One in an in-center environment. The objective of the study was to evaluate equivalence on a per-treatment basis between the delivery of hemodialysis with our system in-center and at home. The result of the investigation showed that the safety and effectiveness of hemodialysis with our system in each setting was equivalent.
 
Research and Development
 
Our research and development organization has focused on developing innovative technical approaches that address the limitations of current dialysis systems and disposable products. Our development team has skills across the range of technologies required to develop and maintain dialysis systems and products. These areas include filters, tubing sets, mechanical systems, fluids, software and electronics. In response to physician and patient feedback and our own assessments, we are continually working on enhancements to our product designs to improve ease-of-use, functionality, reliability and safety and to reduce product cost. We also seek to develop new products that supplement our existing product offerings and intend to continue to actively pursue opportunities for the research and development of complementary products.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, we incurred research and development expenses of $12.9 million, $9.8 million and $8.9 million, respectively.
 
Intellectual Property
 
We seek to protect our investment in the research, development, manufacturing and marketing of our products through the use of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret law. We own or have licensed rights to a number of patents, trademark, copyrights, trade secrets and other intellectual property directly related and important to our business both in the United States and abroad. We also have domestic and foreign pending patent applications.
 
As of December 31, 2010, we had 85 issued U.S. and international patents, 1 issued European Union, or EU, industrial design registration and 32 U.S., international and foreign pending patent applications.
 
                         
Patent No.
 
Regime
 
Title
  Issue Date    
Expiration Date
 
 
09/512,132
  US   FLOW-THROUGH PERITONEAL DIALYZER SYSTEM AND METHODS WITH ON-LINE DIALYSIS SOLUTION REGENERATION     7/3/2001       2/23/2020  
09/513,902
  US   LAYERED FLUID CIRCUIT ASSEMBLIES AND METHODS FOR MAKING THEM     4/29/2003       2/14/2017  
09/829,670
  US   DEVICES FOR WARMING FLUID AND METHODS OF USE     6/3/2003       4/9/2021  
09/900,362
  US   METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LEAK DETECTION IN A FLUID LINE     6/3/2003       7/7/2021  
09/513,773
  US   FLUID PROCESSING SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING EXTRACORPOREAL FLUID FLOW PANELS ORIENTED WITHIN A CARTRIDGE     6/17/2003       2/25/2020  
09/027,301
  US   HEMOFILTRATION SYSTEM INCLUDING ULTRAFILTRATE PURIFICATION AND RE-INFUSION SYSTEM     6/24/2003       2/20/2018  


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Patent No.
 
Regime
 
Title
  Issue Date    
Expiration Date
 
 
09/512,927
  US   EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCUITS FOR PERFORMING HEMOFILTRATION EMPLOYING PRESSURE SENSING WITHOUT AN AIR INTERFACE     7/8/2003       2/14/2017  
09/513,915
  US   SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING BLOOD FLOW AND WASTE FLUID REMOVAL DURING HEMOFILTRATION     7/22/2003       2/14/2017  
09/513,911
  US   SYNCHRONIZED VOLUMETRIC FLUID BALANCING SYSTEMS AND METHODS     10/28/2003       2/14/2017  
09/512,929
  US   FLUID REPLACEMENT SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR USE IN HEMOFILTRATION     10/28/2003       2/25/2020  
09/905,246
  US   METHOD FOR PERFORMING RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY INCLUDING PRODUCING STERILE REPLACEMENT FLUID IN A RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY UNIT     11/18/2003       7/12/2021  
09/513,771
  US   INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SUPPORTING HEMOFILTRATION THERAPIES     1/6/2004       2/14/2017  
09/904,712
  US   DEVICES AND METHODS FOR POTTING A FILTER FOR BLOOD PROCESSING     3/9/2004       7/12/2021  
09/907,872
  US   HERMETIC FLOW SELECTOR VALVE     6/1/2004       7/17/2021  
09/513,910
  US   BLOOD TREATMENT SYSTEMS AND METHODS THAT MAINTAIN STERILE EXTRACORPOREAL     12/14/2004       2/14/2017  
09/865,905
  US   FLUID PROCESSING SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING EXTRACORPOREAL FLUID FLOW     2/8/2005       2/14/2017  
10/393,295
  US   METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING FILTERS     3/29/2005       3/20/2023  
09/894,236
  US   HEMOFILTRATION SYSTEM     10/18/2005       2/14/2017  
10/041,949
  US   SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR PERFORMING BLOOD PROCESSING AND/OR FLUID EXCHANGE PROCEDURES     12/27/2005       2/14/2017  
09/174,721
  US   METHODS, SYSTEMS, AND KITS FOR THE EXTRACORPOREAL PROCESSING OF BLOOD     2/28/2006       2/11/2018  
10/037,429
  US   METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LEAK DETECTION IN BLOOD CIRCUITS COMBINING EXTERNAL FLUID DETECTION AND AIR INFILTRATION DETECTION     5/9/2006       1/4/2022  
10/483,142
  US   METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LEAK DETECTION IN A FLUID LINE     8/8/2006       7/9/2024  
10/672,242
  US   Volumetric fluid balance control for extracorporeal blood treatment     9/26/2006       9/26/2023  
10/796,787
  US   MEASUREMENT OF FLUID PRESSURE IN A BLOOD TREATMENT DEVICE     12/12/2006       2/14/2017  

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Table of Contents

                         
Patent No.
 
Regime
 
Title
  Issue Date    
Expiration Date
 
 
10/650,935
  US   FLUID CIRCUITS, SYSTEMS, AND PROCESSES FOR EXTRACORPOREAL BLOOD PROCESSING     5/8/2007       7/12/2021  
10/772,888
  US   FLUID PROCESSING APPARATUS     6/5/2007       7/13/2021  
10/808,213
  US   Renal replacement therapy device for controlling fluid balance of treated patient     9/11/2007       2/24/2018  
10/807,906
  US   BLOOD PROCESSING MACHINE AND SYSTEM USING FLUID CIRCUIT CARTRIDGE     11/27/2007       5/4/2021  
10/808,207
  US   BLOOD PROCESSING MACHINE FLUID CIRCUIT CARTRIDGE     3/4/2008       6/9/2018  
11/160,586
  US   PRESSURE DETECTOR FOR FLUID CIRCUITS     3/4/2008       6/14/2024  
10/913,815
  US   Modular medical treatment replaceable component     3/25/2008       6/30/2018  
11/695,739
  US   FLUID, CIRCUITS, SYSTEMS, AND PROCESSES FOR EXTRACORPOREAL BLOOD PROCESSING     9/2/2008       7/12/2021  
10/393,185
  US   DUAL ACCESS SPIKE FOR INFUSATE BAGS     12/30/2008       1/11/2024  
10/649,582
  US   Hemofiltration systems and methods that maintain sterile extracorporeal processing conditions     1/6/2009       8/11/2020  
11/160,764
  US   BATCH FILTRATION SYSTEM FOR PREPARATION OF STERILE FLUID FOR RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY     6/9/2009       1/7/2024  
11/742,715
  US   SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR HANDLING AIR AND/OR FLUSHING FLUIDS IN A FLUID CIRCUIT     9/15/2009       7/13/2021  
10/544,124
  US   WASTE BALANCING FOR EXTRACORPOREAL BLOOD TREATMENT SYSTEMS     3/30/2010       7/7/2026  
12/434,246
  US   BATCH FILTRATION SYSTEM FOR PREPARATION OF STERILE FLUID FOR RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY     7/6/2010       1/7/2024  
11/951,142
  US   FLUID LINE CONNECTOR SAFETY DEVICE     7/20/2010       5/5/2028  
10/699,921
  US   FUNCTIONAL ISOLATION OF UPGRADEABLE COMPONENTS TO REDUCE RISK IN MEDICAL TREATMENT DEVICES     8/10/2010       2/4/2023  
10/796,913
  US   REGISTRATION OF FLUID CIRCUIT COMPONENTS IN A BLOOD TREATMENT DEVICE     8/17/2010       10/28/2023  
12/015,420
  US   METHODS, DEVICES, AND SYSTEMS FOR HEMODILUTION     8/17/2010       8/11/2021  
12/021,872
  US   BLOOD TREATMENT APPARATUS     8/24/2010       2/14/2017  
12/508,900
  US   SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR HANDLING AIR AND/OR FLUSHING FLUIDS IN A FLUID CIRCUIT     9/7/2010       7/13/2021  

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Table of Contents

                         
Patent No.
 
Regime
 
Title
  Issue Date    
Expiration Date
 
 
2003-512663
  JP   METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LEAK DETECTION IN A FLUID LINE     5/2/2008       7/8/2022  
2001-543177
  JP   LAYERED FLUID CIRCUIT ASSEMBLIES AND METHODS FOR MAKING THEM     10/9/2009       11/29/2020  
2001-539403
  JP   FLUID PROCESSING SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING EXTRACORPOREAL FLUID FLOW PANELS ORIENTED WITHIN A CARTRIDGE     12/4/2009       11/29/2020  
2006-538506
  JP   IMPROVED METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR LEAK DETECTION IN BLOOD PROCESSING SYSTEMS     12/4/2009       11/5/2024  
04757998.2
  IT   METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING FILTERS [2006/10]     3/10/2010       3/19/2024  
07760334.8
  IT   TUBING CLAMP FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS     8/11/2010       4/9/2027  
04810398.0
  IT   APPARATUS FOR LEAK DETECTION IN BLOOD PROCESSING SYSTEM     9/8/2010       11/5/2024  
02761044.3
  IT   METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LEAK DETECTION IN A FLUID LINE     9/8/2010       7/8/2022  
06717769.1
  IT   FILTRATION SYSTEM FOR PREPARATION OF FLUIDS FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS     10/20/2010       1/9/2026  
00991516.6
  IT   FLUID PROCESSING SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING EXTRACORPOREAL FLUID FLOW PANELS ORIENTED WITHIN A CARTRIDGE     2/9/2011       11/29/2020  
98904867.3
  GB   HEMOFILTRATION SYSTEM     11/16/2005       2/5/2018  
04700648.1
  GB   PREPARING REPLACEMENT FLUID     6/24/2009       1/7/2024  
00982268.5
  GB   SYNCHRONIZED VOLUMETRIC FLUID BALANCING SYSTEMS AND METHODS     1/13/2010       11/29/2020  
04757998.2
  GB   METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING FILTERS [2006/10]     3/10/2010       3/19/2024  
07760334.8
  GB   TUBING CLAMP FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS     8/11/2010       4/9/2027  
04810398.0
  GB   APPARATUS FOR LEAK DETECTION IN BLOOD PROCESSING SYSTEM     9/8/2010       11/5/2024  
02761044.3
  GB   METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LEAK DETECTION IN A FLUID LINE     9/8/2010       7/8/2022  
06717769.1
  GB   FILTRATION SYSTEM FOR PREPARATION OF FLUIDS FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS     10/20/2010       1/9/2026  

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Table of Contents

                         
Patent No.
 
Regime
 
Title
  Issue Date    
Expiration Date
 
 
00991516.6
  GB   FLUID PROCESSING SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING EXTRACORPOREAL FLUID FLOW PANELS ORIENTED WITHIN A CARTRIDGE     2/9/2011       11/29/2020  
04757998.2
  FR   METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING FILTERS [2006/10]     3/10/2010       3/19/2024  
07760334.8
  FR   TUBING CLAMP FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS     8/11/2010       4/9/2027  
04810398.0
  FR   APPARATUS FOR LEAK DETECTION IN BLOOD PROCESSING SYSTEM     9/8/2010       11/5/2024  
02761044.3
  FR   METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LEAK DETECTION IN A FLUID LINE     9/8/2010       7/8/2022  
06717769.1
  FR   FILTRATION SYSTEM FOR PREPARATION OF FLUIDS FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS     10/20/2010       1/9/2026  
00991516.6
  FR   FLUID PROCESSING SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING EXTRACORPOREAL FLUID FLOW PANELS ORIENTED WITHIN A CARTRIDGE     2/9/2011       11/29/2020  
000023148-0001
  EU   BLOOD TREATMENT MACHINE AND PARTS THEREOF     4/1/2003       4/1/2028  
04700648.1
  DE   PREPARING REPLACEMENT FLUID     6/24/2009       1/7/2024  
60043710.8-08
  DE   SYNCHRONIZED VOLUMETRIC FLUID BALANCING SYSTEMS AND METHODS     1/13/2010       11/29/2020  
602004 025 923.3-08
  DE   METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING FILTERS [2006/10]     3/10/2010       3/19/2024  
602007008395.8
  DE   TUBING CLAMP FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS     8/11/2010       4/9/2027  
602004029077.7
  DE   APPARATUS FOR LEAK DETECTION IN BLOOD PROCESSING SYSTEM     9/8/2010       11/5/2024  
60237621.1
  DE   METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LEAK DETECTION IN A FLUID LINE     9/8/2010       7/8/2022  
602006017654.6
  DE   FILTRATION SYSTEM FOR PREPARATION OF FLUIDS FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS     10/20/2010       1/9/2026  
N/A
  DE   FLUID PROCESSING SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING EXTRACORPOREAL FLUID FLOW PANELS ORIENTED WITHIN A CARTRIDGE     2/9/2011       11/29/2020  
2,593,580
  CA   FILTRATION SYSTEM FOR PREPARATION OF FLUIDS FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS     11/23/2010       1/9/2026  
 
 
* EU industrial design registration

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Table of Contents

 
Patents for individual products extend for varying periods of time according to the date a patent application is filed or a patent is granted and the term of the patent protection available in the jurisdiction granting the patent. The scope of protection provided by a patent can vary significantly from country to country.
 
In connection with the acquisition of Medisystems on October 1, 2007, we also acquired exclusive license rights to a portfolio of patents from Lifestream Medical Corporation (formerly known as DSU Medical Corporation). Lifestream Medical Corporation is wholly-owned by David S. Utterberg, a member of our board of directors and a significant stockholder of the Company. On February 17, 2011, Lifestream Medical Corporation assigned the formerly licensed patents to us, giving us control over the prosecution and maintenance of such patents and the ability to operate under such patents in all fields for any purpose. The assignment agreement does, however, provide that our rights under the patents are qualified by certain sublicenses previously granted to third parties. We have agreed that Mr. Utterberg will retain the right to royalty income under one of these sublicenses.
 
The following table lists all of the licensed patents assigned to us by Lifestream Medical Corporation.
 
                         
Patent No.
 
Regime
 
Title
 
Issue Date
   
Expiration Date
 
 
5643190
  US   Flow-Through Treatment Device     7/1/1997       1/17/2015  
5328461
  US   Blow Molded Venous Drip Chamber For Hemodialysis     7/12/1994       7/12/2011  
5330425
  US   Blow Molded Venous Drip Chamber For Hemodialysis     7/19/1994       4/30/2012  
5360395
  US   Pump Conduit Segment Having Connected, Parallel Branch Line     11/1/1994       12/20/2013  
5520640
  US   Blood Air Trap Chamber     5/28/1996       5/28/2013  
5772638
  US   Protector For Needle     6/30/1998       9/17/2016  
5772624
  US   Reusable Blood Lines     6/30/1998       7/20/2015  
5817043
  US   Flow-Through Treatment Device     10/6/1998       1/17/2015  
5895368
  US   Blood Set Priming Method And Apparatus     4/20/1999       9/23/2016  
6440095
  US   Pump Segment Having Connected Parallel Branch Line     8/27/2002       12/31/2015  
6165149
  US   Reusable Blood Lines     12/26/2000       7/20/2015  
5951870
  US   Automatic Priming Of Blood Sets     9/14/1999       10/21/2017  
5824213
  US   Separable Hemodialysis System     10/20/1998       9/7/2014  
5895571
  US   Separable Hemodialysis System Connected By A Movable Arm     4/20/1999       9/7/2014  
6299589
  US   Flow-Through Treatment Method     10/9/2001       1/17/2015  
6290665
  US   Blood Set Priming Method And Apparatus     9/18/2001       9/23/2016  
6177049
  US   Reversing Flow Blood Processing System     1/23/2001       6/10/2018  
5980741
  US   Bubble Trap With Flat Side Having Multipurpose Supplemental Ports     11/9/1999       8/1/2017  
6010623
  US   Bubble Trap With Flat Side     1/4/2000       8/1/2017  
6019824
  US   Bubble Trap Chamber     2/1/2000       6/9/2018  
6117342
  US   Bubble Trap With Directed Horizontal Flow And Method Of Using     9/12/2000       11/26/2016  
6755801
  US   Dialysis Pressure Monitoring With Clot Suppression     6/29/2004       11/8/2019  
6319465
  US   Reversing Flow Blood Processing System Having Reduced Clotting Potential     11/20/2001       6/3/2019  
6387069
  US   Blood Set Priming Method And Apparatus     5/14/2002       9/23/2016  
6051134
  US   Bubble Trap Having Common Inlet/Outlet Tube     4/18/2000       3/28/2017  
6187198
  US   Automatic Priming Of Connected Blood Sets     2/13/2001       10/21/2017  
6517508
  US   Set For Blood Processing     2/11/2003       11/3/2019  
6206954
  US   Blood Set And Chamber     3/27/2001       5/13/2018  
4501729
  JP   Automatic Priming Of Blood Sets     5/1/2001       10/13/2018  
2306829
  CA   Automatic Priming Of Blood Sets     5/1/2007       10/13/2018  
743310
  AU   Automatic Priming Of Blood Sets     5/9/2002       10/13/2018  


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Table of Contents

                         
Patent No.
 
Regime
 
Title
 
Issue Date
   
Expiration Date
 
 
6344139
  US   Arterial And Venous Blood Tubing Set     2/5/2002       10/21/2017  
7025750
  US   Set For Blood Processing     4/11/2006       1/7/2020  
6596234
  US   Reversing Flow Blood Processing System     7/22/2003       3/14/2019  
6620119
  US   Reusable Blood Lines     9/16/2003       11/12/2015  
6464878
  US   Automatic Priming Of Blood Sets     10/15/2002       10/21/2017  
6695807
  US   Blood Flow Reversing System     2/24/2004       1/18/2022  
7166084
  US   Blood Set Priming Method And Apparatus     1/23/2007       7/22/2017  
6666839
  US   Method of Using Reusable Blood Lines     12/23/2003       7/20/2015  
5983947
  US   Docking Ports For Medical Fluid Sets     11/16/1999       3/3/2017  
4117505
  JP   Flow-Trough Treatment Device     5/2/2008       7/17/2017  
3103938
  JP   Universal Connector     9/1/2000       6/6/2011  
2064749
  CA   Universal Connector     10/18/1994       6/6/2011  
5385372
  US   Luer Connector With Integral Closure     1/31/1995       1/8/2013  
5772638
  US   Protector For Needle     6/30/1998       9/17/2016  
5433703
  US   Guarded Winged Needle Assembly     7/18/1995       7/18/2012  
5562636
  US   Needle Protector Sheath     10/8/1996       7/15/2014  
5562637
  US   Needle Protector Sheath     10/8/1996       7/15/2014  
2153091
  CA   Needle Protector Sheath     1/29/2008       6/30/2015  
5704924
  US   Easy Use Needle Protector Sheath     1/6/1998       1/11/2016  
5951529
  US   Needle Protector Sheath     9/14/1999       7/15/2014  
3809563
  JP   Easy Use Needle Protector Sheath     6/2/2006       12/20/2016  
717410
  AU   Easy Use Needle Protector Sheath     7/6/2000       12/20/2016  
6089527
  US   Squeeze Clamp For Flexible Tubing     7/18/2000       10/3/2017  
6113062
  US   Squeeze Clamp     9/5/2000       1/28/2019  
6042570
  US   Needle Point Protection Sheath     3/28/2000       2/11/2019  
6595965
  US   Needle Protector Sheath     7/22/2003       7/15/2014  
6196519
  US   Squeeze Clamp For Flexible Tubing     3/6/2001       10/3/2017  
6193694
  US   Needle Point Protection Sheath     2/27/2001       2/11/2019  
6517522
  US   Tubular Intravenous Set     2/11/2003       4/3/2020  
743589
  AU   Needle Point Protector Sheath     5/16/2002       2/9/2020  
6616635
  US   Tubular Intravenous Set     9/9/2003       7/26/2020  
6685680
  US   Tapered Intravenous Cannula     2/3/2004       4/20/2019  
7591804
  US   Short-Winged Needle And Guard     9/22/2009       5/24/2027  
7025744
  US   Injection Site For Male Luer Or Other Tubular Connector     4/11/2006       10/4/2022  
3843414
  JP   Closure Needle Protector Sheath     8/25/2006       7/5/2015  
6517522
  US   Tubular Intravenous Set     2/11/2003       4/3/2020  
6530911
  US   Set With Angled Needle     3/11/2003       6/28/2020  

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In addition to the issued patents and pending patent applications owned by us, in the United States and selected non-U.S. markets, we possess trade secrets and proprietary know-how relating to our products. Any of our trade secrets, know-how or other technology not protected by a patent could be misappropriated, or independently developed by, a competitor and could, if independently invented and patented by a competitor, under some circumstances, be used to prevent us from further use of such information, know-how or technology.
 
Our strategy is to develop patent portfolios for our research and development projects. We monitor the activities of our competitors and other third parties with respect to their use of intellectual property. We intend to aggressively defend the patents we hold, and we intend to vigorously contest claims other patent holders may bring against us.
 
The medical device industry is characterized by the existence of a large number of patents and frequent litigation based on allegations of patent infringement. While we attempt to ensure that our products and methods do not infringe other parties’ patents and proprietary rights, our competitors may assert that our products, or the methods that we employ, are covered by patents held by them. In addition, our competitors may assert that future products and methods we may market infringe their patents.
 
We require our employees, consultants and advisors to execute confidentiality agreements with us. We also require our employees to agree to disclose and assign to us all inventions conceived by them during their employment with us. Similar obligations are imposed upon consultants and advisors performing work for us relating to the design or manufacture of our product. Despite efforts taken to protect our intellectual property, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of our products or to obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary.
 
Manufacturing
 
The manufacture of our products is accomplished through a complementary combination of outsourcing and internal production. We have manufacturing facilities in Mexico, Germany and Italy. We outsource the manufacture of premixed dialysate, needles, some blood tubing sets, and some components.
 
We have single-source suppliers for a number of components as well as finished goods. In most instances, there are alternative sources of supply available. Where obtaining a second source is more difficult, we have tried to establish supply agreements that better protect our continuity of supply, although we do not have supply agreements with all of our single-source suppliers. Where we have no agreements in place, we generally work to maintain enough inventory of the single-sourced component to allow us to satisfy our requirements for the component while we secure an alternative source of supply. Our most critical single-source supply relationships are with Membrana GmbH, or Membrana, and Kawasumi Laboratories, or Kawasumi.
 
Membrana supplies the fibers used in the filters pre-attached to our System One cartridges. In 2007, we granted Membrana exclusive supply rights under a ten year contract scheduled to expire in 2017. We also have the right to obtain fiber from Asahi Kuraray Medical, Inc., or Asahi, pursuant to an agreement we signed with Asahi in March 2010. In the event Membrana is unable for any reason to supply fiber to us, we would try to shift to fiber supplied by Asahi, however, this would take time to accomplish and we do not presently have the regulatory approvals necessary to use Asahi fiber in our System One cartridge in the United States. There can be no assurance that any interruption in supply of fiber from Membrana would not hurt our business, at least in the near term.
 
We purchase the majority of our finished goods of ReadySet blood tubing sets and all of our needles from Kawasumi, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, with manufacturing facilities in Thailand. The remainder of our blood tubing sets are manufactured at our manufacturing facility in Tijuana, Mexico. Kawasumi’s contractual obligation to manufacture blood tubing sets expires in January 2012, with opportunities to extend


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the term beyond that date. Under the terms of this agreement, we supply Kawasumi with molded component parts and Kawasumi in turn uses these components to manufacture finished goods blood tubing sets, which are then purchased by us. We have committed to purchase from Kawasumi a minimum quantity of blood tubing sets over the term of the agreement. We believe that this minimum purchase commitment is less than our anticipated requirements for blood tubing sets. Kawasumi’s contractual obligation to supply blood tubing sets to us can be, at times, less than our forecasted demand. In the event Kawasumi supplies no more than the amount of their required maximum monthly supply, or upon any interruption in supply of blood tubing sets, we anticipate that we would be able to cover at least a significant portion of any shortfall by manufacturing additional blood tubing sets at our Mexican facility. However, there can be no assurance that any shortfall or interruption in supply of blood tubing sets from Kawasumi would not hurt our business, at least in the near term.
 
We also have an agreement with Kawasumi for the manufacture of needles. Virtually all of these needles rely on our patented guarded needle technology. Kawasumi’s obligation to supply needles to us expires in February 2014, with opportunities to extend the term beyond that date. We have committed to purchase from Kawasumi a minimum quantity of needles over the term of the contract. We believe that this minimum purchase commitment is less than our anticipated requirements for needles. Kawasumi presently supplies all of our needle requirements, but Kawasumi’s contractual obligation to supply needles to us can be, at times, less than our forecasted demand. In the event Kawasumi supplies no more than the amount of their required maximum monthly supply, we may not have enough needle supply to meet the demands of our customers. We maintain a limited extra supply of needles to mitigate against the risk of any intermittent shortfalls in supply. However, there can be no assurance that any interruption in needle supply would not impair our needle sales, at least in the near term.
 
We purchase bicarbonate-based premixed dialysate from B. Braun Medizintechnologie GmbH, or B. Braun, and bicarbonate-based and lactate-based premixed dialysate from Laboratorios PISA, or PISA. We have a supply agreement with B. Braun that obligates B. Braun to supply the dialysate to us for an indefinite period until either party provides twelve months notice of termination in exchange for a minimum purchase commitment, which we believe is less than our anticipated requirements. Our supply agreement with PISA extends through December 2011, with opportunities to extend the term beyond that date. We have committed to purchase from PISA a minimum quantity of premixed dialysate over the term of the agreement, which we believe is less than our anticipated requirements. With these two suppliers, we believe we have a stable supply of premixed dialysate for our customers.
 
Government Regulation
 
Food and Drug Administration
 
In the United States, our products are subject to regulation by the FDA, which regulates our products as medical devices. The FDA regulates the design, development, clinical testing, manufacture, labeling, distribution, import and export, sale and promotion of medical devices. Noncompliance with applicable FDA requirements can result in, among other things, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, failure of the government to grant pre-market clearance or pre-market approval for devices, withdrawal of marketing clearances or approvals and criminal prosecution.
 
Unless an exemption applies, all medical devices must receive either prior 510(k) clearance or pre-market approval, or “PMA” approval, from the FDA before they may be commercially distributed in the United States.
 
The FDA classifies medical devices into one of three classes:
 
  •  Class I devices, which are subject to only general controls (e.g., labeling, medical devices reporting, and prohibitions against adulteration and misbranding) and, in some cases, to the 510(k) premarket clearance requirements;
 
  •  Class II devices, generally requiring 510(k) premarket clearance before they may be commercially marketed in the United States; and


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  •  Class III devices, consisting of devices deemed by the FDA to pose the greatest risk, such as life-sustaining, life-supporting or implantable devices, or devices deemed not substantially equivalent to a predicate device, generally requiring submission of a PMA supported by clinical trial data.
 
Submissions to obtain 510(k) clearance and pre-market approval must be accompanied by a user fee, unless exempt. In addition, the FDA can also impose restrictions on the sale, distribution or use of devices at the time of their clearance or approval, or subsequent to marketing.
 
FDA Regulatory Clearance Status
 
We currently have all of the regulatory clearances required to market the System One in the United States in both the home and critical care markets. The FDA has cleared the System One for the treatment, under a physician’s prescription, of renal failure or fluid overload using hemofiltration, hemodialysis and/or ultrafiltration. The FDA has also specifically cleared the System One for home hemodialysis use under a physician’s prescription.
 
We received our first clearance from the FDA for a predecessor model to the System One in January 2001 for hemofiltration and ultrafiltration. In July 2003, we received expanded clearance from the FDA for the System One for hemodialysis, hemofiltration and ultrafiltration. Then in June 2005, we received FDA clearance specifically allowing us to promote home hemodialysis using the System One. To date we have received a total of 26 product clearances from the FDA since our inception in December 1998 for our System One and related products. We continue to seek opportunities for product improvements and feature enhancements, which will, from time to time, require FDA clearance before market launch.
 
We have received a total of 24 product clearances to market Medisystems products that support the in-center market. These clearances, the first of which was received in 1981, cover blood tubing sets used for hemodialysis, needle sets used in hemodialysis and apherisis, and other components such as intravenous administration sites, Medics and transducer protectors, used primarily for hemodialysis.
 
FDA Clearance Procedures
 
510(k) Clearance Pathway.  When we are required to obtain a 510(k) clearance for a device that we wish to market, we must submit a pre-market notification to the FDA demonstrating that the device is substantially equivalent to (1) a device that was legally marketed prior to May 28, 1976 and for which the FDA has not yet required premarket approval; (2) a device which has been reclassified from Class III to Class II or I; or (3) a novel device classified into Class I or II through de novo classification. If the FDA agrees that the device is substantially equivalent to the predicate, it will subject the device to the same classification and degree of regulation as the predicate device, thus effectively granting clearance to market it. The FDA attempts to respond to a 510(k) pre-market notification within 90 days of submission of the notification (or in some instances 30 days under what is referred to as “special” 510(k) submission), but the response may be a request for additional information or data, sometimes including clinical data. As a practical matter, pre-market clearance can take significantly longer, including up to one year or more.
 
After a device receives 510(k) clearance for a specific intended use, any modification that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, or that constitutes a major change in its intended use, would require a new 510(k) clearance or could require pre-market approval. In the first instance, the manufacturer may determine that a change does not require a new 510(k) clearance. The FDA can review any such decision and can disagree with a manufacturer’s determination. If the FDA disagrees with a manufacturer’s determination that a new clearance or approval is not required for a particular modification, the FDA can require the manufacturer to cease marketing and/or recall the modified device until 510(k) clearance or pre-market approval is obtained.
 
Pre-market Approval Pathway.  A pre-market approval application must be submitted if the device cannot be cleared through the 510(k) process. The pre-market approval process is much more demanding than the 510(k) pre-market notification process. A pre-market approval application must be supported by extensive data and information including, but not limited to, technical, preclinical and clinical trials, manufacturing and


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labeling to demonstrate to the FDA’s satisfaction the safety and effectiveness of the device. After the FDA determines that a pre-market approval application is complete, the FDA accepts the application and begins an in-depth review of the submitted information. The FDA, by statute and regulation, has 180 days to review an accepted pre-market approval application, although the review generally occurs over a significantly longer period of time, and can take up to several years. During this review period, the FDA may request additional information or clarification of information already provided. Also during the review period, an advisory panel of experts from outside the FDA may be convened to review and evaluate the application and provide recommendations to the FDA as to the approvability of the device. In addition, the FDA will conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facility to ensure compliance with the Quality System Regulations. New pre-market approval applications or supplemental pre-market approval applications are required for modifications that affect the safety or effectiveness of the device. These types of changes include changes to the manufacturing process, labeling, use and design of the approved device. PMA supplements often require submission of the same type of information as a pre-market approval application, except that the supplement is limited to information needed to support any changes from the device covered by the original pre-market approval application, and may not require as extensive clinical data or the convening of an advisory panel.
 
Clinical Trials.  A clinical trial is almost always required to support a pre-market approval application and is sometimes required for a 510(k) pre-market notification. Clinical trials for devices that involve significant risk, referred to as significant risk devices, require submission of an application for an IDE to the FDA. The IDE application must be supported by appropriate data, such as animal and laboratory testing results, showing that it is safe to test the device in humans and that the testing protocol is scientifically sound. Clinical trials for a significant risk device may begin once the IDE application is approved by the FDA and the institutional review board, or IRB, overseeing the clinical trial. If FDA fails to respond to an IDE application within 30 days of receipt, the application is deemed approved, but IRB approval would still be required before a study could begin. Products that are not significant risk devices are deemed to be “non-significant risk devices” under FDA regulations, and are subject to abbreviated IDE requirements, including informed consent, IRB approval of the proposed clinical trial and submission of certain reports to the IRB. Clinical trials are subject to extensive recordkeeping and reporting requirements. Our clinical trials must be conducted under the oversight of an IRB at each clinical study site and in accordance with applicable regulations and policies including, but not limited to, the FDA’s good clinical practice, or GCP, requirements.
 
Continuing FDA Regulation
 
After a device is placed on the market, numerous regulatory requirements apply. These include, among others:
 
  •  product listing and establishment registration, which helps facilitate FDA inspections and other regulatory action;
 
  •  Quality System Regulations, which require manufacturers to have a quality system for the design, manufacture, packaging, labeling, storage, installation, and servicing of finished medical devices;
 
  •  labeling regulations, which govern product labels and labeling, prohibit the promotion of products for unapproved, or off-label, uses and impose other restrictions on labeling and promotional activities;
 
  •  clearance of product modifications that could significantly affect safety or efficacy or that would constitute a major change in intended use of one of our cleared devices;
 
  •  medical device reporting, or MDR, regulations, which require that manufacturers report to the FDA if their device may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if it were to recur; and
 
  •  the FDA’s recall authority, whereby it can ask, or under certain conditions order, device manufacturers to recall from the market a product that is in violation of governing laws and regulations;
 
  •  regulations pertaining to voluntary recalls; and
 
  •  notices of corrections or removals.


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MDR Regulations.  The MDR regulations require that we report to the FDA any incident in which our product may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury, or in which our product malfunctioned and, if the malfunction were to recur, would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury. To date, a majority of our MDRs had been submitted to comply with the FDA’s blood loss policy for routine dialysis treatments. This policy, which is no longer in effect, required manufacturers to file MDR reports related to routine dialysis treatments if the patient experiences blood loss greater than 20cc.
 
FDA Inspections.  We have registered with the FDA as a medical device manufacturer. The FDA seeks to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements through periodic, unannounced facility inspections and these inspections may include the manufacturing facilities of our subcontractors. Failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements can result in enforcement action by the FDA, which may include any of the following:
 
  •  warning letters or untitled letters;
 
  •  fines, injunctions, and civil penalties;
 
  •  administrative detention, which is the detention by the FDA of medical devices believed to be adultered or misbranded;
 
  •  voluntary or mandatory recall or seizure of our products;
 
  •  customer notification, or orders for repair, replacement or refund;
 
  •  operating restrictions, partial suspension or total shutdown of production;
 
  •  refusal to review pre-market notification or pre-market approval submissions;
 
  •  rescission of a substantial equivalence order or suspension or withdrawal of a pre-market approval; and
 
  •  criminal prosecution.
 
The FDA has inspected our Lawrence, Massachusetts facility and quality system multiple times. In our first inspection, one observation was made, but was rectified during the inspection, requiring no further response from us. Our subsequent inspections, including our most recent inspection in 2010, resulted in no inspectional observations. Medisystems has been inspected by the FDA on multiple occasions, and all inspections resulted in no action indicated. We cannot provide assurance that we can maintain a comparable level of regulatory compliance in the future at our facilities.
 
Foreign Regulation of Medical Devices
 
Clearance or approval of our products by regulatory authorities comparable to the FDA may be necessary in foreign countries prior to marketing the product in those countries, whether or not FDA clearance has been obtained. The regulatory requirements for medical devices vary significantly from country to country. They can involve requirements for additional testing and may be time consuming and expensive. We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to obtain regulatory approvals in any other markets.
 
The System One cycler and related cartridges are regulated as medical devices in Canada under the Canadian Medical Device Regulations and in the EU under the Medical Device Directive. We have received four product licenses from Canada. We have obtained CE marking approval in the EU for our System One and associated ancillaries.
 
Our blood tubing sets, AV fistula needles, apheresis needles, dialysis priming sets, transducer protectors, Reverso, and Medic are regulated as medical devices in Canada under the Canadian Medical Device Regulations and in the EU, under the Medical Device Directive. We maintain six Medical Device Licenses in Canada under the Medisystems brandname for these products. We have received CE marking in the EU for blood tubing sets, AV fistula needles, transducer protectors, apheresis needles, Medic and its Reverso product.


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Fraud and Abuse Laws
 
Anti-Kickback Statutes
 
The federal healthcare program Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in exchange for or to induce either the referral of an individual for, or the furnishing, arranging for or recommending a good or service for which payment may be made in whole or part under a federal healthcare program such as Medicare or Medicaid. The definition of remuneration has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value, including for example gifts, discounts, the furnishing of supplies or equipment, credit arrangements, payments of cash and waivers of payments. Several courts have interpreted the statute’s intent requirement to mean that if any one purpose of an arrangement involving remuneration is to induce referrals or otherwise generate business involving goods or services reimbursed in whole or in part under federal healthcare programs, the statute has been violated. The law contains a few statutory exceptions, including payments to bona fide employees, certain discounts and certain payments to group purchasing organizations. Violations can result in significant penalties, imprisonment and exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs. Exclusion of a manufacturer would preclude any federal healthcare program from paying for its products. In addition, kickback arrangements can provide the basis for an action under the Federal False Claims Act, which is discussed in more detail below.
 
The Anti-Kickback Statute is broad and potentially prohibits many arrangements and practices that are lawful in businesses outside of the healthcare industry. Recognizing that the Anti-Kickback Statute is broad and may technically prohibit many innocuous or beneficial arrangements, the Office of Inspector General of Health and Human Services, or OIG, issued a series of regulations, known as the safe harbors, beginning in July 1991. These safe harbors set forth provisions that, if all the applicable requirements are met, will assure healthcare providers and other parties that they will not be prosecuted under the Anti-Kickback Statute. The failure of a transaction or arrangement to fit precisely within one or more safe harbors does not necessarily mean that it is illegal or that prosecution will be pursued. However, conduct and business arrangements that do not fully satisfy each applicable safe harbor may result in increased scrutiny by government enforcement authorities such as the OIG. Arrangements that implicate the Anti-Kickback Law, and that do not fall within a safe harbor, are analyzed by the OIG on a case-by-case basis.
 
Government officials have focused recent enforcement efforts on, among other things, the sales and marketing activities of healthcare companies, and recently have brought cases against individuals or entities with personnel who allegedly offered unlawful inducements to potential or existing customers in an attempt to procure their business. Settlements of these cases by healthcare companies have involved significant fines and/or penalties and in some instances criminal pleas.
 
In addition to the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute, many states have their own anti-kickback laws. Often, these laws closely follow the language of the federal law, although they do not always have the same exceptions or safe harbors. In some states, these anti-kickback laws apply with respect to all payors, including commercial health insurance companies.
 
False Claims Laws
 
Federal false claims laws prohibit any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment to the federal government or knowingly making, or causing to be made, a false statement to get a false claim paid. Manufacturers can be held liable under false claims laws, even if they do not submit claims to the government, if they are found to have caused submission of false claims. The Federal Civil False Claims Act also includes whistle blower provisions that allow private citizens to bring suit against an entity or individual on behalf of the United States and to recover a portion of any monetary recovery. Many of the recent highly publicized settlements in the healthcare industry related to sales and marketing practices have been cases brought under the False Claims Act. The majority of states also have statutes or regulations similar to the federal false claims laws, which apply to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs. Several states have false claims laws that apply regardless of the payor. Sanctions under


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these federal and state laws may include civil monetary penalties, exclusion of a manufacturer’s products from reimbursement under government programs, criminal fines and imprisonment.
 
Compliance Program
 
The healthcare laws and fraud and abuse laws applicable to our business are complex and subject to variable interpretations. We maintain certain compliance review, education and training and other programs to further our commitment to high standards of ethical and legal conduct and to minimize the likelihood that we would engage in conduct or enter into arrangements in violation of applicable authorities. For example, we have (i) established a compliance team consisting of representatives from our Legal, Finance, Human Resources, Regulatory Affairs/Quality Assurance and Commercial departments that meets regularly; (ii) established a compliance hotline that permits our employees to report anonymously any compliance issues that may arise; and (iii) instituted other safeguards intended to help prevent any violations of the applicable fraud and abuse laws and healthcare laws, and to remediate any situations that could give rise to violations. We also review our transactions and agreements, both past and present, to help assure they are compliant.
 
Through our compliance efforts, we constantly strive to structure our business operations and relationships with our customers to comply with all applicable legal requirements. However, many of the laws and regulations applicable to us are broad in scope and may be interpreted or applied by prosecutorial, regulatory or judicial authorities in ways that we cannot predict. Thus, it is possible that governmental entities or other third parties could interpret these laws differently or assert non-compliance with respect to one or more of our business operations and relationships. Moreover, the standards of business conduct expected of healthcare companies under these laws and regulations have become more stringent in recent years, even in instances where there has been no change in statutory or regulatory language. While there have been no claims asserted against us for alleged non-compliance with fraud and abuse laws or other healthcare laws, if a claim were asserted and we were not to prevail, possible penalties and sanctions could have a material effect on our financial statements or our ability to conduct our operations.
 
Privacy and Security
 
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, and the rules promulgated there under require certain entities, referred to as covered entities, to comply with established standards, including standards regarding the privacy and security of protected health information (PHI) known as the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules. Most healthcare facilities that purchase and use our products are covered entities. We are not a covered entity but due to activities that we could perform for or on behalf of covered entities, we could potentially become a business associate, as such term is defined by HIPAA. HIPAA requires that covered entities enter into agreements meeting certain regulatory requirements with their business associates which, among other things, obligate the business associates to safeguard the covered entity’s PHI against improper use and disclosure. In the past, we entered into a few business associate agreements with certain of our customers that are also covered entities. Pursuant to the terms of these business associate agreements, we agreed, among other things, not to use or further disclose the covered entity’s PHI except as permitted or required by the agreements or as required by law, to use reasonable safeguards to prevent prohibited disclosure of such PHI and to report to the covered entity any unauthorized uses or disclosures of such PHI. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH made significant amendments to the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules. Under HITECH, business associates’ obligations with respect to PHI are no longer solely contractual in nature. HITECH strengthened and expanded HIPAA and made a number of HIPAA Privacy Rule requirements and a majority of HIPAA Security Rule requirements directly applicable to business associates. Accordingly, now we may be subject to HIPAA civil and criminal penalties for violation of the Privacy and Security Rule requirements. HITECH increased civil penalty amounts for violations of HIPAA and significantly strengthened enforcement by requiring the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to conduct periodic audits to confirm compliance and authorizing state attorneys general to bring civil actions seeking either injunctions or damages in response to violations of HIPAA that threaten the privacy of state residents. These new provisions may require us to incur


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compliance related costs and may restrict our business operations. Moreover, if we fail to meet our contractual obligations under any business associate agreements, we may incur significant civil or criminal liability.
 
In addition, many other state and federal laws regulate the use and disclosure of health information, including state medical privacy laws and federal and state consumer protection laws. In many cases, these laws are not necessarily preempted by HIPAA, particularly if they afford greater protection to the individual than does HIPAA. These various laws may be subject to varying interpretations by courts and government agencies creating potentially complex compliance issues for our business. Other countries also have, or are developing, laws governing the collection, use and transmission of personal information and these laws could create liability for us or increase our cost of doing business.
 
Reimbursement
 
Home and In-Center Markets
 
Medicare regulations require that all chronic ESRD patients be under the care of a dialysis clinic, whether they are treated at home or in-clinic. We sell or rent our System One to dialysis clinics and sell our needles and blood tubing sets to dialysis clinics. These clinics are, in turn, reimbursed by Medicare, Medicaid and private insurers. According to the 2009 USRDS Annual Data Report, Medicare is the primary payor for approximately 75% of prevalent dialysis patients using hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The report also indicates that approximately 15% of patients are covered by commercial insurance, with the remaining 10% of patients classified by the USRDS as “other” or “unknown.” Certain centers have reported that the NxStage daily home dialysis therapy attracts a higher percentage of commercial insurance patients than other forms of dialysis.
 
Medicare.  Medicare generally provides health insurance coverage for persons who are age 65 or older and for persons who are completely disabled. For ESRD patients, however, Medicare coverage is not dependent on age or disability. Patients are eligible for Medicare based solely on ESRD. Coverage for patients eligible for Medicare based solely on ESRD begins three months after the month in which the patient begins dialysis treatments. During this three-month waiting period either Medicaid, private insurance or the patient is responsible for payment for dialysis services. Medicare waives this waiting period for individuals who participate in a self-care dialysis training program, or are hospitalized for a kidney transplant and the surgery occurs within a specified time period.
 
For ESRD patients under age 65 who have any employer group health insurance coverage, regardless of the size of the employer or the individual’s employment status, Medicare coverage is generally secondary to the employer coverage during the 30-month period that follows the establishment of Medicare eligibility or entitlement based on ESRD. During the period, the patient’s existing insurer is responsible for paying primary benefits at the rate specified in the plan, which may be a negotiated rate or the healthcare provider’s usual and customary rate. As the secondary payor during this period, Medicare will make payments up to the applicable Medicare payment rate for dialysis services to supplement any primary payments by the employer group health plan if the plan covers the services but pays only a portion of the charge for the services.
 
Medicare generally is the primary payor for ESRD patients after the 30-month period. Under current rules, Medicare is also the primary payor for ESRD patients during the 30-month period under certain circumstances. Medicare remains the primary payor when an individual becomes eligible for Medicare on the basis of ESRD if, (1) the individual was already age 65 or over or was eligible for Medicare based on disability and (2) the individual’s private insurance coverage is not by reason of current employment or, if it is, the employer has fewer than 20 employees in the case of eligibility by reason of age, or fewer than 100 employees in the case of eligibility by reason of disability. The rules regarding entitlement to primary Medicare coverage when the patient is eligible for Medicare on the basis of both ESRD and age, or disability, have been the subject of frequent legislative and regulatory changes in recent years and there can be no assurance that these rules will not be unfavorably changed in the future.
 
When Medicare is the primary payor for services furnished by dialysis clinics, it reimburses dialysis clinics for 80% of the allowable rate, leaving the secondary insurance or the patient responsible for the


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remaining 20%. Through 2010, providers were paid under the ESRD composite rate payment system. The Medicare composite rate was set by Congress and was intended to cover virtually all costs associated with each dialysis treatment, excluding physician services and certain separately billable drugs and laboratory services. While there was some regional variation in the Medicare composite rate, the national average for 2010 was $155 per treatment for both independent and hospital-based dialysis facilities. This composite rate was then adjusted for patient case mix variables, potentially improving the reimbursement. For example, under the case-mix adjustment, Medicare paid more for patients with a higher body weight, and payment varies by patient age. This case-mix adjusted composite rate payment may have been beneficial to our customers, as to date, our patient population has tended to be larger and younger than the ESRD national average.
 
In recent years, there have been numerous initiatives on the federal and state levels for comprehensive reforms affecting the payment for, the availability of and reimbursement for healthcare services in the United States. One of these initiatives was the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008, or MIPPA, which was signed into law in 2008. As a result of this legislation, effective January 1, 2011 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, has implemented a new prospective payment system for dialysis services that includes more items and services within the prospective payment. In November 2010, dialysis facilities were given a one-time opportunity to choose whether they wanted to transition into the prospective payment system over a four year period, or to opt out of the transition and be paid fully under the new prospective payment system beginning in January 2011. According to the Kidney Care Council, an organization representing dialysis providers, over 90% of clinics opted out of the transition and chose to be reimbursed immediately under the new system. The new prospective payment system includes a per treatment payment that incorporates the reimbursement for dialysis-related medications and laboratory tests that were previously reimbursed separately. Similar to the previous composite rate, there are also case mix, co-morbidity and other adjustors to the prospective payment. While there is some regional variation, the new rate before adjustments for patient case mix variables is $230 per treatment for both independent and hospital-based dialysis facilities. One of the stated goals of this new prospective payment system is to encourage home dialysis, and certain elements (e.g., bundling of certain drugs into the payment, a uniform treatment payment whether dialysis is administered in the center or at home and a separate payment adjustor for home dialysis training) are intended to support this objective. However, it is not possible at this time to determine what impact this new prospective payment system will have on the adoption of home and/or daily hemodialysis or the price for which we can sell our products.
 
CMS rules, under the earlier composite system and the new prospective payment system, limit the number of hemodialysis treatments paid for by Medicare to three per week, unless there is medical justification provided by the dialysis facilities on information from the patient’s physician. The determination of medical justification is currently made at the local Medicare contractor level on a case-by-case basis. Based upon the clinical benefits of more frequent therapy most of our patients perform treatments more than three times a week. The adoption of our System One for more frequent therapy for ESRD would likely be slowed if Medicare or their contractors are reluctant or refuse to pay for these additional treatments. A clinic’s decision as to how much it is willing to spend on home daily dialysis equipment and services will be at least partly dependent on whether Medicare will reimburse additional treatments per week based on submitted claims for medical justification.
 
Medicaid.  Medicaid programs are state-administered programs partially funded by the federal government. These programs are intended to provide coverage for certain categories of patients whose income and assets fall below state defined levels and who are otherwise uninsured. For those who are eligible, the programs serve as supplemental insurance programs for the Medicare co-insurance portion and provide certain coverage, for example, self-administered outpatient prescription medications, that is not covered by Medicare. For ESRD treatment, state regulations generally follow Medicare reimbursement levels and coverage without any co-insurance amounts, which is pertinent mostly for the three-month waiting period. Certain states, however, require beneficiaries to pay a monthly share of the cost based upon levels of income or assets.
 
Private Insurers.  Some ESRD patients have private insurance that covers dialysis services. Healthcare providers receive reimbursement for ESRD treatments from the patient or private insurance during a waiting period of up to three months before the patient becomes eligible for Medicare. In addition, if the private payor


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is an employer group health plan, it is generally required to continue to make primary payments for dialysis services during the 30-month period following eligibility or entitlement to Medicare. In general, employers may not reduce coverage or otherwise discriminate against ESRD patients by taking into account the patient’s eligibility or entitlement to Medicare benefits. It is generally believed that private insurance pays significantly more for dialysis services than Medicare and these patients with private insurance are generally viewed as more profitable to dialysis service providers.
 
Critical Care
 
For Medicare patients, both acute kidney failure and fluid overload therapies provided in an in-patient hospital setting are reimbursed under a traditional Medicare severity diagnosis related group, or MS-DRG, system. Under this system, reimbursement is determined based on a patient’s primary diagnosis and is intended to cover all costs of treating the patient. The presence of acute kidney failure or fluid overload increases the severity of the primary diagnosis and, accordingly, could increase the amount reimbursed. The longer hospitalization stays and higher labor needs, which are typical for patients with acute kidney failure and fluid overload, must be managed for care of these patients to be cost-effective. We believe that there is a significant incentive for hospitals to find a more cost-efficient way to treat these patients in order to improve hospital economics for these therapies.
 
Our Employees
 
As of December 31, 2010, we had approximately 1,600 employees, including full-time, part-time and seasonal or temporary employees. From time to time we also employ independent contractors to support our engineering, marketing, sales, clinical and administrative organizations. Most of our employees are involved in the manufacture of our products and are employed outside of the United States, with the significant majority employed in Mexico.
 
Executive Officers
 
The following is a list of names, ages and background of our executive officers as of December 31, 2010:
 
             
Name
 
Age
 
Position
 
Jeffrey H. Burbank
    48     Chief Executive Officer
Robert S. Brown
    52     Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer
Tom Shea
    48     Senior Vice President, Manufacturing Operations
Winifred L. Swan
    46     Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
Joseph E. Turk, Jr. 
    43     President, North America
Michael J. Webb
    44     Senior Vice President of Quality, Regulatory and Clinical Affairs
 
Jeffrey H. Burbank has been our Chief Executive Officer and a director of the Company since December 1998. Prior to joining NxStage, Mr. Burbank was a founder and the CEO of Vasca, Inc., a medical device company that developed and marketed a new blood access device for dialysis patients. Mr. Burbank also served in roles of increasing responsibility in areas of manufacturing, and sales and marketing at Gambro, a leading dialysis products company. He holds a B.S. from Lehigh University.
 
Robert S. Brown has been our Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer since November 2006. Prior to joining NxStage, Mr. Brown held several leadership positions in Boston Scientific’s financial group including Vice President, Corporate Analysis & Control from 2005 until he joined us in 2006, where he and his team were responsible for Boston Scientific’s financial, compliance and operational audits and reported directly to the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. Mr. Brown also served as Vice President, International from 1999 through 2004, where he was responsible for the financial functions of Boston Scientific’s international division in over forty countries. Previous experience also includes financial


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reporting and special projects at United Technologies and public accounting and consulting at Deloitte & Touche. He holds a B.B.A. degree in Accounting from the University of Toledo and an M.B.A. from the University of Michigan, and is a certified public accountant.
 
Tom Shea has been our Senior Vice President of Manufacturing Operations since March 2008. Prior to joining NxStage, he held several leadership positions at Jabil Incorporated, a $12 billion Tier I contract manufacturer. Most recently, Tom served as Jabil’s Global Business Unit Manager, supporting clients in the aerospace, defense and telecommunications industries. In this capacity, he developed and implemented global operations, logistics and pricing strategies for his sector. He previously served as Operations Manager at Jabil where he had full plant profit and loss responsibility for their Massachusetts facility. Mr. Shea earned his M.B.A. at the University of Massachusetts and his B.S. in Production and Operations Management at Bryant University.
 
Winifred L. Swan has been our Senior Vice President since January 2005 and our Vice President and General Counsel since November 2000. From July 1995 to November 2000, Ms. Swan was Senior Corporate Counsel at Boston Scientific Corporation. She holds a B.A., cum laude , in Economics and Public Policy from Duke University and a J.D., cum laude and Order of the Coif , from the University of Pennsylvania Law School.
 
Joseph E. Turk, Jr. has been our President of North American operations since December 2010, Senior Vice President, Commercial Operations since January 2005 and our Vice President, Sales and Marketing since May 2000. From August 1998 to May 2000, Mr. Turk was employed at Boston Scientific Corporation as Director of New Business Development. Mr. Turk holds an A.B. degree in Economics from Wabash College and an M.B.A. in Marketing and Finance from Northwestern University’s Kellogg School of Management.
 
Michael J. Webb has been our Senior Vice President of Quality, Regulatory and Clinical Affairs since August 2007, Vice President of Disposables Operations from January 2007 through August 2007, Vice President of Quality Assurance and Regulatory Affairs from July 2002 through January 2007, and our Vice President of Operations from July 2001 through July 2002. Prior to joining NxStage, Mr. Webb was Vice President of Operations for Mosaic Technologies, a developer of gene-based diagnostic products. Other previous positions include Director of Operations for TFX Medical and Director of Disposables Manufacturing and Logistics for Haemonetics Corporation. Mr. Webb received a B.S. degree in Industrial and Management Engineering and his M.B.A. in Manufacturing Management from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
 
Where To Find More Information
 
Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are available free of charge through our website (www.nxstage.com) under the “Investor Information” caption as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. In addition, we intend to disclose on our website any amendments to, or waivers from, our code of business conduct and ethics that are required to be disclosed pursuant to the rules of the SEC. We are not including the information contained on our website as part of, or incorporating it by reference into, this report. You may read and copy materials that we have filed with the SEC at the SEC’s public reference room located at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. In addition, our SEC filings are available to the public on the SEC’s website (www.sec.gov).
 
Item 1A.   Risk Factors
 
In addition to the factors discussed in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this report, the following are some of the important risk factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those projected in any forward-looking statements.
 
Risks Related to our Business


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We expect to derive a significant percentage of our future revenues from the rental or sale of our System One and the related products used with the System One and a limited number of other products.
 
Since our inception, we have devoted a substantial amount of our efforts to the development of the System One and the related products used with the System One. We commenced marketing the System One and the related disposable products to the critical care market in February 2003. We commenced marketing the System One for chronic hemodialysis treatment in September 2004. Prior to the acquisition of the Medisystems Corporation and certain affiliated entities, or the Medisystems Acquisition, on October 1, 2007, nearly 100% of our revenues were derived from the rental or sale of our System One and the sale of related disposables. Although the Medisystems Acquisition broadened our product offerings, we expect that in 2011 and in the foreseeable future, we will continue to derive a significant percentage of our revenues from the System One, and that we will derive the remainder of our revenues from the sale of a few key disposable products acquired in the Medisystems Acquisition, including blood tubing sets and needles. To the extent that any of our primary products are not commercially successful or are withdrawn from the market for any reason, our revenues will be adversely impacted, and we do not have other significant products in development that could readily replace these revenues.
 
We cannot accurately predict the size of the home hemodialysis market, and it may be smaller, and may develop more slowly than we expect.
 
We believe our largest future product market opportunity is the home hemodialysis market. However this market is presently very small and adoption of the home hemodialysis treatment options has been limited. The most widely adopted form of dialysis therapy used in a setting other than a dialysis clinic is peritoneal dialysis. Based on the most recently available data from the United States Renal Data System, or USRDS, less than 10% of all United States patients receiving dialysis treatment for ESRD receive either peritoneal dialysis or home hemodialysis. Because the adoption of home hemodialysis has been limited to date, the number of patients and their partners who desire to, and are capable of, administering hemodialysis treatment with a system such as the System One is unknown and there is limited data upon which to make estimates. In addition, many dialysis clinics do not presently have the infrastructure in place to support home hemodialysis and most do not have the infrastructure in place to support a significant home hemodialysis patient population. Our long-term growth will depend on the number of patients who adopt home-based hemodialysis and how quickly they adopt it, which in turn is driven by the number of physicians willing to prescribe home hemodialysis and the number of dialysis clinics able or willing to establish and support home hemodialysis therapies.
 
Because nearly all our home hemodialysis patients are also receiving more frequent dialysis, meaning dialysis delivered five or more times a week, the market adoption of our System One for home hemodialysis is also dependent upon the penetration and market acceptance of more frequent hemodialysis. Given the increased provider supply costs associated with providing more frequent dialysis versus conventional three-times per week dialysis, market acceptance will be impacted, especially for Medicare patients, by whether dialysis clinics are able to obtain reimbursement for additional dialysis treatments provided in excess of three times a week. Presently, we understand that some of our customers are unable to obtain such additional reimbursement in all cases, and that there are increased administrative burdens associated with articulating the medical justification for treatments beyond three times per week. Both of these factors will likely negatively impact the rate and extent of any further market expansion of our System One for home hemodialysis. Expanding Medicare reimbursement over time to predictably cover more frequent therapy, with less administrative burden for our customers, may be critical to our ability to significantly expand the market penetration of the System One in the home market and to grow our revenue in the future.
 
New regulations particularly impacting home hemodialysis technologies can also negatively impact the rate and extent of any further market expansion of our System One for home hemodialysis. In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS released new Conditions for Coverage applicable to our customers. These Conditions for Coverage impose water testing requirements on our patients using our PureFlow SL product. These water testing requirements increase the burden of our therapy for our patients and


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may impair market adoption, especially for our PureFlow SL product. To the extent additional regulations are introduced unique to the home environment, market adoption could be even further impaired.
 
We are in a developing market and we will need to continue to devote significant resources to developing the home market. We cannot be certain that this market will develop, how quickly it will develop or how large it will be.
 
Current Medicare reimbursement rates, at three times per week, limit the price at which we can market our home products, and adverse changes to reimbursement would likely negatively affect the adoption or continued sale of our home products.
 
Our ability to attain profitability will be driven in part by our ability to set or maintain adequate pricing for our products. As a result of legislation passed by the United States Congress more than 30 years ago, Medicare provides broad and well-established reimbursement in the United States for ESRD. With approximately 75% of United States ESRD patients covered by Medicare, the reimbursement rate is an important factor in a potential customer’s decision to use the System One or our other products and limits the fee for which we can sell or rent our products. Additionally, current CMS rules limit the number of hemodialysis treatments paid for by Medicare to three times a week, unless there is medical justification provided by the dialysis facility based on information from the patient’s physician for additional treatments. Most patients using the System One in the home treat themselves, with the help of a partner, up to six times per week. To the extent that Medicare contractors elect not to pay for the additional treatments, adoption of the System One would likely be impaired. The determination of medical justification must be made at the local Medicare contractor level on a case-by-case basis, based on documentation provided by our customers. If daily therapy is prescribed, a clinic’s decision as to how much it is willing to spend on dialysis equipment and services will be at least partly dependent on whether Medicare will reimburse more than three treatments per week for the clinic’s patients. Medicare is switching from intermediaries to Medicare administrative contractors. This change in the reviewing entity for Medicare claims could lead to a change in whether a customer receives Medicare reimbursement for additional treatments. If an adverse change to historical payment practices occurs, market adoption of our System One in the home market may be impaired. We understand that some of our customers may not be able to obtain additional reimbursement for more frequent therapy in all cases, and that there are increased administrative burdens associated with articulating the medical justification for treatments beyond three times a week. Both of these factors will likely negatively impact the rate and extent of any further market expansion of our System One for home hemodialysis. Expanding Medicare reimbursement over time to more predictably cover more frequent therapy, with less administrative burden for our customers, may be critical to our ability to significantly expand the market penetration of the System One in the home market. Additionally, any adverse changes in the rate paid by Medicare for ESRD treatments in general would likely negatively affect demand for our products in the home market and the prices we charge for them.
 
CMS published, on August 12, 2010, the final rule for implementation of a new prospective payment system for dialysis treatment effective January 1, 2011. Under this new ESRD prospective payment system, CMS will make a single bundled payment to the dialysis facility for each dialysis treatment that will cover all renal dialysis services and home dialysis, and will include certain drugs (including erythropoiesis stimulating agents, or ESAs, iron, and Vitamin D). It will replace the current system which pays facilities a composite rate for a defined set of items and services, while paying separately for drugs, laboratory tests, or other services that are not included in the composite rate. The prospective payment system still limits the number of hemodialysis treatments paid by Medicare to three times a week, unless there is medical justification provided by the patient’s physician for additional treatments. Although a stated goal of the prospective payment system is to encourage home dialysis, and the inclusion of drugs into the prospective rate and the retention of a home patient training payment adjustment with a modest update from current levels are intended to support this goal, it is not possible at this time to determine what impact the new payment system or healthcare legislation will have on the adoption of home and/or daily hemodialysis or the price for which we can sell our products.


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We have limited operating experience, a history of net losses and an accumulated deficit of $308.4 million at December 31, 2010. We cannot guarantee if, when and the extent to which we will become profitable, or that we will be able to maintain profitability if it is achieved.
 
Since inception, we have incurred negative operating margins and losses every quarter. At December 31, 2010, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $308.4 million. We expect our operating expenses to continue to increase as we grow our business. While we have achieved positive gross margins for our products, in aggregate, since the fourth quarter of 2007, we cannot provide assurance that our gross margins will improve or, if they do improve, the rate at which they will improve. We cannot provide assurance that we will achieve profitability, when we will become profitable, the sustainability of profitability, should it occur, or the extent to which we will be profitable.
 
Our customers in the System One and In-Center segments are highly consolidated, with concentrated buying power.
 
Fresenius and DaVita own and operate the two largest chains of dialysis clinics in the United States. Collectively, these entities provide treatment to approximately 60% of United States dialysis patients; and this percentage may continue to grow with further market consolidation. DaVita, for example, recently announced its plans to acquire DSI Renal, Inc. With less than 40% of United States dialysis patients cared for by independent dialysis clinics, our market adoption, at least within the United States, would be more constrained without the presence of both DaVita and Fresenius as customers for our System One and In-Center products.
 
Additionally, Fresenius is not only a dialysis service provider, it is also the leading manufacturer of dialysis equipment worldwide. On February 18, 2011 we learned that Fresenius obtained clearance for its 2008K At Home hemodialysis system for use in home chronic therapy in February 2011. DaVita does not manufacture dialysis equipment, but has certain dialysis supply purchase obligations to Gambro, a dialysis equipment manufacturer, under a long-term preferred supplier agreement. Fresenius may choose to offer its dialysis patients only the dialysis equipment Fresenius manufactures, including its recently cleared home hemodialysis system. DaVita may choose to offer their dialysis patients the equipment it contractually agreed to offer in its agreement with Gambro. Fresenius and DaVita may also choose to otherwise limit access to the equipment manufactured by competitors. DaVita is our most significant customer, and we expect it to continue to be, at least for the foreseeable future. Our earlier agreement with DaVita contained certain limited exclusivity rights which restricted our ability to sell the System One in certain markets, and to Fresenius. These restrictions do not exist under our July 2010 Amended and Restated National Service Provider Agreement with DaVita, and we have a growing percentage of our home market sales to Fresenius, which is now our second largest customer in the System One segment. However, we have no assurance that our sales to DaVita or Fresenius will continue to grow, and we cannot predict what impact Fresenius’ recently cleared home hemodialysis system will have on our sales to Fresenius in the home market, or our overall performance in the home market going forward. Given the significance of DaVita and Fresenius as customers in the home market, any adverse change in either’s ordering or clinical practices would have a significant adverse impact on our home market revenues, especially in the near term.
 
DaVita is a key customer for our System One and In-Center product lines. The partial or complete loss of DaVita as a customer would materially impair our financial results, at least in the near term.
 
DaVita is our most significant customer. Sales through distributors to DaVita of products accounted for nearly half of In-Center segment revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2010, and direct sales to DaVita accounted for approximately 34% of our System One segment revenues during 2010. Further, DaVita is our largest customer in the home market, constituting over 40% of our home hemodialysis patients. Although we expect that DaVita will continue to be a significant customer in the home market, we cannot be certain that DaVita will continue to purchase and/or rent the System One or add additional System One patients in the future. Our contract for needles with DaVita, expiring in December 2013, includes certain minimum order requirements; however, these can be reduced significantly under certain circumstances. Our contract for blood tubing sets with DaVita expired in September 2009. However, in June 2009, we entered into a five year distribution agreement in the United States with Gambro, pursuant to which Gambro will


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exclusively supply our blood tubing sets, including our ReadySet and the Streamline product lines to DaVita. The partial or complete loss of DaVita as a customer for any of these product lines would adversely affect our business, at least in the near term.
 
We entered into a $40.0 million term loan and security agreement with Asahi in May 2009. We are obligated to pay 50% of the interest on the first day of November and May, beginning on November 1, 2009, and repay the remaining interest and principal upon maturity in May 2013. If we fail to comply with all terms under this agreement, we may go into default, which could trigger, among other things, the acceleration of all of our indebtedness there under or the sale of our assets.
 
In May 2009, we entered into a $40.0 million term loan, with Asahi. The four year term loan, maturing in May 2013, bears interest at 8% annually, payable on the first day of November and May beginning on November 1, 2009, with 50% of the interest deferred to maturity. The term loan is secured by substantially all of our assets.
 
The term loan and security agreement includes certain affirmative covenants including timely filings and limitations on contingent debt obligations and sales of assets. The term loan and security agreement also contains customary events of default, including nonpayment, misrepresentation, breach of covenants, material adverse effects, and bankruptcy. In the event we fail to satisfy our covenants, or otherwise go into default, Asahi has a number of remedies, including sale of our assets and acceleration of all outstanding indebtedness, subject to the rights of holders of senior security interests. Certain of these remedies would likely have a material adverse effect on our business.
 
We entered into a two year Loan and Security Agreement, dated as of March 10, 2010, with Silicon Valley Bank, or SVB. The terms of this Agreement may restrict our current and future operations, which could affect our ability to respond to changes in our business and to manage our operations.
 
On March 10, 2010, we entered into an Agreement with SVB for a $15.0 million revolving line of credit with a maturity date of April 1, 2012. The Agreement is secured by all or substantially all of our assets. In connection with this Agreement, we amended our term loan and security agreement with Asahi to provide for certain amendments, including granting to Asahi junior liens on certain of our assets for so long as the agreement with SVB remains outstanding. Upon termination of all obligations under that facility, Asahi’s security will revert to a security in all assets other than cash, bank accounts, accounts receivable, field equipment and inventory. Borrowings under the Agreement bear interest at a floating rate per annum equal to two percentage points (2.00%) above the prime rate (initial prime rate of 4.00%). Pursuant to the Agreement, we have agreed to certain financial covenants relating to liquidity requirements and adjusted EBITDA, as defined in our agreement with SVB. The Agreement contains events of default customary for transactions of this type, including nonpayment, misrepresentation, breach of covenants, material adverse effect and bankruptcy.
 
As of the date hereof, we do not have an outstanding balance under the revolving line of credit. However, were we to draw on the line of credit, in the event we fail to satisfy our covenants, or otherwise go into default, SVB has a number of remedies, including sale of our assets and acceleration of all outstanding indebtedness. Certain of these remedies would likely have a material adverse effect on our business.
 
We compete against other dialysis equipment manufacturers with much greater financial resources and established products and customer relationships, which may make it difficult for us to penetrate the market and achieve significant sales of our products. Our competitors may also introduce new products or features that could impair the competitiveness of our own product portfolio.
 
Our System One in the critical care market competes against Gambro AB, Fresenius Medical Care AG, Baxter Healthcare, B. Braun and others. Our System One in the home market is currently the only portable system specifically indicated for use in the home market in the United States. However, on February 18, 2011 we learned that Fresenius, our second largest customer in the System One segment, with nearly all of those sales in the home market, obtained clearance for its 2008K At Home hemodialysis system for use in home chronic therapy in February 2011. Our product lines in the in-center market compete directly against products


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produced by Fresenius Medical Care AG, Gambro AB, Nipro, B. Braun, Baxter Healthcare, JMS CO., LTD and others. Our competitors each market one or more FDA-cleared medical devices for the treatment of acute or chronic kidney failure. Each of these competitors offers products that have been in use for a longer time than our System One and are more widely recognized by physicians, patients and providers. These competitors have significantly more financial and human resources, more established sales, service and customer support infrastructures and spend more on product development and marketing than we do. Many of our competitors also have established relationships with the providers of dialysis therapy and, Fresenius owns and operates a chain of dialysis clinics. The product lines of most of these companies are broader than ours, enabling them to offer a broader bundle of products and have established sales forces and distribution channels that may afford them a significant competitive advantage.
 
The market for our products is competitive, subject to change and affected by new product introductions and other market activities of industry participants, including increased consolidation of ownership of clinics by large dialysis chains. If we are successful, our competitors are likely to develop products that offer features and functionality similar to our products, including our System One. Improvements in existing competitive products or the introduction of new competitive products may make it more difficult for us to compete for sales, particularly if those competitive products demonstrate better reliability, convenience or effectiveness or are offered at lower prices. In addition to the recent clearance of the Fresenius 2008K At Home for use in home chronic therapy, Baxter has a research and development collaboration with DEKA Research and Development Corporation and HHD, LLC, or DEKA, and has recently indicated that it received IDE approval from the FDA and hopes to commence U.S. and Canadian clinical studies of DEKA’s new home hemodialysis system in 2011 and launch in international markets as early as 2011 and obtain regulatory approval for Europe in 2012. Other small companies are also working to develop products for this market. We are unable to predict when, if ever, any of these products may attain regulatory clearance and appear in the market, or how successful they may be should they be introduced, but if additional viable products are introduced to the market, it could adversely affect our sales and growth. We also are unable to predict what impact the recent clearance of a Fresenius home hemodialysis systems will have on our sales to Fresenius or our overall home market performance. Our ability to successfully market our products could also be adversely affected by pharmacological and technological advances in preventing the progression of ESRD and/or in the treatment of acute kidney failure or fluid overload. If we are unable to compete effectively against existing and future competitors and existing and future alternative treatments and pharmacological and technological advances, it will be difficult for us to penetrate the market and achieve significant sales of our products.
 
Our continued growth is dependent on our development and successful commercialization of new and improved products.
 
Our future success will depend in part on our timely development and introduction of new and improved products that address changing market requirements. To the extent that we fail to introduce new and innovative products or incremental product improvements, we may lose revenues or market share to our competitors, which may be difficult to regain. Our inability, for technological, regulatory or other reasons, to successfully develop and introduce new or improved products could reduce our growth rate or otherwise damage our business. We cannot assure you that our developments will keep pace with the marketplace or that our new or improved products will adequately meet the requirements of the marketplace.
 
The success and growth of our business will depend upon our ability to achieve expanded market acceptance of our System One.
 
In the home market, we have to convince four distinct constituencies involved in the choice of dialysis therapy, namely operators of dialysis clinics, nephrologists, dialysis nurses and patients, that the System One provides an effective alternative to other existing dialysis equipment. In the in-center market, we have to convince all of these constituencies, but to a lesser degree, patients, that our blood tubing sets and needles provide an effective alternative to other dialysis disposables. In the critical care market, we have to convince hospital purchasing groups, hospitals, nephrologists, dialysis nurses and critical care nurses that our system provides an effective alternative to other existing dialysis equipment. Each of these constituencies use different considerations in reaching their decision. Lack of acceptance by any of these constituencies will make it


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difficult for us to grow our business. We may have difficulty gaining widespread or rapid acceptance of any of our products, including the System One, for a number of reasons including:
 
  •  the failure by us to demonstrate to operators of dialysis clinics, hospitals, nephrologists, dialysis nurses, patients and others that our products are equivalent or superior to existing therapy options;
 
  •  competition from products sold by companies with longer operating histories and greater financial resources, more recognizable brand names and better established distribution networks and relationships with hospitals or dialysis clinics;
 
  •  the failure by us to continue to improve product reliability and the ease of use of our products;
 
  •  limitations on the existing infrastructure in place to support home hemodialysis, including without limitation, home hemodialysis training nurses, and the willingness, cost associated with, and ability of dialysis clinics to build that infrastructure;
 
  •  the ownership and operation of some dialysis providers by companies that also manufacture and sell competitive dialysis products;
 
  •  the introduction of competing products or treatments that may be more effective, easier to use or less expensive than ours;
 
  •  regulations that impose additional burden on patients and their caregivers, such as the recently adopted Medicare conditions for coverage which impose additional water testing requirements in connection with the use of our PureFlow SL;
 
  •  the number of patients willing and able to perform therapy independently, outside of a traditional dialysis clinic, may be smaller than we estimate; and
 
  •  the availability of satisfactory reimbursement from healthcare payors, including Medicare.
 
If we are unable to convince additional hospitals and healthcare providers of the benefits of our products for the treatment of acute kidney failure and fluid overload, we will not be successful in increasing our market share in the critical care market.
 
We sell the System One in the critical care market for use in the treatment of acute kidney failure and fluid overload. Physicians currently treat most acute kidney failure patients using conventional hemodialysis systems or dialysis systems designed specifically for use in the intensive care unit, or ICU. We will need to convince hospitals and healthcare providers that using the System One is as effective as using conventional hemodialysis systems or ICU-specific dialysis systems for treating acute kidney failure and that it provides advantages over conventional systems or other ICU-specific systems because of its significantly smaller size, ease of operation and clinical flexibility. In addition, the impact of tightened credit markets on hospitals could impair the manner in which we sell products in the critical care market. Hospitals facing pressure to reduce capital spending may choose to delay capital equipment purchases or seek alternative financing options.
 
Our business and results of operations may be negatively impacted by general economic and financial market conditions and such conditions may increase other risks that affect our business.
 
Global macro economic conditions and the world’s financial markets continue to experience some degree of turmoil, resulting in reductions in available credit, foreign currency fluctuations and volatility in the valuations of securities generally. In general, we believe demand for our products in the home and in-center market will not be substantially affected by the changing market conditions as regular dialysis is a life-sustaining, non-elective therapy. However, there is no assurance that future economic changes or global uncertainties would not negatively impact our business, especially the manner and pace in which we sell equipment in the System One segment or delay equipment placements. Hospitals or clinics facing pressure to reduce capital spending may choose to rent equipment rather than purchase it outright, or to enter into other less-capital intensive purchase structures with us, which may, in turn, have a negative impact on our cash flows.


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The non-cash discounts we have offered to DaVita may lead to reductions in our future net revenues that will fluctuate because the amount of the discount is based upon the number of warrants earned and our stock price.
 
Under our July 22, 2010 agreement with DaVita, we offered DaVita the opportunity to earn pricing discounts based upon the achievement of System One home patient growth targets at June 30, 2011, 2012 and 2013. In order to preserve cash, the discount takes the form of warrants to purchase up to 5.5 million shares of our common stock that become exercisable based on the achievement of certain System One home patient growth targets (reflecting home patients who have remained on contiguous home hemodialysis therapy for at least three full months with the System One) at June 30, 2011, 2012 and 2013, and which further require DaVita to continue to grow its home patient census every six months during the term of the agreement. The discount associated with these warrants will be measured at fair value through the date of vesting using a Black-Scholes option pricing model, and is being recognized as a reduction of revenues over the same period as the related product revenues (between seven to ten years) based on the number of warrants expected to vest. The warrants are non-transferable, must be exercised in cash and have an exercise price of $14.22 per share, which is equal to the trailing fifteen day volume weighted average price of a share of NxStage Common Stock on the NASDAQ Global Market as of the close of business on July 21, 2010, the day prior to entering into our agreement.
 
The reduction of revenues recorded in connection with these warrants was not significant during 2010, based on our assumptions regarding what tiered level of warrant discounts DaVita is expected to earn. However, there can be no assurance that the value of the discount, and, therefore, the amount of reduction of revenues recorded, will not be higher in the future based upon the level of warrants DaVita actually earns under the agreement, as well as the price of our stock on the date the warrants vest. Should our stock price increase above its current price, the amount of the discount would be increased.
 
Healthcare reform legislation could adversely affect our revenue and financial condition.
 
In recent years, there have been numerous initiatives on the federal and state levels for comprehensive reforms affecting the payment for, the availability of and reimbursement for healthcare services in the United States. These initiatives have ranged from proposals to fundamentally change federal and state healthcare reimbursement programs, including providing comprehensive healthcare coverage to the public under governmental funded programs, to minor modifications to existing programs.
 
In March 2010, the U.S. Congress adopted and President Obama signed into law comprehensive health care reform legislation through the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. No. 111-148) and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Pub. L. No. 111-152). Among other initiatives, these bills impose a 2.3% excise tax on domestic sales of certain medical devices after December 31, 2012. This legislation also applies a productivity adjustment to the Medicare payment rates for dialysis facilities that could cause variable annual decreases in payment rates as of 2012. Outside of the excise tax, which will impact our results of operations following December 31, 2012, and the productivity adjustments, which may impact our operations when the amount of the adjustments are announced, we cannot predict the effect such legislation will have on us. If significant reforms are made to the healthcare system in the United States, or in other jurisdictions, those reforms may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
 
As our business continues to grow, we may have difficulty managing our growth and expanding our operations successfully.
 
As our business continues to grow, we will need to expand our manufacturing, sales and marketing and on-going development capabilities or contract with other organizations to provide these capabilities for us. As our operations expand, we expect that we will need to manage additional relationships with various partners, suppliers, manufacturers and other organizations. Our ability to manage our operations and growth requires us to continue to improve our information technology infrastructure, operational, financial and management controls and reporting systems and procedures. Such growth could place a strain on our administrative and


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operational infrastructure. We may not be able to make improvements to our management information and control systems in an efficient or timely manner and may discover deficiencies in existing systems and controls.
 
If we are unable to improve or maintain strong product reliability for our products, our ability to maintain or grow our business and achieve profitability could be impaired.
 
We have not yet achieved our long term reliability objectives for certain of our products, and as a result we continue to incur increased service and distribution costs. This, in turn, negatively impacts our gross margins and increases our working capital requirements. Additionally, product reliability issues associated with any of our product lines could lead to decreases in customer satisfaction and our ability to grow or maintain our revenues and could negatively impact our reputation. We continue to work to improve product reliability for all products, and have achieved some improvements to date. If we are unable to continue to improve product reliability, our ability to achieve our growth objectives as well as profitability could be significantly impaired.
 
We have a significant amount of System One field equipment, and our inability to effectively manage this asset could negatively impact our working capital requirements and future profitability.
 
Because our home market relies upon an equipment service swap model and, for some of our customers, an equipment rental model, our ability to manage System One equipment is important to minimizing our working capital requirements. Both factors require that we maintain a significant level of field equipment of our System One and PureFlow SL hardware. In addition, our gross margins may be negatively impacted if we have excess equipment deployed, and unused, in the field. If we are unable to successfully track, service and redeploy equipment, we could (1) incur increased costs, (2) realize increased cash requirements and/or (3) have material write-offs of equipment. This would negatively impact our working capital requirements and future profitability.
 
If kidney transplantation becomes a viable treatment option for more patients with ESRD, or if medical or other solutions for renal replacement become viable, the market for our products may be limited.
 
While kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for most ESRD patients, it is not currently a viable treatment for most- patients due to the limited number of donor kidneys, the high incidence of kidney transplant rejection and the higher surgical risk associated with older ESRD patients. According to USRDS data, in 2008, approximately 17,400 patients received kidney transplants in the United States. The development of new medications designed to reduce the incidence of kidney transplant rejection, progress in using kidneys harvested from genetically engineered animals as a source of transplants or any other advances in kidney transplantation could limit the market for our products. The development of viable medical or other solutions for renal replacement may also limit the market for our products.
 
We could be subject to costly and damaging product and professional liability claims and may not be able to maintain sufficient liability insurance to cover claims against us.
 
If any of our employees or products is found to have caused or contributed to injuries or deaths, we could be held liable for substantial damages. Claims of this nature may also adversely affect our reputation, which could damage our position in the market. While we maintain insurance, including professional liability, product and excess liability, claims may be brought against us that could result in court judgments or settlements in amounts that are in excess of the limits of our insurance coverage. In addition, due to the recent tightening of global credit and the disruption in the financial markets, there may be a disruption in our insurance coverage or delay or disruption in the payment of claims by our insurance providers. Our insurance policies also have various exclusions, and we may be subject to a product or professional liability claim for which we have no coverage. We will have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance.


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Any product liability or professional liability claim brought against us, with or without merit, could result in the increase of our product liability or professional liability insurance rates, respectively, or the inability to secure additional insurance coverage in the future. A product liability claim, whether meritorious or not, could be time consuming, distracting and expensive to defend and could result in a diversion of management and financial resources away from our primary business, in which case our business may suffer.
 
We maintain insurance at levels deemed adequate by management; however, future claims could exceed our applicable insurance coverage.
 
We maintain insurance for property and general liability, directors’ and officers’ liability, product liability, workers compensation, and other coverage in amounts and on terms deemed adequate by management based on our expectations for future claims. Future claims could, however, exceed our applicable insurance coverage, or our coverage could not cover the applicable claims.
 
We face risks associated with having international manufacturing operations, and if we are unable to manage these risks effectively, our business could suffer.
 
We operate manufacturing facilities in Germany, Italy and Mexico. We also purchase components, products and supplies from foreign vendors. We are subject to a number of risks and challenges that specifically relate to these international operations, and we may not be successful if we are unable to meet and overcome these challenges. Significant among these risks are risks relating to foreign currency, in particular the Euro, Peso and Thai Baht. We do not currently hedge our foreign currency transactions. To the extent we fail to control our exchange rate risk, our gross margins and profitability could suffer and our ability to maintain mutually beneficial and profitable relationships with foreign vendors could be impaired. In addition to these risks, through our international operations, we are exposed to costs and challenges associated with sourcing and shipping goods internationally and importing and exporting goods, difficulty managing operations in multiple locations, local regulations that may restrict or impair our ability to conduct our operations, and health issues, such as pandemic disease risk, which could disrupt our manufacturing and logistical and import activities.
 
We obtain some of our raw materials, components and finished goods from a single source or a limited group of suppliers. We also obtain sterilization services from a single supplier. The partial or complete loss of one of these suppliers could cause significant production delays, an inability to meet customer demand, and a substantial loss in revenues.
 
We depend upon a number of single-source suppliers for some of the raw materials and components we use in our products. We also depend upon one single-source supplier for certain of our finished goods and a single-vendor for sterilization services. Our most critical single-source supply relationships are with Membrana and Kawasumi. Membrana is our sole supplier of the fiber used in our filters for System One products. Kawasumi is our only supplier of needles and certain blood tubing sets that we sell to our customers. Our dependence upon these and other single-source suppliers of raw materials, components, finished goods and sterilization services exposes us to several risks, including disruptions in supply, price increases, late deliveries, and an inability to meet customer demand. This could lead to customer dissatisfaction, damage to our reputation, or customers switching to competitive products. Any interruption in supply could be particularly damaging to our customers using the System One to treat chronic ESRD and who need access to the System One and related disposables to continue their therapy.
 
Finding alternative sources for these raw materials, components, finished goods and sterilization services would be difficult and in many cases entail a significant amount of time and disruption. In the case of Membrana, for fiber, we are contractually prevented from obtaining an alternative source of fiber for our System One products. Our relationship with Asahi could afford us back-up supply in the event of an inability to supply by Membrana, however, switching to Asahi fiber at this time would likely entail significant delays and difficulties. We do not have the regulatory approvals necessary to use Asahi fiber in our System One cartridge in the United States. Additionally, the performance of Asahi fiber in our System One has not yet been validated. We purchase the majority of our finished goods of ReadySet blood tubing sets and all of our


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needles from Kawasumi. Kawasumi’s contractual obligation to manufacture blood tubing sets expires in January 2012, with opportunities to extend the term beyond that date. Kawasumi’s contractual obligation to supply needles to us expires in February 2014, with opportunities to extend the term beyond that date. Kawasumi’s contractual obligation to supply needles and blood tubing sets to us can be, at times, less than our forecasted demand. In the event Kawasumi supplies no more than the amount of their required maximum monthly supply, we may not have enough needle or blood tubing set supply to meet the demands of our customers. We maintain a limited extra supply of needles to mitigate against the risk of any intermittent shortfalls in needle supply, and we have the ability to manufacture additional blood tubing sets at our manufacturing facility in Tijuana, Mexico. However, there can be no assurance that any interruption in needle or blood tubing set supply would not impair our business, at least in the near term.
 
Our In-Center segment relies heavily upon third-party distributors.
 
We sell the majority of our In-Center segment products through several distributors, which collectively accounted for substantially all of In-Center revenues during 2010, 2009 and 2008, with Henry Schein and Gambro being our most significant distributors. Our distribution agreement with Henry Schein expires in April 2012. Our distribution agreement with Gambro expires in June 2014. The loss of Gambro or Henry Schein as our distributors for any reason could materially adversely affect our business, at least in the near term.
 
Unless we can demonstrate sufficient product differentiation in our blood tubing set business through Streamline or products that we introduce in the future, we will continue to be susceptible to further pressures to reduce product pricing and more vulnerable to the loss of our blood tubing set business to competitors in the dialysis industry.
 
Our blood tubing set business has historically been a commodities business. Prior to the Medisystems Acquisition, Medisystems competed favorably and gained share through the development of a high quality, low-cost, standardized blood tubing set, which could be used on several different dialysis machines. Our products continue to compete favorably in the dialysis blood tubing set business, but are increasingly subject to pricing pressures, especially given recent market consolidation in the United States dialysis services industry, with Fresenius and DaVita collectively controlling approximately 60% of the United States dialysis services business. Unless we can successfully demonstrate to customers the differentiating features of the Streamline product or products that we introduce in the future, we may be susceptible to further pressures to reduce our product pricing and more vulnerable to the loss of our blood tubing set business to competitors in the dialysis industry.
 
The activities of our business involve the import of finished goods into the United States from foreign countries, subject to customs inspections and duties, and the export of components and certain other products from other countries into Germany, Mexico, Thailand and Italy. To a lesser, but increasing degree, our business also involves the export of finished goods from the United States to foreign countries. If we misinterpret or violate these laws, or if laws governing our exemption from certain duties change, we could be subject to significant fines, liabilities or other adverse consequences.
 
We import into the United States disposable medical supplies from Germany, Thailand and Mexico. We also import into the United States disposable medical components from Germany and Italy and export components and assemblies into Mexico, Thailand and Italy. We also import into Mexico components and assemblies from Germany, Italy and Thailand. To a lesser, but increasing degree, our business also involves the export of finished goods from the United States to foreign countries. The import and export of these items are subject to extensive laws and regulations with which we will need to comply. To the extent we fail to comply with these laws or regulations, or fail to interpret our obligations accurately, we may be subject to significant fines, liabilities and a disruption to our ability to deliver product, which could cause our combined businesses and operating results to suffer. To the extent there are modifications to the Generalised System of Preferences or cancellation of the Nairobi Protocol Classification such that our products would be subject to duties, our profitability would also be negatively impacted.


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The success of our business depends on the services of each of our senior executives as well as certain key engineering, scientific, manufacturing, clinical and marketing personnel, the loss of whom could negatively affect the combined businesses.
 
Our success has always depended upon the skills, experience and efforts of our senior executives and other key personnel, including our research and development and manufacturing executives and managers. Much of our expertise is concentrated in relatively few employees, the loss of whom for any reason could negatively affect our business. Competition for our highly skilled employees is intense and we cannot prevent the future resignation of any employee. We maintain key person insurance for only one of our executives, Jeffrey Burbank, our Chief Executive Officer.
 
Risks Related to the Regulatory Environment
 
We are subject to significant regulation, primarily by the FDA. We cannot market or commercially distribute our products without obtaining and maintaining necessary regulatory clearances or approvals.
 
Our products are medical devices subject to extensive regulation in the United States, and in foreign markets we may wish to enter. To market a medical devices in the United States, approval or clearance by the FDA is required, either through the pre-market approval process or the 510(k) clearance process. We have obtained the FDA clearance necessary to sell our current products under the 510(k) clearance process. Medical devices may only be promoted and sold for the indications for which they are approved or cleared. In addition, even if the FDA has approved or cleared a product, it can take action affecting such product approvals or clearances if serious safety or other problems develop in the marketplace. We may be required to obtain 510(k) clearances or pre-market approvals for additional products, product modifications, or for new indications of our products. Regulatory pathways for such clearances may be difficult to define and could change. For example, we recently completed an approval IDE study intended to support a home nocturnal indication for the System One. Enrollment started in the first quarter of 2008 and we submitted the associated 510(k) to the FDA in 2010. We met our primary safety and efficacy endpoints for the study. Nevertheless, the FDA recently notified us that their standards for what will be required for a home nocturnal clearance may change from what was required in our approval IDE. We continue to discuss with the FDA what the pathway to clearance for our product should be, and are evaluating our next steps. Although we do not see the delay in timing for our home nocturnal clearance as material to our opportunities, we cannot be certain when this clearance will be obtained. We also cannot provide assurance that this or other clearances or approvals might be. Delays in obtaining clearances or approvals could adversely affect our ability to introduce new products or modifications to our existing products in a timely manner, which would delay or prevent commercial sales of our products. Although the 510(k) regulation has not been formally changed, the FDA has announced that it is intending to implement modifications to the 510(k) process. Any changes in regulatory policies could have an adverse affect on our ability to sell and promote our products and our business as a whole.
 
Modifications to our marketed devices may require new regulatory clearances or pre-market approvals, or may require us to cease marketing or recall the modified devices until clearances or approvals are obtained.
 
Any modifications to a 510(k) cleared device that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, or would constitute a major change in its intended use, requires the submission of another 510(k) pre-market notification to address the change. Although in the first instance we may determine that a change does not rise to a level of significance that would require us to make a pre-market notification submission, the FDA may disagree with us and can require us to submit a 510(k) for a significant change in the labeling, technology, performance specifications or materials or major change or modification in intended use, despite a documented rationale for not submitting a pre-market notification. We have modified various aspects of our products and have filed and received clearance from the FDA with respect to some of the changes in the design of our products. If the FDA requires us to submit a 510(k) for any modification to a previously cleared device, or in the future a device that has received 510(k) clearance, we may be required to cease marketing the device, recall it, and not resume marketing until we obtain clearance from the FDA for the modified version of the device. Also, we may be subject to regulatory fines, penalties and/or other sanctions authorized by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In the future, we intend to introduce new products and enhancements and improvements to existing products. We cannot provide assurance


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that the FDA will clear any new product or product changes for marketing or what the timing of such clearances might be. In addition, new products or significantly modified marketed products could be found to be not substantially equivalent and classified as products requiring the FDA’s approval of a pre-market approval application, or PMA, before commercial distribution would be permissible. PMAs usually require substantially more data than 510(k) submissions and their review and approval or denial typically takes significantly longer than a 510(k) decision of substantial equivalence. Also, PMA products require approval supplements for any change that affects safety and effectiveness before the modified device may be marketed. Delays in our receipt of regulatory clearance or approval will cause delays in our ability to sell our products, which will have a negative effect on our revenues growth.
 
Even if we obtain the necessary FDA clearances or approvals, if we or our suppliers fail to comply with ongoing regulatory requirements our products could be subject to restrictions or withdrawal from the market.
 
We are subject to the Medical Device Reporting, or MDR, regulations that require us to report to the FDA if our products may have caused or contributed to patient death or serious injury, or if our device malfunctions and a recurrence of the malfunction would likely result in a death or serious injury. We must also file reports of device corrections and removals and adhere to the FDA’s rules on labeling and promotion. Our failure to comply with these or other applicable regulatory requirements could result in enforcement action by the FDA, which may include any of the following:
 
  •  untitled letters, warning letters, fines, injunctions and civil penalties;
 
  •  administrative detention, which is the detention by the FDA of medical devices believed to be adulterated or misbranded;
 
  •  customer notification, or orders for repair, replacement or refund;
 
  •  voluntary or mandatory recall or seizure of our products;
 
  •  operating restrictions, partial suspension or total shutdown of production;
 
  •  refusal to review pre-market notification or pre-market approval submissions;
 
  •  rescission of a substantial equivalence order or suspension or withdrawal of a pre-market approval; and
 
  •  criminal prosecution.
 
Our products are subject to market withdrawals or product recalls after receiving FDA clearance or approval, and market withdrawals and product recalls could cause the price of our stock to decline and expose us to product liability or other claims or could otherwise harm our reputation and financial results.
 
Medical devices can experience performance problems in the field that require review and possible corrective action by us or the product manufacturer. We cannot provide assurance that component failures, manufacturing errors, design defects and/or labeling inadequacies, which could result in an unsafe condition or injury to the operator or the patient will not occur. These could lead to a government mandated or voluntary recall by us. The FDA has the authority to require the recall of our products in the event a product presents a reasonable probability that it would cause serious adverse health consequences or death. Similar regulatory agencies in other countries have similar authority to recall devices because of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture that could endanger health. We believe that the FDA would request that we initiate a voluntary recall if a product was defective or presented a risk of injury or gross deception. Any recall would divert management attention and financial resources, could cause the price of our stock to decline and expose us to product liability or other claims and harm our reputation with customers.
 
If we or our contract manufacturers fail to comply with FDA’s Quality System Regulations, our manufacturing operations could be interrupted, and our product sales and operating results could suffer.
 
Our finished goods manufacturing processes, and those of some of our contract manufacturers, are required to comply with the FDA’s Quality System Regulations, or QSRs, which cover the procedures and documentation of the design, testing, production, control, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, sterilization,


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storage and shipping of our devices. The FDA enforces its QSRs through periodic unannounced inspections of manufacturing facilities. We and our contract manufacturers have been, and anticipate in the future being, subject to such inspections. We were inspected by the FDA in the second quarter of 2010, and received no inspectional observations. While all of our previous inspections have resulted in no significant observations, we cannot provide assurance that we can maintain a comparable level of regulatory compliance in the future at our facilities, or that future inspections would have the same result.
 
If one of our manufacturing facilities or those of any of our contract manufacturers fails to take satisfactory corrective action in response to an adverse QSR inspection, the FDA could take enforcement action, including issuing a public warning letter, shutting down our manufacturing operations, embargoing the import of components from outside of the United States, recalling our products, refusing to approve new marketing applications, instituting legal proceedings to detain or seize products or imposing civil or criminal penalties or other sanctions, any of which could cause our business and operating results to suffer.
 
We may be subject to fines, penalties or injunctions if we are determined to be promoting the use of our products in a manner not consistent with our products’ cleared indications for use or with other state or federal laws governing the promotion of our products.
 
Our promotional materials and other product labeling must comply with FDA and other applicable laws and regulations. If the FDA determines that our promotional materials or other product labeling constitute promotion of an unapproved, or uncleared use, it could request that we modify our materials or subject us to regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance of an untitled letter, a warning letter, injunction, seizure, civil fine and criminal penalties. Other regulatory agencies, federal, state and foreign, including the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, have issued guidelines and regulations that govern how we promote our product, including how we use endorsements and testimonials. If our promotional materials are inconsistent with these guidelines or regulations, we could be subject to enforcement actions, which could result in significant fines, costs and penalties. Our reputation could also be damaged and the adoption of our products could be impaired.
 
Failure to obtain regulatory approval in foreign jurisdictions would prevent us from marketing our products outside the United States.
 
Historically, we have not sold or marketed the System One outside the United States and Canada. In 2009, we began entering into arrangements with distributors to sell the System One and certain of our other products outside of the United States. We are currently selling the System One in Europe and the Middle East, and are assessing other international markets for the System One as well. Our In-Center products are presently sold in the United States as well as in several other countries, through distributors. We presently have CE marking as well as Canadian regulatory authority to sell our System One as well as certain other products in Canada and Europe. However, in order to market directly our products in other foreign jurisdictions, we must obtain separate regulatory approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. The approval procedure varies from country to country and can involve additional testing. The time required to obtain approval abroad may be longer than the time required to obtain FDA clearance. The foreign regulatory approval process includes many of the risks associated with obtaining FDA clearance and we may not obtain foreign regulatory approvals on a timely basis, if at all. FDA clearance does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries, and approval by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other foreign countries. We may not be able to file for regulatory approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our products in any market outside the United States, which could negatively affect our overall market penetration. Additionally, any loss of foreign regulatory approvals, for any reason, could negatively affect our business.
 
We have obligations under our contracts with dialysis clinics and hospitals to protect the privacy of patient health information.
 
In the course of performing our business we obtain, from time to time, confidential patient health information. For example, we learn patient names and addresses when we ship our System One supplies to


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home hemodialysis patients. We may learn patient names and be exposed to confidential patient health information when we provide training on our products to our customer’s staff. Our home hemodialysis patients may also call our customer service representatives directly and, during the call, disclose confidential patient health information. United States federal and state laws protect the confidentiality of certain patient health information, in particular individually identifiable information, and restrict the use and disclosure of that information. At the federal level, the Department of Health and Human Services promulgated health information and privacy and security rules under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA. At this time, we are not a HIPAA covered entity. However, we have entered into business associate agreements with covered entities that contain commitments to protect the privacy and security of patients’ health information and, in some instances, require that we indemnify the covered entity for any claim, liability, damage, cost or expense arising out of or in connection with a breach of the agreement by us. If we were to violate one of these agreements, we could lose customers and be exposed to liability and/or our reputation and business could be harmed. In addition, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH), enacted in February 2009, expands the HIPAA privacy and security rules, including imposing many of the requirements of those rules directly on business associates and making business associates directly subject to HIPAA civil and criminal enforcement provisions and associated penalties. Many of these requirements went into effect on February 17, 2010. We may be required to make costly system modifications to comply with the HIPAA privacy and security requirements. Our failure to comply may result in criminal and civil liability.
 
Many other federal and state laws apply to the use and disclosure of health information, as well as certain financial information, which could affect the manner in which we conduct our business. Such laws are not necessarily preempted by HIPAA, in particular those laws that afford greater protection to the individual than does HIPAA or cover different subject matter. Such state laws typically have their own penalty provisions, which could be applied in the event of an unlawful action affecting health information.
 
We are subject to federal and state laws prohibiting “kickbacks” and false and fraudulent claims which, if violated, could subject us to substantial penalties. Additionally, any challenges to or investigation into our practices under these laws could cause adverse publicity and be costly to respond to, and thus could harm our business.
 
The Medicare/Medicaid anti-kickback laws, and similar state laws, prohibit payments that are intended to induce health care professionals or others either to refer patients or to acquire or arrange for or recommend the acquisition of healthcare products or services. A number of states have enacted laws that require pharmaceutical and medical device companies to monitor and report payments, gifts and other remuneration made to physicians and other health care professionals and health care organizations. In addition, some state statutes, most notably laws in Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Vermont, impose outright bans on certain gifts to physicians. Some of these laws referred to as “aggregate spend” laws or “gift” laws, carry substantial fines if they are violated. Recently, the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act was enacted by Congress in 2010 as part of the comprehensive health care reform legislation, and it will require us to begin publicly disclosing certain payments and other transfers of value to physicians and teaching hospitals beginning in 2013. These laws affect our sales, marketing and other promotional activities by limiting the kinds of financial arrangements, including sales programs, we may have with hospitals, physicians or other potential purchasers or users of medical devices. They also impose additional administrative and compliance burdens on us. In particular, these laws influence, among other things, how we structure our sales and rental offerings, including discount practices, customer support, education and training programs and physician consulting and other service arrangements. Although we seek to structure such arrangements in compliance with all applicable requirements, these laws are broadly written, and it is often difficult to determine precisely how these laws will be applied in specific circumstances. If we were to offer or pay inappropriate inducements to purchase our products, we could be subject to a claim under the Medicare/Medicaid anti-kickback laws or similar state laws. If we fail to comply with particular reporting requirements, we could be subject to penalties under applicable federal or state laws.


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Other federal and state laws generally prohibit individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payments to Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors that are false or fraudulent, or for items or services that were not provided as claimed. Although we do not submit claims directly to payors, manufacturers can be held liable under these laws if they are deemed to “cause” the submission of false or fraudulent claims by providing inaccurate billing or coding information to customers, by providing improper financial inducements, or through certain other activities. In providing billing and coding information to customers, we make every effort to ensure that the billing and coding information furnished is accurate and that treating physicians understand that they are responsible for all billing and prescribing decisions, including the decision as to whether to order dialysis services more frequently than three times per week. Nevertheless, we cannot provide assurance that the government will regard any billing errors that may be made as inadvertent or that the government will not examine our role in providing information to our customers concerning the benefits of daily therapy. Likewise, our financial relationships with customers, physicians, or others in a position to influence the purchase or use of our products may be subject to government scrutiny or be alleged or found to violate applicable fraud and abuse laws. False claims laws prescribe civil, criminal and administrative penalties for noncompliance, which can be substantial. Moreover, an unsuccessful challenge or investigation into our practices could cause adverse publicity, and be costly to respond to, and thus could harm our business and results of operations.
 
Foreign governments tend to impose strict price controls, which may adversely affect our future profitability.
 
Presently, our marketing efforts have been confined nearly exclusively to the United States. We have had limited activities in Canada with our System One, and in certain other jurisdictions with our In-Center products sold through distributors. In 2009, we began entering into arrangements with distributors to sell the System One and certain of our other products in Europe and the Middle East. We may, in the future, seek to market our products in other markets. In some foreign countries, particularly in the European Union, the pricing of medical devices is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a product. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to supply data that compares the cost-effectiveness of our products to other available therapies. If reimbursement of our products is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, it may not be profitable to sell our products outside of the United States, which would negatively affect the long-term growth of our business. Further, reimbursement provided to our products in other jurisdictions could change, positively or negatively. In the event reimbursements were to be negatively changed, such as, for example, in the United Kingdom, our ability to sell our products could be impaired.
 
Failure to comply with the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.
 
We are subject to the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act which generally prohibits United States companies from engaging in bribery or other prohibited payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business and requires companies to maintain accurate books and records and internal controls, including at foreign controlled subsidiaries. While we have policies and procedures in place designed to prevent noncompliance, we can make no assurance that our employees or other agents will not engage in prohibited conduct under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act for which we might be held responsible. If our employees or other agents are found to have engaged in such practices, we could suffer severe penalties and other consequences that may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


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Our business activities involve the use of hazardous materials, which require compliance with environmental and occupational safety laws regulating the use of such materials. If we violate these laws, we could be subject to significant fines, liabilities or other adverse consequences.
 
Our research and development programs as well as our manufacturing operations involve the controlled use of hazardous materials. Accordingly, we are subject to federal, state and local laws governing the use, handling and disposal of these materials. Although we believe that our safety procedures for handling and disposing of these materials comply in all material respects with the standards prescribed by state and federal regulations, we cannot completely eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of an accident or failure to comply with environmental laws, we could be held liable for resulting damages, and any such liability could exceed our insurance coverage.
 
Risks Related to Operations
 
Resin is a key input material to the manufacture of our products and System One cartridge. Oil prices affect both the pricing and availability of this material. Escalation of oil prices could affect our ability to obtain sufficient supply of resin at the prices we need to manufacture our products at current rates of profitability.
 
We currently source resin from a small number of suppliers. Rising oil prices over the last several years have resulted in significant price increases for this material. We cannot guarantee that prices will not continue to increase. Our contracts with customers restrict our ability to immediately pass on these price increases, and we cannot guarantee that future pricing to customers will be sufficient to accommodate increasing input costs.
 
Distribution costs represent a significant percentage of our overall costs, and these costs are dependent upon fuel prices. Increases in fuel prices could lead to increases in our distribution costs, which, in turn, could impair our ability to achieve profitability.
 
We currently incur significant inbound and outbound distribution costs. Our distribution costs are dependent upon fuel prices. Increases in fuel prices could lead to increases in our distribution costs, which could impair our ability to achieve profitability.
 
We have labor agreements with our production employees in Italy and in Mexico. We cannot guarantee that we will not in the future face strikes, work stoppages, work slowdowns, grievances, complaints, claims of unfair labor practices, other collective bargaining disputes or in Italy, anti-union behavior, that may cause production delays and negatively impact our ability to deliver our products on a timely basis.
 
Our wholly-owned subsidiary in Italy has a national labor contract with Contratto collettivo nazionale di lavoro per gli addetti all’industria della gomma cavi elettrici ed affini e all’industria delle materie plastiche, and our wholly-owned subsidiary in Mexico has entered into a collective bargaining agreement with a Union named Mexico Moderno de Trabajadores de la Baja California C.R.O.C. We have not to date experienced strikes, work stoppages, work slowdowns, grievances, complaints, claims of unfair labor practices, other collective bargaining disputes, or in Italy, anti-union behavior, however we cannot guarantee that we will not be subject to such activity in the future. Any such activity would likely cause production delays, and negatively affect our ability to deliver our production commitments to customers, which could adversely affect our reputation and cause our combined businesses and operating results to suffer. Additionally, some of our key single source suppliers have labor agreements. We cannot guarantee that we will not have future disruptions, which could adversely affect our reputation and cause our business and operating results to suffer.
 
We do not have long-term supply contracts with many of our third-party suppliers.
 
We purchase raw materials and components from third-party suppliers, including some single source suppliers, through purchase orders and do not have long-term supply contracts with many of these third-party suppliers. Many of our third-party suppliers are not obligated to perform services or supply products for any specific period, in any specific quantity or at any specific price, except as may be provided in a particular purchase order. We do not maintain large volumes of inventory from most of our suppliers. If we inaccurately


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forecast demand for finished goods, our ability to meet customer demand could be delayed and our competitive position and reputation could be harmed. In addition, if we fail to effectively manage our relationships with these suppliers, we may be required to change suppliers, which would be time consuming and disruptive and could lead to disruptions in product supply, which could permanently impair our customer base and reputation.
 
Certain of our products are recently developed and we have recently transitioned the manufacturing of certain of these products to new locations. We, and certain of our third-party manufacturers, have limited manufacturing experience with these products.
 
We continue to develop new products and make improvements to existing products. As such, we and certain of our third-party manufacturers have limited manufacturing experience with certain of our products. We are more exposed to risks relating to product quality and reliability until the manufacturing processes for these new products mature.
 
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
 
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property and prevent its use by third parties, we will lose a significant competitive advantage.
 
We rely on patent protection, as well as a combination of copyright, trade secret and trademark laws to protect our proprietary technology and prevent others from duplicating our products. However, these means may afford only limited protection and may not:
 
  •  prevent our competitors from duplicating our products;
 
  •  prevent our competitors from gaining access to our proprietary information and technology; or
 
  •  permit us to gain or maintain a competitive advantage.
 
Any of our patents, including those we may license, may be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or rendered unenforceable. We cannot provide assurance that we will be successful should one or more of our patents be challenged for any reason. If our patent claims are rendered invalid or unenforceable, or narrowed in scope, the patent coverage afforded our products could be impaired, which could make our products less competitive.
 
We cannot specify which, if any, of our patents individually or as a group will permit us to gain or maintain a competitive advantage. We cannot provide assurance that any pending or future patent applications we hold will result in an issued patent or that if patents are issued to us, that such patents will provide meaningful protection against competitors or against competitive technologies. The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its validity or enforceability. The United States federal courts or equivalent national courts or patent offices elsewhere may invalidate our patents or find them unenforceable. Competitors may also be able to design around our patents. Our patents and patent applications cover particular aspects of our products. Other parties may develop and obtain patent protection for more effective technologies, designs or methods for treating kidney failure. If these developments were to occur, it would likely have an adverse effect on our sales.
 
The laws of foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights effectively or to the same extent as the laws of the United States. If our intellectual property rights are not adequately protected, we may not be able to commercialize our technologies, products or services and our competitors could commercialize similar technologies, which could result in a decrease in our revenues and market share.
 
Our products could infringe the intellectual property rights of others, which may lead to litigation that could itself be costly, could result in the payment of substantial damages or royalties, and/or prevent us from using technology that is essential to our products.
 
The medical device industry in general has been characterized by extensive litigation and administrative proceedings regarding patent infringement and intellectual property rights. Products to provide kidney replacement therapy have been available in the market for more than 30 years and our competitors hold a


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significant number of patents relating to kidney replacement devices, therapies, products and supplies. Although no third party has threatened or alleged that our products or methods infringe their patents or other intellectual property rights, we cannot provide assurance that our products or methods do not infringe the patents or other intellectual property rights of third parties. If our business is successful, the possibility may increase that others will assert infringement claims against us.
 
Infringement and other intellectual property claims and proceedings brought against us, whether successful or not, could result in substantial costs and harm to our reputation. Such claims and proceedings can also distract and divert management and key personnel from other tasks important to the success of the business. In addition, intellectual property litigation or claims could force us to do one or more of the following:
 
  •  cease selling or using any of our products that incorporate the asserted intellectual property, which would adversely affect our revenues;
 
  •  pay substantial damages for past use of the asserted intellectual property;
 
  •  obtain a license from the holder of the asserted intellectual property, which license may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all and which could reduce profitability; and
 
  •  redesign or rename, in the case of trademark claims, our products to avoid infringing the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may not be possible and could be costly and time-consuming if it is possible to do so.
 
Confidentiality agreements with employees and others may not adequately prevent disclosure of trade secrets and other proprietary information.
 
In order to protect our proprietary technology and processes, we also rely in part on confidentiality agreements with our corporate partners, employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators and sponsored researchers, advisors and others. These agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of confidential information and trade secrets and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. In addition, others may independently discover or reverse engineer trade secrets and proprietary information, and in such cases we could not assert any trade secret rights against such party. Costly and time consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive position.
 
We may be subject to damages resulting from claims that our employees or we have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of other companies.
 
Many of our employees were previously employed at other medical device companies focused on the development of dialysis products, including our competitors. Although no claims against us are currently pending, we may be subject to claims that these employees or we have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs, damage to our reputation and be a distraction to management.
 
Risks Related to our Common Stock
 
Our stock price is likely to be volatile, and the market price of our common stock may drop.
 
The market price of our common stock could be subject to significant fluctuations. Market prices for securities of early stage companies have historically been particularly volatile. As a result of this volatility, you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above the price you paid for the stock. Some of the factors that may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate include:
 
  •  timing of market launch and/or market acceptance of our products;
 
  •  timing of achieving profitability from operations;


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  •  changes in estimates of our financial results or recommendations by securities analysts or the failure to meet or exceed securities analysts’ expectations;
 
  •  actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results;
 
  •  future debt or equity financings;
 
  •  developments or disputes with key vendors or customers, or adverse changes to the purchasing patterns of key customers;
 
  •  disruptions in product supply for any reason, including product recalls, our failure to appropriately forecast supply or demand, difficulties in moving products across the border, or the failure of third party suppliers to produce needed products or components;
 
  •  reports by officials or health or medical authorities, the general media or the FDA regarding the potential benefits of the System One or of similar dialysis products distributed by other companies or of daily or home dialysis;
 
  •  announcements by the FDA of non-clearance or non-approval of our products, or delays in the FDA or other foreign regulatory agency review process;
 
  •  product recalls;
 
  •  defaults under our material contracts, including without limitation our credit agreement;
 
  •  regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;
 
  •  changes in third-party healthcare reimbursements, particularly a decline in the level of Medicare reimbursement for dialysis treatments, or the willingness of Medicare contractors to pay for more than three treatments a week where medically justified;
 
  •  litigation involving our company or our general industry or both;
 
  •  announcements of technical innovations or new products by us or our competitors;
 
  •  developments or disputes concerning our patents or other proprietary rights;
 
  •  our ability to manufacture and supply our products to commercial standards;
 
  •  significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by us or our competitors;
 
  •  departures of key personnel; and
 
  •  investors’ general perception of our company, our products, the economy and general market conditions.
 
The stock markets in general have experienced substantial volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of individual companies. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, stockholders have often instituted class action securities litigation against those companies. Such litigation, if instituted, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management attention and resources, which could significantly harm our profitability and reputation.
 
Anti-takeover provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us more difficult and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.
 
Provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws may delay or prevent an acquisition of us. In addition, these provisions may frustrate or prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove members of our board of directors. Because our board of directors is responsible for


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appointing the members of our management team, these provisions could in turn affect any attempt by our stockholders to replace current members of our management team. These provisions include:
 
  •  a prohibition on actions by our stockholders by written consent;
 
  •  the ability of our board of directors to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval, which could be used to institute a “poison pill” that would work to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer, effectively preventing acquisitions that have not been approved by our board of directors;
 
  •  advance notice requirements for nominations of directors or stockholder proposals; and
 
  •  the requirement that board vacancies be filled by a majority of our directors then in office.
 
In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a person who owns in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person acquired in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock, unless the merger or combination is approved in a prescribed manner. These provisions would apply even if the offer may be considered beneficial by some stockholders.
 
If there are substantial sales of our common stock in the market by our large existing stockholders, our stock price could decline.
 
If our existing stockholders sell a large number of shares of our common stock or the public market perceives that existing stockholders might sell a large number of shares of common stock, the market price of our common stock could decline significantly. We have 53,718,213 shares of common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2010. Except where sales are made pursuant to an effective registration statement, shares held by our affiliates may only be sold in compliance with the volume limitations of Rule 144. These volume limitations restrict the number of shares that may be sold by an affiliate in any three-month period to the greater of 1% of the number of shares then outstanding, which approximates 537,182 shares, or the average weekly trading volume of our common stock during the four calendar weeks preceding the filing of a notice on Form 144 with respect to the sale. With the higher trading volumes we have recently observed in our stock, the number of shares that can be sold by our affiliates pursuant to Rule 144 is significantly above the 1% of shares outstanding limitation of Rule 144 as of the time of the filing of this report.
 
At December 31, 2010, subject to certain conditions, holders of an aggregate of approximately 9 million shares of our common stock have rights with respect to the registration of these shares of common stock with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. If we register their shares of common stock, they can more easily sell those shares in the public market.
 
As of December 31, 2010, 6,874,978 shares of common stock are authorized for issuance under our stock incentive plan, employee stock purchase plan and outstanding stock options. As of December 31, 2010, 6,222,962 shares were subject to outstanding options, of which 3,709,004 were exercisable and can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to the restrictions imposed on our affiliates under Rule 144.
 
We have filed a resale registration statement covering both shares of our common stock that we sold in a May 2008 private placement and shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of a warrant held by DaVita. If the holders of these shares or shares issued pursuant to the terms of the warrant are unable to sell these shares under the respective registration statements, we may be obligated to pay them damages, which could harm our financial condition. Further, these resale registration statements could result in downward pressure on the price of our common stock and may affect the ability of our stockholders to realize the current trading price of our common stock.
 
In 2008, we sold an aggregate of 9,555,556 shares of our common stock and warrants to purchase an additional 1,911,111 shares of our common stock in a private placement. We were required to register the common stock and the common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we did on August 8, 2008. If the holders of the shares or the accompanying warrant shares are unable to sell such shares or warrant shares under the registration statement for more than 30 days


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in any 365 day period after the effectiveness of the registration statement, we may be obligated to pay damages equal to up to 1% of the share purchase price per month that the registration statement is not effective and the investors are unable to sell their shares.
 
On July 22, 2010, we issued to DaVita a warrant which, subject to the achievement of certain System One growth targets, may be exercisable for up to a cumulative total of 5,500,000 shares of our common stock. In connection with issuance of this warrant we entered into a registration rights agreement with DaVita, pursuant to which (subject to certain conditions) we have agreed to file, on or prior to April 1, 2011, a registration statement on Form S-3 with respect to the resale by DaVita of any shares of our common stock issued to DaVita under the warrant. We registered the shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of the warrant on February 16, 2011 on our automatic shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (No. 333-170654) filed on November 17, 2010.
 
Investors should be aware that the current or future market price of their shares of our common stock could be negatively impacted by the sale or perceived sale of all or a significant number of these shares that are available for sale pursuant to these registration statements or that will be available for sale in the future.
 
Our outstanding warrants, and the provisions of our Term Loan with Asahi, may result in substantial dilution to our stockholders.
 
Warrants held by DaVita and certain investors in our 2008 private placement could result in the issuance of up to 7,052,155 additional shares of common stock. In addition, in the event our Term Loan with Asahi reaches maturity, Asahi may require that all of the principal and interest on the Term Loan that is unpaid as of the maturity date be converted into shares of our common stock, with the number of shares to be determined based upon the average closing stock price of our common stock during the thirty business days preceding the maturity date. The issuance and sale of any of these shares could result in substantial dilution to our stockholders in the form of immediate and substantial dilution in net tangible book value per share.
 
Our executive officers, directors and current and principal stockholders own a large percentage of our voting common stock and could limit new stockholders’ influence on corporate decisions or could delay or prevent a change in corporate control.
 
Our directors, executive officers and current holders of more than 5% of our outstanding common stock, together with their affiliates and related persons, beneficially hold, in the aggregate, approximately 35% of our outstanding common stock. David S. Utterberg holds approximately 10% and Credit Suisse holds approximately 6% of our outstanding common stock. Although these numbers are lower than they have been historically, due to certain recent selling by larger affiliated stockholders, these stockholders, if acting together, may nevertheless still have the ability to determine the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election and removal of directors and any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets and other extraordinary transactions. The interests of this group of stockholders may not always coincide with our corporate interests or the interests of other stockholders, and they may act in a manner with which you may not agree or that may not be in the best interests of other stockholders. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of:
 
  •  delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company;
 
  •  entrenching our management and/or Board;
 
  •  impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving our company; or
 
  •  discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.
 
We may grow through additional acquisitions, which could dilute our existing shareholders and could involve substantial integration risks.
 
As part of our business strategy, we may acquire other businesses and/or technologies in the future. We may issue equity securities as consideration for future acquisitions that would dilute our existing stockholders, perhaps significantly depending on the terms of the acquisition. We may also incur additional debt in


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connection with future acquisitions, which, if available at all, may place additional restrictions on our ability to operate our business. Acquisitions may involve a number of risks, including:
 
  •  difficulty in transitioning and integrating the operations and personnel of the acquired businesses, including different and complex accounting and financial reporting systems;
 
  •  potential disruption of our ongoing business and distraction of management;
 
  •  potential difficulty in successfully implementing, upgrading and deploying in a timely and effective manner new operational information systems and upgrades of our finance, accounting and product distribution systems;
 
  •  difficulty in incorporating acquired technology and rights into our products and technology;
 
  •  unanticipated expenses and delays in completing acquired development projects and technology integration;
 
  •  management of geographically remote units both in the United States and internationally;
 
  •  impairment of relationships with partners and customers;
 
  •  customers delaying purchases of our products pending resolution of product integration between our existing and our newly acquired products;
 
  •  entering markets or types of businesses in which we have limited experience;
 
  •  potential loss of key employees of the acquired company; and
 
  •  inaccurate assumptions of the acquired company’s product quality and/or product reliability.
 
As a result of these and other risks, we may not realize anticipated benefits from our acquisitions. Any failure to achieve these benefits or failure to successfully integrate acquired businesses and technologies could seriously harm our business.
 
Item 1B.   Unresolved Staff Comments
 
Not Applicable.
 
Item 2.   Properties
 
We are headquartered in Lawrence, Massachusetts, where we lease approximately 52,000 square feet under a lease expiring in 2012 used for research and development, general and administrative support functions, customer service and IT support services. We have manufacturing facilities consisting of an 118,000 square foot facility in Tijuana, Mexico with a lease expiring in October 2011 and a 36,300 square foot facility in Modena, Italy with a lease expiring in 2012. These facilities support both our In-Center and System One Segments. We also have a 35,000 square foot facility through our relationship with Entrada with a lease expiring in 2012 where our System One equipment is serviced and repaired, and a 12,369 square foot facility in Rosdorf, Germany with a term expiring in December 2011, where our filters for the System One segment are manufactured. We believe that our existing facilities are adequate for our current needs and that suitable additional or alternative space will be available at such time as it becomes needed on commercially reasonable terms.
 
Item 3.   Legal Proceedings
 
From time to time we may be a party to various legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not currently subject to any material legal proceedings.


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Item 4.   [Removed and Reserved]
 
 
Item 5.   Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Market Information
 
Our common stock has been quoted on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “NXTM” since January 3, 2010 and prior to that was quoted on the NASDAQ Global Market since July 1, 2006 and the NASDAQ National Market since October 27, 2005. Prior to that time, there was no public market for our stock. The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low closing sale prices of our common stock.
 
                 
    High     Low  
 
2010
               
First Quarter
  $ 11.45     $ 7.69  
Second Quarter
  $ 15.50     $ 10.96  
Third Quarter
  $ 19.40     $ 13.59  
Fourth Quarter
  $ 24.88     $ 19.35  
2009
               
First Quarter
  $ 3.98     $ 2.11  
Second Quarter
  $ 5.90     $ 1.93  
Third Quarter
  $ 7.04     $ 4.64  
Fourth Quarter
  $ 8.43     $ 5.39  
 
Holders
 
On February 9, 2011, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $21.81 per share. As of February 9, 2011, there were approximately 76 holders of record of our common stock and approximately 2,500 beneficial holders of our common stock.
 
Dividends
 
We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our common stock. We anticipate that we will retain our earnings for future growth and therefore do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the future. Our loan agreements with Asahi and SVB restrict our ability to pay dividends.
 
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
During 2010, we received 288,992 shares of our common stock that were surrendered by employees in payment for the minimum required withholding taxes associated with awards under our 2009 Corporate Bonus and Performance Share Plans and 36,112 shares that were surrendered in payment for the exercise of stock options. See Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2010 included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
 
Comparative Stock Performance Graph
 
The following performance graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
 
The comparative stock performance graph below compares the cumulative stockholder return on our common stock for the period from December 31, 2005 through December 31, 2010 with the cumulative total return on (i) the Total Return Index for the NASDAQ Stock Market (U.S. Companies), which we refer to as


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the NASDAQ Composite Index, and (ii) the NASDAQ Medical Equipment Index. This graph assumes the investment of $100 on December 31, 2005 in our common stock, the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Medical Equipment Index and assumes all dividends are reinvested. Measurement points are the last trading days of the three month period ended March 31, June 30, September 30, and December 31, during 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007 and 2006.
 
COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among NxStage Medical, Inc, The NASDAQ Composite Index
And The NASDAQ Medical Equipment Index
 
(PERFORMANCE GRAPH)
 
* $100 invested on 12/31/05 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
Fiscal year ending December 31.


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Item 6.   Selected Financial Data
 
SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
 
The following selected consolidated financial data should be read together with the information under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the notes to those consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The selected statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 and balance sheet data as of December 31, 2010 and 2009 set forth below have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2007 and 2006 and balance sheet data as of December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006 set forth below have been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements for such years not included in this Annual Report.
 
                                         
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008     2007     2006  
    (In thousands, except per share data)  
 
Statement of Operations Data:
                                       
Revenues
  $ 179,218     $ 148,676     $ 128,763     $ 59,964     $ 20,812  
Cost of revenues
    121,091       111,812       108,387       65,967       26,121  
                                         
Gross profit (deficit)
    58,127       36,864       20,376       (6,003 )     (5,309 )
                                         
Operating expenses:
                                       
Selling and marketing
    34,166       30,047       27,965       21,589       14,356  
Research and development
    12,900       9,814       8,890       6,335       6,431  
Distribution
    14,751       13,918       14,267       13,111       7,093  
General and administrative
    22,774       19,532       19,239       13,046       8,703  
                                         
Total operating expenses
    84,591       73,311       70,361       54,081       36,583  
                                         
Loss from operations
    (26,464 )     (36,447 )     (49,985 )     (60,084 )     (41,892 )
Other (expense) income, net
    (4,480 )     (6,755 )     (852 )     1,750       2,262  
                                         
Net loss before income taxes
    (30,944 )     (43,202 )     (50,837 )     (58,334 )     (39,630 )
Provision for income taxes
    768       265       374       62        
                                         
Net loss
  $ (31,712 )   $ (43,467 )   $ (51,211 )   $ (58,396 )   $ (39,630 )
                                         
Net loss per share, basic and diluted
  $ (0.66 )   $ (0.93 )   $ (1.23 )   $ (1.86 )   $ (1.60 )
                                         
Weighted-average shares outstanding, basic and
                                       
diluted
    48,188       46,627       41,803       31,426       24,817  
                                         
 
                                         
    December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008     2007     2006  
    (In thousands)  
 
Balance Sheet Data:
                                       
Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments
  $ 104,339     $ 21,720     $ 26,642     $ 34,345     $ 61,802  
Working capital
    119,089       36,037       34,362       40,655       64,716  
Total assets
    286,094       196,978       212,066       210,386       101,725  
Long-term liabilities
    97,574       78,267       52,580       46,134       5,495  
Accumulated deficit
    (308,426 )     (276,714 )     (233,247 )     (182,036 )     (123,640 )
Total stockholders’ equity(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
    152,129       89,446       122,447       129,717       83,409  
 
 
(1) In November 2010, we issued and sold 3.7 million shares of common stock pursuant to an underwriting agreement with Canaccord Genuity. Net proceeds from the sale were $73.4 million.


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(2) In May 2008, we issued and sold 5.6 million unregistered shares of common stock and warrants to purchase 1.1 million shares of our common stock. In August 2008, we issued and sold an additional 4.0 million share of common stock and warrants to purchase 0.8 million shares of our common stock. The aggregate net proceeds of both sales was $42.3 million.
 
(3) On October 1, 2007, we issued 6.5 million shares of common stock at $12.50 per share in connection with the Medisystems Acquisition.
 
(4) On February 7, 2007, we issued and sold to DaVita 2.0 million shares of common stock at a purchase price of $10.00 per share, for net proceeds of $19.9 million.
 
(5) We closed our follow-on public offering on June 14, 2006, which resulted in the issuance of 6.3 million shares of common stock at $8.75 per share. Net proceeds from the offering were $51.3 million.
 
Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation
 
Overview
 
We report the results of our operations in two segments: the System One segment and the In-Center segment. We distribute our products in three markets: home, critical care and in-center. Within the System One segment, we offer a similar technology platform of the System One for the home and critical care markets with different features. We offer primarily needles and blood tubing sets in the In-Center segment. Our products are predominantly used by our customers to treat patients suffering from ESRD or acute kidney failure. We have marketing and sales efforts dedicated to each market, although nearly all sales in the In-Center segment are made through distributors.
 
During 2010, we grew our revenues by 21% from $148.7 million during 2009 to $179.2 million during 2010, with growth occurring in each market: home, critical care and in-center. In the home market, revenues increased $22.3 million, or 35%, during 2010 compared to 2009, with the significant majority resulting from an increase in the number of patients prescribed to use and centers offering the System One. During 2010, we increased both the average number of patients at existing centers and the number of total centers offering the System One, through new and existing relationships with service providers, including DaVita and Fresenius. Critical care market revenues increased $5.8 million, or 26%, during 2010 compared to 2009, primarily due to increased sales of the System One resulting from our efforts to increase our market share and increased sales of disposables from our growing installed base of System One equipment. In 2011, we expect to see continued growth in our revenues, primarily driven by the System One segment due to the annuity nature of our business, as well as the life-sustaining, non-elective nature of dialysis therapy. Our two largest customers in the home market, DaVita and Fresenius, will be important to that growth. If the purchasing patterns of either of these customers adversely change, our business will be adversely affected, at least in the near term. In-center revenues increased $2.5 million, or 4%, during 2010 compared to 2009. The increase was driven by increased sales of our needle products. We expect future demand will continue to be susceptible to fluctuation as a result of increased competition and variations in inventory management policies with both our distributors and end users.
 
We continue to see improvements in our financial performance below the revenue line. We have not yet achieved profitable operating margins, but we continue to improve gross margins and cash flows from operating activities. We have consistently improved gross margin on a quarterly and annual basis from 16% during 2008 to 25% during 2009 to 32% during 2010. The improvements in gross margin were primarily driven by lower overall costs of revenues resulting from improvements in product design and reliability, leveraging our manufacturing infrastructure, transition of manufacturing and equipment service to lower cost labor markets and pricing strategies. During 2010, cash flows from operating activities were positive due to improvements in net loss versus 2009 and a $4.3 million one-time customer prepayment on first quarter 2011 orders. While we expect to see continued improvements to our cash flows from operating activities, driven in meaningful part through continued improvement in our gross profits, in the near term, we expect cash flows from operating activities on a quarterly basis to fluctuate between negative and positive, primarily due to changes in working capital. We are encouraged by the improvements to our operating margins and are continuing to work hard toward our long-term goal of achieving profitable operating margins. However, there


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can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to improve our operating margins or achieve positive operating margins. Our ability to become profitable and, its timing and sustainability, depend principally upon continued improvements in gross margins, growing revenues, and leverage of our operating infrastructure including any investment in selling and marketing or research and development activities.
 
Statement of Operations Components
 
Revenues
 
In the System One segment we derive our revenues from the sale and rental of equipment and the sale of disposable products in the home and critical care markets. In the home market, customers purchase or rent the System One equipment, including cycler and PureFlow SL, and then purchase the related disposable products based on a specific patient prescription. In the critical care market, we sell or rent the System One and related disposables to hospital customers. In the In-Center segment, we derive our revenues from the sale of needles and blood tubing sets. Nearly all of our sales in the In-Center segment are through supply and distribution contracts with distributors.
 
In the home market the majority of our revenue is derived from recurring sales of disposable products. For customers that purchase the System One, we recognize revenue from the equipment sale ratably over the expected service obligation period. For customers that rent the System One, we recognize revenue on a monthly basis. We recognize revenues related to the disposable products upon delivery. Over time, as more home patients are treated with the System One and more systems are placed in patient homes, we expect to derive a growing recurring revenue stream from the sale of related disposables.
 
Our contracts with dialysis centers in the home market for ESRD home dialysis patients generally include terms providing for the sale of disposable products to accommodate up to the number of prescribed treatments per month per patient and the purchase or monthly rental of System One cyclers and, in most instances, our PureFlow SL hardware. These contracts typically have a term of one to seven years, and may be renewed on a month-to-month basis thereafter, subject to a 30-day termination notice. Under these contracts, if home hemodialysis is prescribed, supplies are shipped directly to patient homes and paid for by the treating dialysis center. We also include vacation delivery terms, providing for the shipment of products to a designated vacation destination for a specified number of vacation days. We derive a small amount of revenues from the sale of supplementary products and services such as ancillaries, reserve inventory and special deliveries.
 
In the critical care market we recognize revenues from direct product sales at the time of shipment or, if applicable, delivery in accordance with contract terms. Our contracts with hospitals generally include terms providing for the sale of our System One hardware and disposables, although we also provide a hardware rental option. These contracts typically have a term of one year. We derive a small amount of revenues from the sale of one-and two-year service contracts following the expiration of our standard one-year warranty period for System One hardware. To further support service in the critical care market, we have a bio-medical training program, whereby we train bio-medical engineers on how to service and repair certain aspects of the System One in the critical care setting. Bio-medical training is typically provided under a two-year contract following the expiration of our standard one-year warranty period for System One hardware. As more System One equipment is placed within hospitals, we expect to derive a growing recurring revenue stream from the sale of disposable cartridges and fluids as well as, to a much lesser degree, from the sale of service and bio-medical training contracts.
 
In the In-Center segment, nearly all sales to end users are structured through supply and distribution contracts with several significant distributors. These contracts typically contain minimum volume commitments with negotiated pricing triggers at different volume tiers. Each agreement may be cancelled upon a material breach, subject to certain cure rights, and in many instances minimum volume commitments can be reduced or eliminated upon certain events.
 
In addition to contractually determined volume discounts, we offer certain customers rebates based on sales to specific end users and discounts for early payment. Our revenues are presented net of these rebates and discounts. As of December 31, 2010, we had $1.4 million and $0.5 million reserved against trade accounts


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receivable for future rebates and discounts for customers in our In-Center and System One segments, respectively. We recorded $5.5 million, $8.6 million and $7.3 million during 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively, as a reduction of In-Center segment revenues and $2.3 million, $1.2 million and $0.7 million during 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively, as a reduction of System One segment revenues in connection with rebates and discounts.
 
Currently nearly all of our revenues have been generated from sales to customers in the U.S. However, in 2009 we began selling our System One and certain of our other products internationally through distributors. For sales to our international distributors, we recognize revenues from the equipment sale ratably over the expected term of our remaining obligation, which is typically five years. We recognize revenues related to the disposable products upon delivery. However, effective January 1, 2011, we adopted two new Accounting Standard Updates, or ASUs, which will affect revenue recognition for sales to our international distributors within the System One segment. Under the new ASUs, for international sales beginning January 1, 2011, we will recognize revenues from equipment sales to international distributors at the time of shipment or, if applicable, delivery in accordance with contract terms. We will adopt the new ASUs prospectively and therefore, equipment shipped prior to January 1, 2011 will continue to be recognized as revenues ratably.
 
Cost of Revenues
 
Cost of revenues consists primarily of direct product costs, material and labor required to manufacture our products, service of System One equipment that we sell or rent to customers and manufacturing overhead. It also includes the cost of inspecting, servicing and repairing System One equipment prior to sale or during the warranty period and stock-based compensation for certain personnel. The cost of our products depends on several factors, including the efficiency of our manufacturing operations, the cost at which we can obtain labor and products from third-party suppliers, product reliability and related servicing costs and the design of our products.
 
Operating Expenses
 
Selling and Marketing.  Selling and marketing expenses consist primarily of salary, benefits and stock-based compensation for sales and marketing personnel, travel, promotional and marketing materials and other expenses associated with providing clinical training to our customers. Included in selling and marketing are the costs of clinical educators, usually nurses, we employ to teach our customers about our products and prepare our customers to instruct their patients and their partners in the operation of our products and customer service and technical support personnel.
 
Research and Development.  Research and development expenses consist primarily of salary, benefits and stock-based compensation for research and development personnel, supplies, materials and expenses associated with product design and development, clinical studies, regulatory submissions, reporting and compliance and expenses incurred for outside consultants or firms who furnish services related to these activities.
 
Distribution.  Distribution expenses include the freight costs of delivering our products to our customers or our customers’ patients, depending on the market and the specific agreements with our customers, salary, benefits and stock-based compensation for distribution personnel and the cost of any equipment lost or damaged in the distribution process. We use common carriers and freight companies to deliver our products and do not operate our own delivery service. Also included in this category are the expenses of shipping products under warranty from customers back to our service center for repair and the related expense of shipping a replacement product to our customers or their patients.
 
General and Administrative.  General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salary, benefits and stock-based compensation for our executive management, legal and finance and accounting staff, fees of outside legal counsel, fees for our annual audit and tax services, and general expenses to operate the business, including insurance and other corporate-related expenses.


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Results of Operations
 
The following table presents, for the periods indicated, information expressed as a percentage of revenues. This information has been derived from our consolidated statements of operations included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. You should not draw any conclusions about our future results from the results of operations for any period.
 
                         
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
 
Revenues
    100 %     100 %     100 %
Cost of revenues
    68 %     75 %     84 %
                         
Gross profit
    32 %     25 %     16 %
                         
Operating expenses:
                       
Selling and marketing
    19 %     20 %     22 %
Research and development
    7 %     7 %     7 %
Distribution
    8 %     9 %     11 %
General and administrative
    13 %     13 %     15 %
                         
Total operating expenses
    47 %     49 %     55 %
                         
Loss from operations
    (15 )%     (24 )%     (39 )%
                         
Other expense:
                       
Interest income
    0 %     0 %     0 %
Interest expense
    (3 )%     (5 )%     (3 )%
Other income (expense), net
    0 %     0 %     0 %
Change in fair value of financial instruments
    0 %     0 %     2 %
                         
      (3 )%     (5 )%     (1 )%
                         
Provision for income taxes
    0 %     0 %     0 %
                         
Net loss
    (18 )%     (29 )%     (40 )%
                         
 
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2010 and 2009
 
Revenues
 
Our revenues for 2010 and 2009 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
 
                                 
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009  
 
System One segment
                               
Home
  $ 85,762       48 %   $ 63,461       43 %
Critical Care
    28,093       16 %     22,340       15 %
                                 
Total System One segment
    113,855       64 %     85,801       58 %
In-Center segment
    65,363       36 %     62,875       42 %
                                 
Total
  $ 179,218       100 %   $ 148,676       100 %
                                 
 
The increase in revenues was mainly attributable to increased sales and rentals of the System One and related disposables in both the home and critical care markets, primarily as a result of the growing number of patients using the System One as we continue to penetrate these markets.
 
In the home market, revenues increased $22.3 million, or 35%, during 2010 compared to 2009, with the significant majority resulting from an increase in the number of patients prescribed to use and centers offering


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the System One. During 2010, we increased both the average number of patients at existing centers and the number of total centers offering the System One, through new and existing relationships with service providers, including DaVita and Fresenius. Critical care market revenues increased $5.8 million, or 26%, during 2010 compared to 2009, primarily due to increased sales of the System One resulting from our efforts to further penetrate the market and increased sales of disposables from our growing number of System One equipment placed within hospitals. Growth in the critical care market in 2010 also benefitted from slightly improved economic conditions compared to 2009. Future demand for our products in both the home and critical care markets is expected to remain strong due to the life-sustaining, non-elective nature of dialysis therapy. As we further penetrate these markets and as we expand internationally, we expect revenues in the home and critical care markets to continue to increase.
 
In-Center segment revenues increased $2.5 million, or 4%, during 2010 compared to 2009. The increase in revenues was due to increased sales of our needles. We expect future demand will continue to be susceptible to fluctuation as a result of increased competition and variations in inventory management policies with both our distributors and end users.
 
Gross Profit
 
Our gross profit and gross profit as a percentage of revenues for 2010 and 2009 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
 
                                 
    Years Ended  
    December 31,
    %
    December 31,
    %
 
    2010     Revenues     2009     Revenues  
 
System One segment
  $ 42,620       37 %   $ 21,263       25 %
In-Center segment
    15,507       24 %     15,601       25 %
                                 
Gross Profit
  $ 58,127       32 %   $ 36,864       25 %
                                 
 
The increase in gross profit was a result of increased revenues and improvement in gross profit as a percentage of revenues. The improvement in gross profit as a percentage of revenues was attributable to improvements in the System One segment, specifically, lower costs resulting from certain costs saving initiatives and improvements in product design, decreased equipment service costs per unit resulting from improved product reliability, lower overall cost of manufacturing as we continue to realize the benefits of leveraging our manufacturing infrastructure, increased relative sales of higher margin products and certain pricing strategies.
 
Gross profit for the In-Center segment decreased slightly in absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenues during 2010 compared to 2009, due to costs incurred related to manufacturing process improvements to support future growth.
 
We expect gross profit as a percentage of revenues will continue to improve over time for three general reasons, all of which we expect will reduce costs in the future. First, we expect to introduce additional process improvements and product design changes that have inherently lower cost than our current products. Second, we anticipate that increased sales volume and realization of economies of scale will lead to better purchasing terms and prices and efficiencies in manufacturing and supply chain overhead costs. Finally, we expect to continue to improve product reliability, which would reduce unit service costs. Additionally, given the longevity of certain of our System One field equipment assets, in the fourth quarter of 2010 we changed the estimated useful life of these assets from five to seven years which will result in lower field equipment depreciation costs in the near term. However, there is no certainty that our expectations will be achieved with respect to these cost reduction plans.


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Selling and Marketing
 
Our selling and marketing expenses for 2010 and 2009 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
 
                                 
    Years Ended              
    December 31,
    December 31,
          Percentage
 
    2010     2009     Change     Change  
 
System One segment
  $ 29,377     $ 26,144     $ 3,233       12 %
In-Center segment
    4,789       3,903       886       23 %
                                 
Total Selling and marketing
  $ 34,166     $ 30,047     $ 4,119       14 %
                                 
 
The increase in selling and marketing expense was primarily the result of increased personnel and personnel-related costs, primarily non-cash stock-based compensation expenses, and increased spending due to expanded marketing programs. We anticipate that selling and marketing expenses will continue to increase in absolute dollars but continue to decline as a percentage of revenues as we broaden our marketing initiatives to increase public awareness of the System One in the home market and to support growth in international markets.
 
Research and Development
 
Our research and development expenses for 2010 and 2009 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
 
                                 
    Years Ended              
    December 31,
    December 31,
          Percentage
 
    2010     2009     Change     Change  
 
Research and development
  $ 12,900     $ 9,814     $ 3,086       31 %
                                 
 
Research and development expenses increased in absolute dollars but remained consistent as a percentage of revenues at 7% for both 2010 and 2009. The increase in research and development expenses was primarily due to increased personnel and personnel-related costs, primarily non-cash stock-based compensation expense and increased project related spending. This increase was partially offset by a decrease in clinical trials expenses primarily related to our nocturnal IDE as we completed the study in February 2010. For the near term, we expect research and development expenses will increase in absolute dollars but remain relatively constant as a percentage of revenues as we seek to further enhance and improve the reliability of our System One and related products and as we continue with our FREEDOM study, which is designed to quantify the clinical benefits and costs of daily home therapy administered to Medicare patients using the System One versus conventional thrice-weekly dialysis.
 
Distribution
 
Our distribution expenses for 2010 and 2009 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
 
                                 
    Years Ended              
    December 31,
    December 31,
          Percentage
 
    2010     2009     Change     Change  
 
System One segment
  $ 12,960     $ 12,564     $ 396       3 %
In-Center segment
    1,791       1,354       437       32 %
                                 
Total Distribution
  $ 14,751     $ 13,918     $ 833       6 %
                                 
 
Distribution expenses decreased as a percentage of revenues to 8% for 2010 versus 9% for 2009. Distribution expenses for the System One segment decreased as a percentage of revenues to 11% for 2010 versus 15% for 2009, due primarily to efficiencies gained from economies of scale resulting from increased business volume, improved product reliability of our System One and PureFlow SL hardware and better pricing obtained from carriers. Distribution expenses as a percentage of revenues for the In-Center segment


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increased slightly to 3% for 2010 versus 2% for 2009, due primarily to increased delivery costs for certain products shipped from our international manufacturing locations to our customers. We expect that distribution expenses in absolute dollars will fluctuate modestly from period to period driven in large part by changes in fuel prices but, overall, we expect distribution expenses will increase at a lower rate than revenues due to expected efficiencies gained from increased business volume and improved reliability of System One equipment.
 
General and Administrative
 
Our general and administrative expenses for 2010 and 2009 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
 
                                 
    Years Ended              
    December 31,
    December 31,
          Percentage
 
    2010     2009     Change     Change  
 
General and administrative
  $ 22,774     $ 19,532     $ 3,242       17 %
                                 
 
General and administrative expenses increased in absolute dollars but remained consistent as a percentage of revenues at 13% for both 2010 and 2009. The increase in general and administrative expenses was primarily the result of increased personnel and personnel-related costs, primarily non-cash stock-based compensation expenses. These increases were offset by lower spending on corporate support functions, including consulting and other professional services, due to our continued initiatives to control costs. We expect that general and administrative expenses will decrease as a percentage of revenues over time as we continue to leverage our existing infrastructure.
 
Other Income and Expense
 
Interest income is derived primarily from investments in money market funds. The decrease in interest income is due to lower interest rates on investments.
 
Interest expense decreased $1.9 million during 2010 compared to 2009, due primarily to prepayment and other transaction fees of $2.0 million incurred during 2009 to pay off the entire debt obligation owed under our credit and security agreement with General Electric Capital Corporation, or GE.
 
The change in other expense during both periods is derived primarily by foreign currency gains and losses.
 
Provision for Foreign Income Taxes
 
The provision for income taxes of $0.8 million in 2010 and $0.3 million in 2009 relates primarily to the profitable operations of certain of our foreign entities.
 
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2009 and 2008
 
Revenues
 
Our revenues for 2009 and 2008 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
 
                                 
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2009     2008  
 
System One segment
                               
Home
  $ 63,461       43 %   $ 48,319       38 %
Critical Care
    22,340       15 %     18,554       14 %
                                 
Total System One segment
    85,801       58 %     66,873       52 %
In-Center segment
    62,875       42 %     61,890       48 %
                                 
Total
  $ 148,676       100 %   $ 128,763       100 %
                                 


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The increase in revenues was attributable to increased sales and rentals of the System One and related disposables in both the home and critical care markets, primarily as a result of the growing number of patients using the System One as we continue to penetrate the market place, and an increase in sales of blood tubing sets in our In-Center segment.
 
In the home market, revenues increased $15.1 million, or 31%, in 2009 compared to 2008 as a result of an increase in the number of patients prescribed to use and centers offering the System One. During 2009 we increased the average number of patients at existing centers and the number of total centers offering the System One. Critical care market revenues increased $3.8 million, or 20%, in 2009 compared to 2008, primarily as a result of sales of additional System One units, the growth of our installed base of units and the associated sales of disposables due to our efforts to continue to penetrate the market. In-Center segment revenues increased $1.0 million, or 2%, in 2009 compared to 2008. The increase in revenues was due to higher sales volumes of our blood tubing sets, including Streamline, our newest blood tubing set.
 
Gross Profit
 
Our gross profit and gross profit as a percentage of revenues for 2009 and 2008 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
 
                                 
    Years Ended  
    December 31,
    %
    December 31,
    %
 
    2009     Revenues     2008     Revenues  
 
System One segment
  $ 21,263       25 %   $ 8,960       13 %
In-Center segment
    15,601       25 %     11,416       18 %
                                 
Gross Profit
  $ 36,864       25 %   $ 20,376       16 %
                                 
 
The increase in gross profit was a result of increased revenues and improvement in gross profit as a percentage of revenues. The improvement in gross profit as a percentage of revenues was primarily attributable to the System One segment, specifically, lower costs resulting from improvements in reliability and equipment utilization and lower overall costs of manufacturing as we continue to realize the benefits of leveraging our manufacturing infrastructure, certain cost saving initiatives such as the transition of manufacturing and equipment service to lower cost labor markets, and improvements in product design and reliability. Gross profit as a percentage of revenues for the In-Center segment increased during 2010 compared to 2009, due to lower manufacturing costs resulting from the benefits of certain manufacturing process improvements and product design improvements.
 
Selling and Marketing
 
Our selling and marketing expenses for 2009 and 2008 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
 
                                 
    December 31,
    December 31,
          Percentage
 
    2009     2008     Change     Change  
 
System One segment
  $ 26,144     $ 24,491     $ 1,653       7 %
In-Center segment
    3,903       3,474       429       12 %
                                 
Total Selling and marketing
  $ 30,047     $ 27,965     $ 2,082       7 %
                                 
 
The increase in selling and marketing expenses was primarily the result of increased personnel and personnel-related costs, including non-cash stock-based compensation expense due to expanded sales and marketing and customer service functions.


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Research and Development
 
Our research and development expenses for 2009 and 2008 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
 
                                 
    Years Ended              
    December 31,
    December 31,
          Percentage
 
    2009     2008     Change     Change  
 
Research and development
  $ 9,814     $ 8,890     $ 924       10 %
                                 
 
The increase in research and development expenses was primarily a result of increased personnel and personnel-related costs, including non-cash stock-based compensation expense, due to increased headcount. Additionally, expenses for clinical trials have increased due to increased patient enrollment in our nocturnal IDE and FREEDOM studies.
 
Distribution
 
Our distribution expenses for 2009 and 2008 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
 
                                 
    Years Ended              
    December 31,
    December 31,
          Percentage
 
    2009     2008     Change     Change  
 
System One segment
  $ 12,564     $ 12,631     $ ( 67 )     (1 )%
In-Center segment
    1,354       1,636       (282 )     (17 )%
                                 
Total Distribution
  $ 13,918     $ 14,267     $ (349 )     (2 )%
                                 
 
The decrease in distribution expenses was primarily a result of better pricing obtained from carriers and shipping efficiencies. Distribution expenses for the System One segment remained relatively consistent year over year but decreased as a percentage of revenues from 19% during 2008 to 15% during 2009, due primarily to better pricing obtained from carriers, shipping efficiencies and improved reliability of our System One and PureFlow SL hardware. Distribution expenses for the In-center segment decreased due to shipping efficiencies.
 
General and Administrative
 
Our general and administrative expenses for 2009 and 2008 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
 
                                 
    Years Ended              
    December 31,
    December 31,
          Percentage
 
    2009     2008     Change     Change  
 
General and administrative
  $ 19,532     $ 19,239     $ 293       2 %
                                 
 
General and administrative expenses increased year over year but decreased as a percentage of revenue from 15% during 2008 to 13% during 2009 due to our continued initiative to leverage our overhead structure. The increase in general and administrative expenses was primarily a result of increased personnel and personnel related costs, including non-cash stock-based compensation expense, offset by a decreases in external services expense resulting from cost savings measures.
 
Other Income and Expense
 
Interest income decreased $0.5 million in 2009 compared to 2008 due to lower interest rates on investments. Interest income is derived primarily from investments in money market funds.
 
Interest expense increased $2.9 million in 2009 compared to 2008 due primarily to prepayment and other transaction fees of $2.0 million incurred during 2009 to pay off the entire debt obligation owed under our credit and security agreement with GE and an increase in outstanding borrowings.


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The change in other expense during both periods is derived primarily by foreign currency gains and losses.
 
The change in fair value of the warrants issued on May 22, 2008 and August 1, 2008 in connection with the private placement resulted in the recognition of a $3.2 million gain and the change in fair value of the obligation entered into on May 22, 2008 in connection with the second tranche resulted in the recognition of a $0.7 million loss during 2008. The obligation relating to the second tranche was settled on August 1, 2008 and the fair value on settlement of $0.6 million was recorded in equity. The exercise price of the warrants was fixed at $5.50 per share on December 31, 2008 based on the Company’s ability to achieve over 3,100 ESRD patients prescribed to receive therapy using the System One. As a result, beginning January 1, 2009, the warrants were classified in equity and thereafter, no longer result in the recognition of changes in fair value in earnings. See Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2009 included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
 
Provision for Foreign Income Taxes
 
The provision for income taxes of $0.3 million in 2009 and $0.4 million in 2008 relates primarily to the profitable operations of certain of our foreign entities.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
We have operated at a loss since our inception in 1998. As of December 31, 2010, our accumulated deficit was $308.4 million and we had cash and cash equivalents of $104.3 million and working capital of $119.1 million.
 
Our primary ongoing cash requirements will be to fund operating activities, product development and debt service. Our primary sources of liquidity are cash on hand and ongoing revenues. Historically, our business was fairly capital intensive due to the manner in which we placed our System One equipment in the home market. Prior to 2007, the significant majority of our System One placements in the home market were made under a rental model rather than an outright sale. Over the last three years, we have increased the number of System Ones we have sold versus rented, and in 2010, the significant majority of our System One placements in the home market were made under a sale versus rental model. Shifting our customers to an equipment purchase versus rental model allows us to recover the cost of our products upon initial sale rather than over an extended period of time, thereby reducing our working capital requirements. A number of our home market customers, including DaVita, have committed to purchase, rather than rent, the significant majority of their future System One equipment requirements. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to expand or sustain the percentage of our equipment placements that are purchased rather than rented. Other significant factors affecting the management of our ongoing cash requirements are our ability to continue to effectively manage our field equipment assets and working capital and execute upon cost reduction initiatives to lower product cost.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, cash flows from operating activities were positive due to improvements in net loss versus 2009 and a $4.3 million one-time customer prepayment on first quarter 2011 orders. While we continue to make progress in improving our cash flows from operating activities, we expect cash flows from operating activities in the near term to fluctuate between negative and positive on a quarterly basis, primarily due to changes in working capital. There can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to improve cash flows from operating activities or whether we will be able to generate positive cash flows from operating activities in the future. We believe, based on current projections and the current nature of our business, that we have the required resources to fund our ongoing operating requirements. Our ability to and the rate at which we continue to improve cash flows from operating activities will depend on many factors, including growing revenues, continued improvements in gross margins, leverage of our operating infrastructure and continued sale versus rental of a significant percentage of our System One equipment.
 
We materially improved our cash position in 2010 through the completion of the registered sale of 3,680,000 shares of our common stock pursuant to an underwriting agreement with Canaccord Genuity. We received proceeds of $73.4 million, net of related expenses, from this offering. The shares issued in this


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offering were registered under a registration statement on Form S-3, which became effective on November 17, 2010. This registration statement allows for the potential future registered sale by us of various other equity and debt securities, although we have no current plans to make such a future offering.
 
We have two material debt instruments. In May 2009, we entered into a term loan and security agreement with Asahi. The $40.0 million term loan bears interest at a rate of 8% per annum, with fifty percent of such interest being deferred until the maturity date on May 31, 2013. Principal is payable in one balloon payment at maturity. The term loan is secured by substantially all of our assets. In the event the term loan reaches maturity, Asahi may require that all of the principal and interest on the term loan that is unpaid as of the maturity date be converted into shares of our common stock, with the number of shares to be determined based upon the average closing stock price of our common stock during the thirty business days preceding the maturity date, subject to certain conditions. We used $30.0 million of the proceeds to pay off the entire debt obligation, including prepayment and other transaction fees, owed under our prior credit and security agreement with General Electric Capital Corporation.
 
The term loan and security agreement with Asahi includes certain affirmative covenants including timely filings and limitations on contingent debt obligations and sales of assets. At December 31, 2010, we were in compliance with these covenants. The term loan and security agreement also contains customary events of default, including nonpayment, misrepresentation, breach of covenants, material adverse effects, and bankruptcy. In the event we fail to satisfy our covenants, or otherwise go into default, Asahi has a number of remedies, including sale of our assets and acceleration of all outstanding indebtedness, subject to the rights of SVB’s senior security interest. Any of these remedies would likely have a material adverse effect on our business.
 
We have the flexibility under our term loan with Asahi to seek up to $40.0 million in additional debt at market interest rates. In March 2010, we entered into a Loan and Security Agreement with Silicon Valley Bank, or SVB, for a $15.0 million revolving line of credit with a maturity date of April 1, 2012. This Agreement is secured by all or substantially all of our assets. In connection with this Agreement, we amended our term loan and security agreement with Asahi to provide for certain amendments, including granting to Asahi junior liens on certain of our assets for so long as the agreement with SVB remains outstanding. Upon termination of all obligations under that facility, Asahi’s security will revert to a security in all assets other than cash, bank accounts, accounts receivable, field equipment and inventory. Borrowings under the Agreement bear interest at a floating rate per annum equal to two percentage points (2.00%) above the prime rate (initial prime rate of 4.00%). Pursuant to the Agreement, we have agreed to certain financial covenants relating to liquidity requirements and adjusted EBITDA, as defined in the Agreement with SVB. The Agreement contains events of default customary for transactions of this type, including nonpayment, misrepresentation, breach of covenants, material adverse effect and bankruptcy. At December 31, 2010, we were in compliance with the covenants, there were no outstanding borrowings and we had nearly all of the $15.0 million credit commitment available for borrowing under the Agreement.
 
In May 2008, we entered into a $43 million private placement agreement to sell an aggregate of 9.6 million shares of our common stock at a price of $4.50 per share and warrants to purchase 1.9 million shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $5.50 per share. The exercise price of the warrants was fixed at $5.50 per share on December 31, 2008 based on the Company’s ability to achieve over 3,100 ESRD patients prescribed to receive therapy using the System One. The warrants have a term of 5 years and expire on May 28, 2013 and August 1, 2013 for the first and second tranches respectively. The warrants also contain a net share settlement feature that is available to investors in the private placement once the underlying shares are registered. Additional provisions require the Company, in the event of a change of control, to pay promptly to the warrant holder an amount calculated by the Black-Scholes option pricing formula. Such payment is required to be in cash or shares in the same proportion that other stockholders receive in such change of control transaction.
 
We maintain postemployment benefit plans for employees in certain foreign subsidiaries. The plans provide lump sum benefits, payable based on statutory regulations for voluntary or involuntary termination. Where required, we obtain an annual actuarial valuation of the benefit plans. We have recorded a liability of


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$1.5 million as other long-term liabilities at December 31, 2010 for costs associated with these plans. The expense recorded in connection with these plans was not significant during 2010, 2009 and 2008.
 
The following table sets forth the components of our cash flows for the periods indicated (in thousands):
 
                         
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
    (In thousands)  
 
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
  $ 3,111     $ (13,157 )   $ (53,222 )
Net cash used in investing activities
    (1,216 )     (2,065 )     (457 )
Net cash provided by financing activities
    81,163       10,031       47,575  
Foreign exchange effect on cash and cash equivalents
    (439 )     269       (499 )
                         
Net cash flow
  $ 82,619     $ (4,922 )   $ (6,603 )
                         
 
Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Operating Activities.  Net cash provided by operating activities was $3.1 million during 2010, which represents a $16.3 million improvement in cash flows from operating activities from 2009. The improvement during 2010 was attributable to three main factors. First, we improved our net loss after adjustments for non-cash charges as we continue to increase revenue and improve gross margins. Second, net deferred revenues increased $11.8 million during 2010 as a result of the increase in the number of customers who chose to purchase, rather than rent, the System One equipment, which included amortization of deferred revenues totaling $11.5 million during 2010. Currently, the majority of our System One placements in the home market are done under a sales versus rental model. Finally, working capital requirements increased, primarily due to inventory requirements, partially offset by a $4.3 million one-time customer prepayment on first quarter 2011 orders. Net cash used in operating activities decreased $40.1 million during 2009. The decrease in net cash used in operating activities during 2009 was primarily due to a decrease in our net loss after adjustments for non-cash charges as we continue to reduce product costs, and a decrease in inventory purchases for the production and placement of System One and PureFlow SL hardware as a result of reduced costs, improved reliability and improved management of our field equipment assets.
 
Non-cash transfers from inventory to field equipment for the placement of units with our customers increased $10.3 million during 2010, to support the growing number of patients using the System One. Non-cash transfers from inventory to field equipment for the placement of units with our customers decreased $11.5 million during 2009, due to improvements made in managing our field equipment assets, enabling us to continue to add patients without adding additional field equipment.
 
Non-cash transfers from field equipment to deferred costs of revenues increased $13.8 million during 2010 and decreased $5.4 million during 2009. This activity fluctuates based on the number of customers who choose to purchase rather than rent and customer conversions to purchasing from renting our System One equipment.
 
Net Cash Used in Investing Activities.  For each of the periods above, net cash used in investing activities reflected purchases of property and equipment, primarily for manufacturing operations and capital improvements to our facilities, research and development and information technology. During 2008, net cash used in investing activities included $1.1 million of proceeds from short-term investments and decreases in other assets.
 
Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities.  Net cash provided by financing activities increased by $71.1 million during 2010 and decreased by $37.5 million during 2009. Net cash provided by financing activities during 2010 included net proceeds from the sale of our common stock of $73.4 million and $12.4 million of proceeds from stock option and stock purchase plans offset by cash used to repurchase shares of our common stock that were surrendered in payment for minimum required withholding taxes due on issuance of shares of our common stock under our 2009 Bonus Plan and vesting of restricted stock awards under our 2009 Performance Share Plan. Net cash provided by financing activities during 2009 included $40.0 million of borrowings under our term loan with Asahi offset by $0.1 million in fees paid in connection with the Asahi debt issuance, $30.0 million in repayments of borrowings under our credit and security


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agreement with GE and a $0.5 million amendment fee paid in connection with the March 16, 2009 amendment to our credit and security agreement with GE. Net cash provided by financing activities during 2008 included $5.0 million of additional borrowings under our credit and security agreement with GE and $42.3 million net proceeds from the sale of 9.6 million shares of our common stock and warrants to purchase 1.9 million shares of our common stock.
 
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
Except for operating lease agreements, we do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements.
 
Contractual Obligations
 
The following table summarizes our contractual commitments as of December 31, 2010 and the effect those commitments are expected to have on liquidity and cash flow in future periods (in thousands):
 
                                         
          Less Than
                More Than
 
    Total     One Year     1-3 Years     3-5 Years     5 Years  
 
Debt obligations
  $ 51,621     $ 1,665     $ 49,956     $     $  
Operating leases
    2,134       1,578       556              
Purchase obligations
    63,933       39,443       21,322       3,168        
                                         
Total
  $ 117,688     $ 42,686     $ 71,834     $ 3,168     $  
                                         
 
Long-term debt obligations include the aggregate outstanding principal amount under our $40.0 million term loan with Asahi and related deferred interest and estimated interest payments.
 
Our purchase obligations include purchase commitments for System One components, primarily for equipment, blood tubing sets, needles, and fluids pursuant to contractual agreements with several of our suppliers that are in the normal course of business. Certain of these commitments may be extended and/or canceled at our option.
 
Summary of Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make significant estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. These items are regularly monitored and analyzed by management for changes in facts and circumstances, and material changes in these estimates could occur in the future. Changes in estimates are recorded in the period in which they become known. We base our estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ substantially from our estimates.
 
Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2010 included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K describes the significant accounting policies used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. A summary of those accounting policies and estimates that we believe are most critical to fully understanding and evaluating our financial results is set forth below. This summary should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
We recognize revenue from product sales and services when earned. Revenues are recognized when: (a) there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement, (b) the product has been shipped or services and supplies have been provided to the customer, (c) the sales price is fixed or determinable and (d) collection is reasonably assured. Our revenue arrangements with multiple elements are divided into separate units of accounting if specified criteria are met, including whether the delivered element has stand-alone value to the customer and


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whether there is objective and reliable evidence of the fair value of the undelivered items. The consideration received is allocated among the separate units based on their respective fair values, and the applicable revenue recognition criteria are applied to each of the separate units.
 
Certain agreements with distributors allow for product returns and credits. For shipment of product sold to distributors, revenue is recognized at the time of sale if a reasonable estimate of future returns or refunds can be made. If a reasonable estimate of future returns or refunds cannot be made, we recognize revenue using the “sell-through” method. Under the “sell-through” method, revenue and related costs of revenue is deferred until the final resale of such products to end customers.
 
In addition to contractually determined volume discounts, in many agreements we offer rebates based on sales to specific end customers and discounts for early payment. Rebates and discounts are recorded as a reduction of sales and trade accounts receivable, based on our best estimate of the amount of probable future rebate or discount on current sales.
 
System One Segment
 
We derive revenue in the home market from the sales of hemodialysis therapy to customers in which the customer either purchases or rents the System One and/or PureFlow SL hardware and purchases a specified number of disposable products and, in some instances, service.
 
For customers that purchase the System One and PureFlow SL hardware, we must determine whether (a) the equipment has stand-alone value and (b) the fair value of the undelivered items, typically the disposables and, in most instances service, can be determined. If either criteria is not met, which is generally the case, the arrangement is accounted for as a single unit of accounting and the fees received upon the completion of delivery of equipment are deferred and recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the expected term of our remaining obligation and direct costs relating to the delivered equipment are amortized over the same period as the related revenue, while disposable products revenue is recognized on a monthly basis upon delivery. If both criteria are met, then the items are accounted for separately as delivered.
 
Under the rental arrangements revenue is recognized on a monthly basis in accordance with agreed upon contract terms and pursuant to binding customer purchase orders and fixed payment terms.
 
In the critical care market, we structure sales of the System One as direct product sales and have no significant post delivery obligations with the exception of standard warrant obligations. We recognize revenue from direct product sales at the time of shipment or, if applicable, delivery in accordance with contract terms.
 
Our contracts for the System One in the critical care market provide for training, technical support and warranty services to our customers. We recognize training and technical support revenue when the related services are performed. In the case of extended warranty, the service revenue is recognized ratably over the warranty period.
 
In-Center Segment
 
In the In-Center segment, nearly all sales to end users are structured through supply and distribution contracts with distributors. Some of our distribution contracts for the In-Center segment contain minimum volume commitments with negotiated pricing discounts at different volume tiers. Each agreement may be cancelled upon a material breach, subject to certain curing rights, and in many instances minimum volume commitments can be reduced or eliminated upon certain events.
 
Inventory Valuation
 
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or estimated market. We regularly review our inventory quantities on hand and related cost and record a provision for excess or obsolete inventory primarily based on an estimated forecast of product demand for each of our existing product configurations. We also review our inventory value to determine if it reflects lower of cost or market, with market determined based on net realizable value. Appropriate consideration is given to inventory items sold at negative gross margins, purchase


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commitments and other factors in evaluating net realizable value. The medical device industry is characterized by rapid development and technological advances as well as regulatory and quality manufacturing guidelines that could result in obsolescence of inventory. Additionally, our estimates of future product demand may prove to be inaccurate.
 
Field Equipment
 
Field equipment consists of equipment being utilized under disposable-based rental agreements as well as “service pool” cyclers. Service pool cyclers are cyclers owned and maintained by us that are swapped for cyclers that need repairs or maintenance by us while being rented or owned by a patient. We continually monitor the number of cyclers in the service pool, as well as cyclers that are in-transit or otherwise not being used by a patient, and assess whether there are any indicators of impairment for such equipment. We also review field equipment carrying value for reasonableness. We consider factors such as actual equipment disposals and our ability to verify the equipment’s existence in the field to identify lost equipment. Charges for lost equipment are included in distribution expenses.
 
We capitalize field equipment at cost and amortize field equipment through cost of revenues using the straight-line method over an estimated useful life. We review the estimated useful life of our field equipment periodically for reasonableness and make changes when appropriate. Factors considered in determining the reasonableness of the useful life include industry practice and the typical amortization periods used for like equipment, the frequency and scope of service returns and the impact of historical and planned future design improvements.
 
Accounting for Stock-Based Awards
 
Stock-based compensation expense is estimated as of the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period, which generally equals the vesting period, based on the number of awards that are expected to vest. Estimating the fair value for stock options requires judgment, including the expected term of our stock options, volatility of our stock, expected dividends, risk-free interest rates over the expected term of the options and the expected forfeiture rate. In connection with our performance based programs, we make assumptions principally related to the number of awards that are expected to vest after assessing the probability that certain performance criteria will be met.
 
Valuation of Intangibles and Other Long-Lived Assets
 
For our long-lived assets including intangible assets, we assess the carrying value of these assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors we consider important include, but are not limited to, significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future results, significant negative industry factors and significant changes in strategy or operations that negatively affect the utilization of our long-lived assets. If an impairment review is triggered, we evaluate the carrying value of intangible assets based on estimated undiscounted future cash flows over the remaining useful life of the assets and comparing that value to the carrying value of the assets. The amount of impairment, if any, is measured based on fair value, which is determined using projected discounted future operating cash flows. The cash flows that are used contain our best estimates, using appropriate and customary assumptions and projections at the time. If the cash flow estimates or the significant operating assumptions upon which they are based change in the future, we may be required to record additional impairment charges.
 
Goodwill
 
We assess goodwill for impairment annually in the fourth quarter and whenever events or circumstances indicate impairment may exist. Goodwill may be considered impaired if we determine that the carrying value of our reporting unit, including goodwill, exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. Our reporting units are our System One and In-center operating segments. Assessing the impairment of goodwill requires us to make assumptions and judgments including the identification of reporting units and determination of the fair value of the net assets of our reporting units. We estimate reporting unit fair value using a discounted cash flow


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approach which requires the use of assumptions and judgments including estimates of future cash flows and the selection of discount rates. Our annual impairment testing indicated no significant risk of impairment based upon changes in value that are reasonably likely to occur. However, changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the estimated fair values of reporting units.
 
Accounting for Income Taxes
 
We periodically assess our income tax positions and record tax benefits for all years subject to examination based upon our evaluation of the facts, circumstances and information available at the reporting date. If our judgment as to the likely resolution of the position changes, if the matter is ultimately settled or if the statute of limitation expires, the effects of the change would be recognized in the period in which the change, resolution or expiration occurs.
 
We file federal, state and foreign tax returns based on our interpretation of tax laws and regulations and record estimates based on these judgments and interpretations. We have accumulated significant losses since our inception in 1998. Since the net operating losses may potentially be utilized in future years to reduce taxable income, all of our tax years remain open to examination by the major taxing jurisdictions to which we are subject.
 
Related-Party Transactions
 
A discussion of related-party transactions is included in Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2010 included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
 
A discussion of recent accounting pronouncements is included in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2010 included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Item 7A.   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
Interest Rate Exposure
 
Our investment portfolio consists primarily of money market funds. We manage our investment portfolio in accordance with our investment policy. The primary objectives of our investment policy are to preserve principal, maintain a high degree of liquidity to meet operating needs and obtain competitive returns subject to prevailing market conditions. Our investments are subject to changes in credit rating and changes in market value. These investments are also subject to interest rate risk and will decrease in value if market interest rates increase. Due to the conservative nature of our investments, we believe interest rate risk is mitigated. Our investment policy specifies the credit quality standards for our investments and limits the amount of exposure from any single issue, issuer or type of investment.
 
Foreign Currency Exposure
 
We operate a manufacturing and research facility in Germany as well as manufacturing facilities in Italy and Mexico. We purchase materials for those facilities and pay our employees at those facilities in Euros and Pesos. In addition, we purchase products for resale in the United States from foreign companies and have agreed to pay them in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, including the Euro and Peso. We also have contracts with key suppliers that expose us to foreign currency risks, including the Euro and the Thai Baht. As a result, our expenses and cash flows are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. In periods when the U.S. dollar declines in value as compared to the foreign currencies in which we incur expenses, our foreign-currency based expenses increase when translated into U.S. dollars. Although it is possible to do so and we may in the future, we do not currently hedge our foreign currency transactions since the exposure has not been material to our historical operating results. A 10% movement in the Euro, Peso and Baht would have an overall impact to the statement of operations of approximately $4.5 million for 2010, which would have been approximately 2% of total annual expenses.


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Item 8.   Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
NXSTAGE MEDICAL, INC.
 
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
         
    72  
    73  
    74  
    75  
    76  
    77  


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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
The Board of Directors and Stockholders of NxStage Medical, Inc.
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of NxStage Medical, Inc. as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, and the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of NxStage Medical, Inc. at December 31, 2010 and 2009, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
 
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), NxStage Medical, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 18, 2011 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
 
/s/  Ernst & Young LLP
 
Boston, Massachusetts
February 18, 2011


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NXSTAGE MEDICAL, INC.
 
 
                 
    December 31,  
    2010     2009  
    (In thousands, except share data)  
 
ASSETS
Current assets:
               
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 104,339     $ 21,720  
Accounts receivable, net
    14,107       14,238  
Inventory
    34,950       28,117  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    2,084       1,227  
                 
Total current assets
    155,480       65,302  
Property and equipment, net
    8,290       10,336  
Field equipment, net
    13,660       21,726  
Deferred cost of revenues
    40,081       27,799  
Intangible assets, net
    25,412       28,208  
Goodwill
    42,698       42,698  
Other assets
    473       909  
                 
Total assets
  $ 286,094     $ 196,978  
                 
 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
               
Accounts payable
  $ 16,811     $ 19,827  
Accrued expenses
    19,537       9,377  
Current portion of long-term debt
    43       61  
                 
Total current liabilities
    36,391       29,265  
Deferred revenues
    55,366       38,490  
Long-term debt
    40,454       37,854  
Other long-term liabilities
    1,754       1,923  
                 
Total liabilities
    133,965       107,532  
Commitments and contingencies (Note 11)
               
Stockholders’ equity:
               
Undesignated preferred stock: par value $0.001, 5,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2010 and 2009
           
Common stock: par value $0.001, 100,000,000 shares authorized; 54,043,317 shares issued as of December 31, 2010 and 46,795,859 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2009
    53       47  
Additional paid-in capital
    465,642       365,548  
Accumulated deficit
    (308,426 )     (276,714 )
Accumulated other comprehensive income
    85       565  
Treasury stock, at cost: 325,104 shares as of December 31, 2010
    (5,225 )      
                 
Total stockholders’ equity
    152,129       89,446  
                 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
  $ 286,094     $ 196,978  
                 
 
See accompanying notes to these consolidated financial statements.


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NXSTAGE MEDICAL, INC.
 
 
                         
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
    (In thousands, except per share data)  
 
Revenues
  $ 179,218     $ 148,676     $ 128,763  
Cost of revenues
    121,091       111,812       108,387  
Gross profit
    58,127       36,864       20,376  
                         
Operating expenses:
                       
Selling and marketing
    34,166       30,047       27,965  
Research and development
    12,900       9,814       8,890  
Distribution
    14,751       13,918       14,267  
General and administrative
    22,774       19,532       19,239  
                         
Total operating expenses
    84,591       73,311       70,361  
                         
Loss from operations
    (26,464 )     (36,447 )     (49,985 )
                         
Other expense:
                       
Interest income
    3       35       485  
Interest expense
    (4,597 )     (6,522 )     (3,877 )
Other income (expense), net
    114       (268 )     4  
Change in fair value of financial instruments
                2,536  
                         
      (4,480 )     (6,755 )     (852 )
                         
Net loss before income taxes
    (30,944 )     (43,202 )     (50,837 )
Provision for income taxes
    768       265       374  
                         
Net loss
  $ (31,712 )   $ (43,467 )   $ (51,211 )
                         
Net loss per share, basic and diluted
  $ (0.66 )   $ (0.93 )   $ (1.23 )
                         
Weighted-average shares outstanding, basic and diluted
    48,188       46,627       41,803  
                         
 
See accompanying notes to these consolidated financial statements.


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NXSTAGE MEDICAL, INC
 
 
                                                         
                            Other
             
                Additional
          Comprehensive
          Total
 
    Common Stock     Paid-In
    Accumulated
    Income
    Treasury
    Stockholders’
 
    Shares     Amount     Capital     Deficit     (Loss)     Stock     Equity  
    (In thousands, except share data)  
 
Balance at December 31, 2007
    36,771,893     $ 37     $ 311,172     $ (182,036 )   $ 544           $ 129,717  
Comprehensive loss:
                                                       
Net loss
                      (51,211 )                 (51,211 )
Foreign currency translation adjustment
                            (163 )             (163 )
                                                         
Total comprehensive loss
                                        (51,374 )
Issuance of common stock, net of issuance costs
    9,555,556       10       37,880                         37,890  
Exercise of stock options
    71,547             103                         103  
Shares issued under employee stock purchase and incentive plan
    95,102             377                         377  
Shares issued to Directors in lieu of cash
    54,487             220                         220  
Stock-based compensation expense
                5,514                         5,514  
                                                         
Balance at December 31, 2008
    46,548,585       47       355,266       (233,247 )     381             122,447  
                                                         
Comprehensive loss:
                                                       
Net loss
                      (43,467 )                 (43,467 )
Foreign currency translation adjustment
                            184             184  
                                                         
Total comprehensive loss
                                        (43,283 )
Reclassificaion warrant liability to equity
                1,858                         1,858  
Exercise of stock options
    86,927             270                         270  
Shares issued under employee stock purchase and incentive plan
    116,799             403                         403  
Shares issued to Directors in lieu of cash
    43,548             196                         196  
Stock-based compensation expense
                7,555                         7,555  
                                                         
Balance at December 31, 2009
    46,795,859       47       365,548       (276,714 )     565             89,446  
                                                         
Comprehensive loss:
                                                       
Net loss
                      (31,712 )                 (31,712 )
Foreign currency translation adjustment
                            (480 )           (480 )
                                                         
Total comprehensive loss
                                        (32,192 )
Issuance of common stock, net of issuance costs
    3,680,000       4       73,350                         73,354  
Exercise of stock options
    1,831,253       1       12,034                   (642 )     11,393  
Exercise of warrants
    250,610             415                         415  
Shares issued under employee restricted stock and bonus plans
    1,412,453       1       1,600                   (4,583 )     (2,982 )
Shares issued under employee stock purchase plan
    61,387             638                         638  
Shares issued to Directors in lieu of cash
    11,755             186                         186  
Stock-based compensation expense
                11,871                         11,871  
                                                         
Balance at December 31, 2010
    54,043,317     $ 53     $ 465,642     $ (308,426 )   $ 85     $ (5,225 )   $ 152,129  
                                                         
 
See accompanying notes to these consolidated financial statements.


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NXSTAGE MEDICAL, INC.
 
 
                         
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
    (In thousands)  
 
Cash flows from operating activities:
                       
Net loss
  $ (31,712 )   $ (43,467 )   $ (51,211 )
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
                       
Depreciation and amortization
    22,379       20,778       19,201  
Amortization of inventory step-up
                52  
Stock-based compensation
    15,351       9,226       5,842  
Change in fair value of financial instruments
                (2,536 )
Other
    2,319       2,690       1,038  
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
                       
Accounts receivable
    235       (2,208 )     (4,761 )
Inventory
    (28,744 )     (9,209 )     (23,431 )
Prepaid expenses and other assets
    (877 )     1,513       747  
Accounts payable
    (2,781 )     2,568       (4,626 )
Accrued expenses and other liabilities
    10,065       (119 )     (3,641 )
Deferred revenues
    16,876       5,071       10,104  
                         
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
    3,111       (13,157 )     (53,222 )
                         
Cash flows from investing activities:
                       
Purchases of property and equipment
    (1,556 )     (1,725 )     (3,037 )
Maturities of short-term investments
                1,100  
Decrease (Increase) in other assets
    340       (340 )     1,480  
                         
Net cash used in investing activities
    (1,216 )     (2,065 )     (457 )
                         
Cash flows from financing activities:
                       
Issuance of common stock
    73,354             42,284  
Proceeds from stock option and purchase plans
    12,446       673       372  
Purchase of treasury stock
    (4,583 )            
Proceeds from loans and lines of credit
          39,895       5,000  
Repayments on loans and lines of credit
    (54 )     (30,537 )     (81 )
                         
Net cash provided by financing activities
    81,163       10,031       47,575  
                         
Foreign exchange effect on cash and cash equivalents
    (439 )     269       (499 )
                         
Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
    82,619       (4,922 )     (6,603 )
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year
    21,720       26,642       33,245  
                         
Cash and cash equivalents, end of year
  $ 104,339     $ 21,720     $ 26,642  
                         
Supplemental Disclosures
                       
Cash paid for interest
  $ 1,628     $ 4,749     $ 3,308  
                         
Cash paid for taxes
  $ 365     $ 401     $ 641  
                         
Noncash Investing Activities
                       
Transfers from inventory to field equipment
  $ 20,567     $ 10,315     $ 21,833  
                         
Transfers from field equipment to deferred cost of revenues
  $ 21,185     $ 7,358     $ 12,759  
                         
 
See accompanying notes to these consolidated financial statements.


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NXSTAGE MEDICAL, INC.
 
 
1.   Nature of Operations
 
We are a medical device company that develops, manufactures and markets innovative products for the treatment of kidney failure, fluid overload and related blood treatments and procedures. Our primary product, the NxStage System One, or System One, was designed to satisfy an unmet clinical need for a system that can deliver the therapeutic flexibility and clinical benefits associated with traditional dialysis machines in a smaller, portable, easy-to-use form that can be used by healthcare professionals and trained lay users alike in a variety of settings, including patient homes, as well as more traditional care settings such as hospitals and dialysis clinics. Given its design, the System One is particularly well-suited for home hemodialysis and a range of dialysis therapies including more frequent, or “daily,” dialysis, which clinical literature suggests provides patients better clinical outcomes and improved quality of life. The System One is cleared or approved for commercial sale in the United States, Europe and Canada for the treatment of acute and chronic kidney failure and fluid overload. The System One is cleared specifically by the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, for home hemodialysis as well as therapeutic plasma exchange, or TPE, in a clinical environment. We also sell needles and blood tubing sets primarily to dialysis clinics for the treatment of end-stage renal disease, or ESRD, which we refer to as the in-center market. These products are cleared or approved for commercial sale in the United States, Europe, Canada and other select markets. We believe our largest future product market opportunity is for our System One used in the home hemodialysis market, or home market, for the treatment of ESRD.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, cash flows from operating activities were positive due to improvements in net loss versus 2009 and a $4.3 million one-time customer prepayment on first quarter 2011 orders. While we continue to make progress in improving our cash flows from operating activities, we expect cash flows from operating activities in the near term to fluctuate between negative and positive on a quarterly basis, primarily due to changes in working capital. There can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to improve cash flows from operating activities or whether we will be able to generate positive cash flows from operating activities in the future. We believe, based on current projections and the current nature of our business, that we have the required resources to fund our ongoing operating requirements. Our ability to and the rate at which we continue to improve cash flows from operating activities will depend on many factors, including growing revenues, continued improvements in gross margins, leverage of our operating infrastructure and continued sale versus rental of a significant percentage of our System One equipment.
 
2.   Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
 
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
 
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of NxStage Medical, Inc. and our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All material intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior years’ financial statements to conform to the 2010 presentation.
 
Use of Estimates
 
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.


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NXSTAGE MEDICAL, INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Revenue Recognition
 
We recognize revenue from product sales and services when earned. Revenues are recognized when: (a) there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement, (b) the product has been shipped or services and supplies have been provided to the customer, (c) the sales price is fixed or determinable and (d) collection is reasonably assured. Our revenue arrangements with multiple elements are divided into separate units of accounting if specified criteria are met, including whether the delivered element has stand-alone value to the customer and whether there is objective and reliable evidence of the fair value of the undelivered items. The consideration received is allocated among the separate units based on their respective fair values, and the applicable revenue recognition criteria are applied to each of the separate units.
 
Certain agreements with distributors allow for product returns and credits. For shipment of product sold to distributors, revenue is recognized at the time of sale if a reasonable estimate of future returns or refunds can be made. If a reasonable estimate of future returns or refunds cannot be made, we recognize revenue using the “sell-through” method. Under the “sell-through” method, revenue and related costs of revenue is deferred until the final resale of such products to end customers.
 
In addition to contractually determined volume discounts, in many agreements we offer rebates based on sales to specific end customers and discounts for early payment. Rebates and discounts are recorded as a reduction of sales and trade accounts receivable, based on our best estimate of the amount of probable future rebate or discount on current sales.
 
System One Segment
 
We derive revenue in the home market from the sales of hemodialysis therapy to customers in which the customer either purchases or rents the System One and/or PureFlow SL hardware and purchases a specified number of disposable products and, in some instances, service.
 
For customers that purchase the System One and PureFlow SL hardware, we must determine whether (a) the equipment has stand-alone value and (b) the fair value of the undelivered items, typically the disposables and, in most instances service, can be determined. If either criteria is not met, which is generally the case, the arrangement is accounted for as a single unit of accounting and the fees received upon the completion of delivery of equipment are deferred and recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the expected term of our remaining obligation and direct costs relating to the delivered equipment are amortized over the same period as the related revenue, while disposable products revenue is recognized on a monthly basis upon delivery. If both criteria are met, then the items are accounted for separately as delivered.
 
Under the rental arrangements revenue is recognized on a monthly basis in accordance with agreed upon contract terms and pursuant to binding customer purchase orders and fixed payment terms.
 
In the critical care market, we structure sales of the System One as direct product sales and have no significant post delivery obligations with the exception of standard warrant obligations. We recognize revenue from direct product sales at the time of shipment or, if applicable, delivery in accordance with contract terms.
 
Our contracts for the System One in the critical care market provide for training, technical support and warranty services to our customers. We recognize training and technical support revenue when the related services are performed. In the case of extended warranty, the service revenue is recognized ratably over the warranty period.
 
In-Center Segment
 
In the In-Center segment, nearly all sales to end users are structured through supply and distribution contracts with distributors. Some of our distribution contracts for the In-Center segment contain minimum volume commitments with negotiated pricing discounts at different volume tiers. Each agreement may be


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NXSTAGE MEDICAL, INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
cancelled upon a material breach, subject to certain curing rights, and in many instances minimum volume commitments can be reduced or eliminated upon certain events.
 
Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions
 
Assets and liabilities of our foreign operations are translated into U.S. dollars at current exchange rates, and income and expense items are translated at average rates of exchange prevailing during the year. Gains and losses realized from transactions denominated in foreign currencies, including intercompany balances not considered permanent investments, are included in the consolidated statements of operations and totaled $0.1 million, $0.3 million and $0.1 million in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
 
Cash, Cash Equivalents, Marketable Securities and Restricted Cash
 
We consider all highly-liquid investments purchased with original maturities of 90 days or less to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents include amounts invested in federal agency securities, commercial paper and money market funds. Cash equivalents are stated at cost plus accrued interest, which approximates market value.
 
We had $0.6 million of restricted cash classified as other assets at December 31, 2009 related primarily to standby letters of credit to guarantee annual VAT refunds in Italy.
 
Concentration of Credit Risk
 
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. We maintain our cash in treasury obligation money market funds and bank deposit accounts which, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. We believe that the financial institutions that hold our cash are financially sound and, accordingly, minimal credit risk exists with respect to these balances.
 
Concentration of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable is limited to certain customers to whom we make substantial sales. One customer represented 23% of accounts receivable at December 31, 2010. One customer represented 19% of accounts receivable at December 31, 2009. To reduce risk, we routinely assess the financial strength of our customers and closely monitor their amounts due and, as a result of our assessment, believe that our accounts receivable credit risk exposure is limited. Historically, we have not experienced any significant credit losses related to an individual customer or group of customers in any particular industry or geographic area. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts based on an analysis of historical losses from uncollectible accounts and risks identified for specific customers who may not be able to make required payments. Provisions for the allowance for doubtful accounts are recorded in general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
 
Activity related to allowance for doubtful accounts consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
                                 
    Balance at
    Provision
          Balance at
 
Year Ended
  Beginning of Year     (Recoveries)     Write-offs     End of Year  
 
December 31, 2010
  $ 725       (86 )   $ (38 )   $ 601  
December 31, 2009
  $ 918           $ (193 )   $ 725  
December 31, 2008
  $ 296     $ 694     $ (72 )   $ 918  
 
We use and are dependent upon a number of single source suppliers of components, subassemblies and finished goods. We are dependent on the ability of our suppliers to provide products on a timely basis and on favorable pricing terms. The loss of certain principal suppliers or a significant reduction in product availability from principal suppliers would have a material adverse effect on us, at least in the near term. We believe that our relationships with our suppliers are satisfactory.


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NXSTAGE MEDICAL, INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Fair Value Measures
 
Certain financial and non financial assets and liabilities recorded at fair value have been classified as Level 1, 2 or 3 within the fair value hierarchy as described in the accounting standard. Fair values determined by Level 1 inputs utilize quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that we have the ability to access. Fair values determined by Level 2 inputs utilize data points that are observable such as quoted prices, interest rates and yield curves for similar instruments and model-derived valuations whose inputs are observable. Fair values determined by Level 3 inputs utilize unobservable data points for the asset or liability.
 
Inventory
 
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost, determined using the first-in first-out method (FIFO), or market (net realizable value). We record a provision for any excess or obsolete inventory when warranted based on estimated forecast of product demand and existing product configurations. We also review our inventory value to determine if it reflects the lower of cost or market based on factors such as inventory items sold at negative gross margins and purchase commitments.
 
Property and Equipment and Field Equipment
 
Property and equipment and field equipment are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is provided over the estimated useful lives of the related assets using the straight-line method for financial statement purposes. The estimated useful life of our assets are periodically reviewed for reasonableness. Changes in useful lives are accounted for prospectively. Repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. When property and equipment are retired, sold or otherwise disposed of, the asset’s carrying amount and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is included in operations. When field equipment is sold, the asset’s carrying amount and related accumulated depreciation is removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is deferred and recognized in operations on a straight-line basis over the same period as the related revenues.
 
Construction in process is stated at cost, which includes the cost of construction and other direct costs attributable to the construction. No provision for depreciation is made on construction in process until such time as the relevant assets are completed and put into use. Construction in process at December 31, 2010 and 2009 primarily represents machinery and equipment under installation.
 
Field equipment consists of equipment being utilized under disposable-based rental agreements as well as “service pool” equipment. Service pool equipment is equipment owned and maintained by us that are swapped for equipment that need repairs or maintenance by us while being rented or owned by a customer. We record a provision for any excess, lost or damaged equipment when warranted based on an assessment of the number of equipment in the service pool, as well as equipment that are in-transit or otherwise not being used by a customer. Write-downs for equipment are included in distribution expenses.
 
The estimated useful lives of property and equipment and field equipment are as follows:
 
         
    Estimated
   
Useful Life
 
Manufacturing equipment and tooling
    5 to 6 years  
Molds
    4 years  
Leasehold improvements
    Lesser of 5 years or lease term  
Computer and office equipment
    3 years  
Furniture
    5 to 7 years  
Field equipment
    5 to 7 years  


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NXSTAGE MEDICAL, INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Intangibles and Other Long Lived Assets
 
Intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization. For assets with determinable useful lives, amortization is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated economic lives of the respective intangible assets, ranging from eight to fourteen years. Long-lived assets, including intangible assets, are tested for recoverability whenever events or circumstances indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable. The amount of impairment, if any, is measured based on fair value, which is determined using estimated discounted cash flows to be generated from such assets or group of assets. During 2010, 2009 and 2008, no such impairment was recognized. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less selling costs.
 
Goodwill
 
Goodwill relates to amounts that arose in connection with the acquisition of Medisystems Corporation and certain affiliated entities, which we refer to collectively as Medisystems. We believe the factors contributing to the goodwill that resulted from acquiring Medisystems include (but are not limited to), increased manufacturing capacity and efficiency, securing long-term rights to certain technology and brand names and strengthening long-term customer relationships common to both Medisystems and us. We test goodwill at least annually for impairment, or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the goodwill might be impaired. This impairment test is performed annually during the fourth quarter. Goodwill may be considered impaired if the carrying value of the reporting unit, including goodwill, exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. Reporting unit fair value is estimated using a discounted cash flow approach. During 2010, 2009 and 2008, no such impairment was recognized. Our reporting units are our System One and In-center operating segments. When testing goodwill for impairment we primarily look to the fair value of the System One segment, as a majority of the goodwill relates to the System One segment. The goodwill recognized upon acquiring Medisystems is not deductible for tax purposes.
 
Stock-Based Compensation
 
Stock-based compensation expense is estimated as of the grant date based on the fair value of the award. We use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to estimate the fair value of stock options and quoted market prices of our common stock to estimate fair value of restricted stock. The expected term is estimated using the simplified method, as defined in Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107. The risk free interest rate for each grant is equal to the U.S. Treasury rate in effect at the time of grant for instruments with an expected life similar to the expected option term. Because of our limited trading history as a public company, the stock volatility assumption is based on an analysis of our historical volatility and the volatility of the common stock of comparable companies in the medical device and technology industries. The dividend yield of zero is based upon the fact that we have not historically granted cash dividends, and do not expect to issue dividends in the foreseeable future.
 
We recognize stock-based compensation expense over the requisite service period, which generally equals the vesting period, net of forfeitures. Forfeiture rates are estimated based on historical pre-vesting forfeiture history and are updated on a quarterly basis to reflect actual forfeitures of unvested awards and other known events. For awards that vest based on employment, we recognize the associated compensation expense on a straight-line basis. For performance based awards, we recognize expense using the graded vesting methodology based on the number of shares expected to vest. Compensation expense associated with these performance based awards is adjusted quarterly to reflect subsequent changes in the estimated outcome of performance-related conditions until the date the results are determined.


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NXSTAGE MEDICAL, INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Warranty Costs
 
We accrue estimated costs that we may incur under our product warranty programs at the time the product revenue is recognized, based on contractual rights and historical experience. Warranty expense is included in cost of revenues in the consolidated statements of operations. The following is a rollforward of our warranty accrual (in thousands):
 
                                 
    Balance at
          Balance at
Year Ended
  Beginning of Year   Provision   Usage   End of Year
 
December 31, 2010
  $ 205     $ 452     $ (389 )   $ 268  
December 31, 2009
  $ 235     $ 331     $ (361 )   $ 205  
December 31, 2008
  $ 220     $ 366     $ (351 )   $ 235  
 
Distribution Expenses
 
Distribution expenses are charged to operations as incurred and consist of costs incurred in shipping product to and from customers and the cost of any equipment lost or damaged in the distribution process. Shipping and handling costs billed to customers are included in revenues and totaled $0.3 million in 2010 and $0.2 million in both 2009 and 2008.
 
Research and Development Costs
 
Research and development costs are charged to operations as incurred.
 
Income Taxes
 
We record the tax effect of transactions when such transactions are recorded in our consolidated statement of operations. We record a deferred tax asset or liability based on the difference between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities, as measured by the enacted tax rates. Our provision for income taxes represents the amount of taxes currently payable, if any, plus the change in the amount of net deferred tax assets or liabilities. A valuation allowance is provided against net deferred tax assets if recoverability is uncertain on a more likely than not basis.
 
We periodically assess our exposures related to our provisions for income taxes and accrue for contingencies that may result in potential tax obligations. For those positions where it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, we record the largest amount of tax benefit with a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. For those income tax positions where it is not more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be sustained, no tax benefit is recognized in the financial statements. We recognize interest and penalties for uncertain tax positions in income tax expense.
 
We file federal, state and foreign tax returns. We have accumulated significant losses since our inception in 1998. Since the net operating losses may potentially be utilized in future years to reduce taxable income, all of our tax years remain open to examination by the major taxing jurisdictions to which we are subject.
 
Comprehensive Loss
 
We have chosen to disclose comprehensive loss, which consists of net loss and other comprehensive income (loss), in the consolidated statement of changes in stockholders’ equity. Other comprehensive income (loss) primarily includes foreign currency translation adjustments that are excluded from results of operations.


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NXSTAGE MEDICAL, INC.
 
NOTES