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EX-32.01 - CERTIFICATION OF CHIEF EXECUTIVE AND CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICERS - Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp.ex32-01.htm
EX-31.02 - CERTIFICATION OF CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER - Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp.ex31-02.htm
EX-31.01 - CERTIFICATION OF CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER - Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp.ex31-01.htm
EX-23.01 - CONSENT - Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp.ex23-01.htm
EX-21.01 - SUBSIDIARIES - Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp.ex21-01.htm
EX-10.18 - RESEARCH COLLABORATION AGREEMENT - Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp.ex10-18.htm
EX-4.06 - DESCRIPTION OF THE REGISTRANT'S SECURITIES REGISTERED - Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp.ex4-06.htm
 

 

UNITED STATES 

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2019

 

Commission File Number 001-36019

 

TONIX PHARMACEUTICALS HOLDING CORP. 

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Nevada

 

26-1434750

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation 

or organization) 

 

(IRS Employer Identification No.)

 

 

 

509 Madison Avenue, Suite 1608 

New York, New York 

 

10022

(Address of principal executive office)

 

(Zip Code)

 

(212) 980-9155

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

    Trading Symbol

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

 

TNXP

 

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined by Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐    No ☒

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐    No ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒    No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 229.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒    No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ☐

 Accelerated filer ☐

Non-accelerated filer ☐

 Smaller reporting company ☒

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

 Emerging growth company ☐

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒

 

The aggregate market value of the voting common equity held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2019, based on the closing sales price of the common stock as quoted on The NASDAQ Global Market was $7,272,618. For purposes of this computation, all officers, directors, and 5 percent beneficial owners of the registrant are deemed to be affiliates. Such determination should not be deemed an admission that such directors, officers, or 5 percent beneficial owners are, in fact, affiliates of the registrant.

 

As of March 23, 2020, there were 49,353,134, shares of registrant’s common stock outstanding.  

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

None.

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    PAGE
PART I    
     
Item 1. Business 3
Item 1A. Risk Factors 52
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments 83
Item 2. Properties 83
Item 3. Legal Proceedings 84
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures 84
     
PART II    
     
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities 84
Item 6. Selected Financial Data 85
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations 86
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk 97
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data F-1 – F-29
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosures 98
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures 98
Item 9B. Other Information 98
     
PART III    
     
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance 99
Item 11. Executive Compensation 107
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters 116
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence 118
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services 119
     
PART IV    
     
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules 119
     
  Signatures 122

   

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PART I

 

ITEM 1 - BUSINESS

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (including the section regarding Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations) contains forward-looking statements regarding our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates” and similar expressions or variations of such words are intended to identify forward-looking statements, but are not deemed to represent an all-inclusive means of identifying forward-looking statements as denoted in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Additionally, statements concerning future matters are forward-looking statements.

 

Although forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K reflect the good faith judgment of our Management, such statements can only be based on facts and factors currently known by us. Consequently, forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties and actual results and outcomes may differ materially from the results and outcomes discussed in or anticipated by the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences in results and outcomes include, without limitation, those specifically addressed under the heading “Risks Factors” below, as well as those discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Readers are urged not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We file reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). You can read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. You can obtain additional information about the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet site (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us.

 

We undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements in order to reflect any event or circumstance that may arise after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Readers are urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made throughout the entirety of this annual Report, which attempt to advise interested parties of the risks and factors that may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

Tonix Pharmaceuticals®, Tonmya®*, Protectic™, Angstro-Technology™ and other trademarks and intellectual property of ours appearing in this report are our property. This report contains additional trade names and trademarks of other companies. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply an endorsement or sponsorship of us by such companies, or any relationship with any of these companies.

 

*Tonmya has been conditionally accepted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the proposed trade name for TNX-102 SL (cyclobenzaprine HCl sublingual tablets) for posttraumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. TNX-102 SL is an investigational new drug and has not been approved for any indication.

 

Business Overview

 

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, licensing, acquiring and developing drugs and biologics to treat and prevent human disease and alleviate suffering. Our current portfolio includes biologics to prevent infectious diseases and small molecules and biologics to treat pain, psychiatric and addiction conditions. In 2020, we announced a program to develop a potential vaccine to protect against the novel coronavirus disease emerging in 2019, or COVID-19. Our most advanced drug development programs are focused on delivering safe and effective long-term treatments for fibromyalgia, or FM, and posttraumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. FM is a pain disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain, non-restorative sleep, fatigue and impaired cognition.  PTSD is a psychiatric condition characterized by the re-experiencing of trauma through intrusive and vivid recollections, nightmares and flashbacks. Both FM and PTSD are associated with chronic disability, inadequate treatment options, high utilization of healthcare services, and significant economic burden. In addition, our product pipeline includes other clinical stage and pre-clinical stage programs.

 

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We are led by a management team with significant industry experience in drug development. We complement our management team with a network of scientific, clinical, and regulatory advisors that includes recognized experts in their respective fields.

 

On February 26, 2020, Tonix announced a strategic collaboration with the Southern Research Institute, or Southern Research, to support the development of TNX-1800 (live modified horsepox virus vaccine for percutaneous administration), a potential vaccine to protect against COVID-19. TNX-1800 is based on Tonix’s proprietary horsepox vaccine platform, which we believe can be engineered to express relevant protein antigens from different infectious diseases to make a variety of vaccines. The collaboration with Southern Research will develop and test TNX-1800, which is designed to express the spike protein from the virus that causes COVID-19, which is called SARS-CoV-2. Our plan is to test whether vaccination with TNX-1800 will elicit an immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and if so, whether such an immune response will protect against COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 is reportedly highly contagious. There are currently no vaccines approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, to protect against COVID-19. Multiple companies and research institutions are developing potential COVID-19 vaccines. TNX-1800 is in the pre-clinical, pre-Investigational New Drug application, or pre-IND, stage of development and has not been approved for any indication.

 

 TNX-801 (live synthesized horsepox virus vaccine for percutaneous administration) is a potential vaccine to protect against and treat smallpox and monkeypox. TNX-801 was synthesized by Professor David Evans and Dr. Ryan Noyce at the University of Alberta, Canada in collaboration with us. TNX-801 has demonstrated protective vaccine activity in mice, using a model of lethal vaccinia virus infection. In addition, the tolerability of TNX-801 compared favorably with a vaccinia virus vaccine in mice. In January, 2020 at the American Society of Microbiology Biothreats conference, we reported the results of experiments on TNX-801 performed in collaboration with Southern Research, that showed TNX-801 vaccinated macaques were protected against monkeypox challenge. TNX-801 is in the pre-IND stage and is not approved for any indication.

 

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Our most advanced product candidate, TNX-102 SL, is a proprietary sublingual tablet formulation of cyclobenzaprine, or CBP, designed for bedtime administration. TNX-102 SL is in development for FM, PTSD, agitation in Alzheimer’s disease, or AAD, and alcohol use disorder, or AUD. TNX-102 SL has been granted Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA for the treatment of PTSD and Fast Track designation by the FDA for the treatment of AAD.

 

TNX-102 SL is a potential bedtime treatment for the management of FM, and for the treatment of PTSD, AAD, and AUD. In FM, we are enrolling patients into the Phase 3 RELIEF trial (F304) and expect to report results from an interim analysis in the third quarter of 2020. In PTSD, we are completing the Phase 3 RECOVERY trial and expect to report topline results in the second quarter of 2020, however, we cannot predict whether the global COVID-19 pandemic will impact the timing of topline results. Moreover, the RECOVERY study is unlikely to show an effect of TNX-102 SL, because at a pre-planned interim analysis in February of 2020, an Independent Data Monitoring Committee, or IDMC, reported that the a drug effect, if any, was below the pre-specified criteria for futility, based on the results of the first 50% of enrolled participants. Based on the IDMC’s recommendation to stop the study, the RECOVERY study stopped enrolling new patients in February 2020. Patient who were already enrolled in RECOVERY are being followed to completion. The AAD program is Phase 2 ready with an active IND and FDA Fast Track designation. The AUD program is in the pre- IND stage, and we intend to submit an IND application in the first half of 2020, however, we cannot predict whether the global COVID-19 pandemic will impact the timing of our IND submission. Upon receiving FDA clearance of an IND application, the AUD program is expected to be ready for a Phase 2 proof-of-concept study. TNX-102 SL is an investigational new drug and is not approved for any indication.

 

TNX-601 CR (tianeptine oxalate controlled-release tablets) is in development as a daytime treatment for major depressive disorder, or depression, as well as for PTSD and neurocognitive dysfunction associated with corticosteroid use. TNX-601 CR is a new, controlled release formulation of a novel salt of tianeptine. An immediate release form of tianeptine, with three times a day dosing, has been marketed outside of the U.S. for the treatment of depression for several decades. We reported the results of a pharmacokinetic study in the fourth quarter of 2019, performed outside of the U.S., that was the basis for selecting the TNX-601 CR formulation with controlled release characteristics suitable for once-daily dosing. We are planning to conduct the first efficacy study outside of the U.S. in the first half of 2021, however, we cannot predict whether the global COVID-19 pandemic will impact the timing of this efficacy study. TNX-601 CR is expected to be U.S. IND-ready in 2021. TNX-601 CR is an investigational new drug in the pre-IND stage of development and is not approved for any indication.

 

TNX-1300 (double-mutant cocaine esterase) is in Phase 2 development for the treatment of life-threatening cocaine intoxication and has been granted Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA. TNX-1300 was licensed from Columbia University in 2019 after a Phase 2 study showed that it efficiently disintegrates cocaine in the blood of volunteers who had received intravenous, or i.v., cocaine. TNX-1300 is an investigational new biological drug and is not approved for any indication.

 

Finally, in addition to TNX-1800 and TNX-801, our preclinical pipeline includes TNX-1600, TNX-1500, TNX-701 and TNX-1200. TNX-1600 is an inhibitor of the reuptake of neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine (a triple reuptake inhibitor). TNX-1600 was licensed from Wayne State University in 2019 and is being developed as a daytime treatment for PTSD, depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. TNX-1500 is monoclonal antibody or mAb, directed against CD40L, discovered in Tonix internal research and is being developed to prevent and treat organ transplant rejection and autoimmune conditions. TNX-1700 is a recombinant modified form of Trefoil Family Factor 2, or rTFF2, that was licensed from Columbia University in 2019, and is a biologic being developed to treat gastric and pancreatic cancers. TNX-701 is an undisclosed small molecule, which is being developed to prevent radiation effects which has the potential to be used as a medical countermeasure to improve biodefense. TNX-1200 (live synthesized vaccinia virus vaccine for percutaneous administration) was synthesized by Professor David Evans and Dr. Ryan Noyce at the University of Alberta, Canada and is another potential vaccine to protect against and treat smallpox and monkeypox. In addition, new vaccines based on our proprietary horsepox vaccine vector platform are also anticipated.

 

Corporate Information

 

We were incorporated on November 16, 2007 under the laws of the State of Nevada as Tamandare Explorations Inc. On October 11, 2011, we changed our name to Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp. Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “TNXP”. Our principal executive offices are located at 509 Madison Avenue, Suite 1608, New York, New York 10022, and our telephone number is (212) 980-9155. Our website addresses are www.tonixpharma.com, www.tonix.com, and www.krele.com. The information on our websites is not part of this prospectus. We have included our website addresses as a factual reference and do not intend them to be active links to our websites.

 

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TNX-1800 – Potential COVID-19 Vaccine

 

TNX-1800 is a potential vaccine for the novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, based on a modified version of live horsepox virus grown in cell culture. TNX-1800 is designed to express the spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19. Our plan is to test whether vaccination with TNX-1800 will elicit an immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and if so, whether such an immune response will protect against COVID-19.

 

TNX-1800 is based on Tonix’s proprietary horsepox vector platform. Horsepox is closely related to vaccinia vaccines, which are a group of orthopoxviruses that have been used as smallpox vaccines and as experimental vectors for certain other disease-related antigens. Under the terms of the research collaboration, Southern Research will test TNX-1800 for its ability to express the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and elicit immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. We expect to receive data from these experiments in the second quarter of 2020. The further development of TNX-1800 for human clinical trials will require manufacturing according to Good Manufacturing Practice, or GMP, standards and sufficient animal testing.

 

Horsepox and vaccinia are closely related orthopoxviruses that are believed to share a common ancestor. Orthopoxviruses, like vaccinia, can be engineered to express foreign genes and have been explored as platforms for vaccine development because they possess: (1) large packaging capacity for exogenous DNA inserts, (2) precise virus-specific control of exogenous gene insert expression, (3) lack of persistence or genomic integration in the host, (4) strong immunogenicity as a vaccine, (5) ability to rapidly generate vector/insert constructs, (6) potential to be manufactured at industrial scale, and (7) ability to provide direct antigen presentation. Although vaccinia vectors are available, different orthopoxvirus strains may behave differently as vectors in part because of their different repertoire of genes that modulate immune responses and host range. Potential advantages of horsepox-based vaccines include the strong immunogenicity we observed for TNX-801 in macaques and mice with good tolerability. The protein synthesis connected with a replicating live virus vaccine provides direct antigen presentation, which can stimulate cellular immunity in addition to humoral immunity.

 

There is much effort currently being invested into methods of providing vaccines to protect against COVID-19, but there is still much unknown about the biology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the methods, if any, of producing a protective immune response. For example, based on studies of a related coronavirus diseases, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS, from 2003, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, from 2012, there is potential risk that antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 may potentiate, rather than protect against, infection in some individuals. This phenomenon is called antibody-mediated enhancement. Safety tests will be required to ensure that antibody mediated enhancement, if present, does not compromise protection for any potential COVID-19 vaccine.

 

We recently filed a provisional patent on TNX-1800’s technology. In addition, we expect TNX-1800 to be eligible for 12 years of non-patent-based exclusivity under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or PPACA.

 

TNX-801 – Potential Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine

 

TNX-801 is a novel potential smallpox-preventing vaccine based on a synthetic version of live horsepox virus, grown in cell culture. Though it shares structural characteristics with vaccinia-based vaccines, TNX-801 has unique properties that we believe indicate potential safety advantages over existing live replicating vaccinia virus vaccines, which have been associated with adverse side effects such as myopericarditis in some individuals.  Emergent BioSolutions’ ACAM2000® is the only replicating vaccinia virus vaccine currently approved by the FDA to protect against smallpox. We believe replicating virus vaccines have potential efficacy advantages over non-replicating vaccines, relating to the stimulation of cell mediated immunity. Bavarian Nordic’s Jynneos® is the only non-replicating virus vaccine currently approved by the FDA to protect against smallpox and monkeypox. We believe TNX-801 has the potential to have improved tolerability relative to replicating vaccinia vaccines and the potential to have improved efficacy relative to non-replicating vaccinia vaccines.

 

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Smallpox was eradicated by a World Health Organization program that vaccinated individuals with live replicating vaccinia vaccines wherever smallpox appeared. In the 1970s, vaccination of civilians to protect against smallpox was discontinued in the U.S.; however, smallpox remains a material threat to national security and a proportion of military personnel, including members of the Global Response Force, continue to be vaccinated. We are developing TNX-801 as a potential smallpox-preventing vaccine for the U.S. strategic national stockpile and for potential widespread immunization in the event of malicious reintroduction of variola, the virus that causes smallpox. Monkeypox is a growing problem in certain regions of Africa. Some cases of monkeypox have been reported outside of Africa in patients who had been infected while in Africa.

 

In January 2020 at the American Society of Microbiology Biothreats conference, we reported the results of experiments on TNX-801 that were performed in collaboration with Southern Research, that showed TNX-801 vaccinated macaques were protected against monkeypox challenge. The TNX-801 vaccinated macaques showed no overt clinical signs after monkeypox challenge. Furthermore, eight of eight animals vaccinated with two different doses of TNX-801 showed no lesions after monkeypox challenge.

 

We have filed a patent to protect the TNX-801 vaccine. In addition, we expect that TNX-801 will be eligible for 12 years of non-patent-based exclusivity under the PPACA. Following the passage of the 21st Century Cures Act, a law designed to help accelerate medical product development, we believe TNX-801 will qualify as a medical countermeasure, and would therefore be eligible for a Priority Review Voucher upon receiving FDA approval. However, the Priority Review Voucher program provision of the 21st Century Cures Act is set to expire in 2023. If TNX-801 does not receive FDA approval by 2023, we may not be able to capitalize on the incentives contained in the 21st Century Cures Act unless the provision allowing for the Priority Review Voucher Program is extended until such time as TNX-801 is licensed by the FDA.  

 

We intend to meet with the FDA to discuss the most efficient and appropriate investigational plan, to establish the safety and effectiveness evidence to support the licensure TNX-801.We are currently working to develop a vaccine that meets cGMP quality to support an IND study.

 

TNX-102 SL – Fibromyalgia (FM)

 

TNX-102 SL is a small, rapidly disintegrating tablet containing CBP for sublingual administration. TNX-102 SL employs a proprietary protective eutectic formulation of CBP, Protectic™, which enables rapid systemic exposure and increased bioavailability through transmucosal absorption. We are developing TNX-102 SL for the management of FM. TNX-102 SL for FM is a non-opioid, centrally-acting analgesic that could potentially provide a new therapeutic option for FM patients. In September 2016, we interrupted the development of TNX-102 SL for the management of FM to focus on the treatment of PTSD. Our previous development efforts for TNX-102 SL in FM studied the 2.8 mg dose in a Phase 2 and a Phase 3 study. Based on our experience with higher doses of TNX-102 SL, 5.6 mg, in PTSD, we restarted the clinical program in FM using TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg. We met with the FDA in March 2019 to discuss the clinical development plan and the next Phase 3 study design to support the FM indication. We received clear guidance from the FDA to advance FM using TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg and are currently testing this dose in the Phase 3 RELIEF (F304) study which started enrolling patients in December 2019. We plan to conduct an interim analysis, or IA, pending the FDA’s agreement, and we expect interim analysis results from this study in the third quarter of 2020 and topline data in the first half of 2021, however, we cannot predict whether the global COVID-19 pandemic will impact the timing of our interim analysis and topline results.

 

TNX-102 SL – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

 

We are developing TNX-102 SL for the treatment of PTSD, which has been designated as a Breakthrough Therapy by the FDA based on the results of a Phase 2 study with TNX-102 SL 2.8 mg and 5.6 mg in military-related PTSD. TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg was studied in the first Phase 3 study which was discontinued after the results of the IA indicated the study met a pre-defined threshold p-value for futility. Retrospective analysis of this Phase 3 study revealed a treatment effect in participants who experienced trauma less than or equal to nine years prior to screening. This analysis defined an optimal treatment window for treatment with TNX-102 SL for PTSD within nine years after the index trauma that resulted in PTSD. This retrospective analysis guided the design of the Phase 3 RECOVERY (P302) study, which was initiated in March 2019. Based on interim analysis results of the first 50% of enrolled participants of the Phase 3 RECOVERY trial (P302), an Independent Data Monitoring Committee recommended stopping the study for futility as TNX-102 SL was unlikely to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement over placebo in the primary endpoint after 12 weeks. We stopped enrollment of new participants, but continue to study those participants currently enrolled until completion. We will proceed with a full analysis of the unblinded data to determine the next steps in this program. Topline data are expected in the second quarter of 2020, however, we cannot predict whether the global COVID-19 pandemic will impact the timing of our topline results.

 

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TNX-102 SL – Agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease (AAD)

 

We are developing TNX-102 SL for the treatment of AAD, which has been designated as a Fast Track development program by the FDA. The program is ready for a Phase 2 study which could potentially serve as a pivotal efficacy study to support NDA approval.

 

TNX-102 SL – Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)

 

We are developing TNX-102 SL for the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD). We had a pre-IND meeting with the FDA in October 2019 in which we discussed a 505(b)(2) development plan for TNX-102 SL as a treatment for AUD. The FDA official meeting minutes confirmed the agreement received on the study design of the Phase 2 proof-of-concept study; we plan to submit an IND application in the first half of 2020, however, we cannot predict whether the global COVID-19 pandemic will impact the timing of our IND submission.

  

TNX-601 CR – Major Depressive Disorder, PTSD and Neurocognitive Dysfunction from Corticosteroids

 

We are developing TNX-601 CR (tianeptine oxalate controlled release tablets) for the treatment of major depressive disorder, or depression, PTSD, and neurocognitive dysfunction from corticosteroids. TNX-601 CR is a novel, oral formulation of tianeptine oxalate designed for once-daily, daytime dosing. Currently there is no tianeptine-containing product approved by the FDA in the U.S., but tianeptine sodium is approved in Europe, Asia, and Latin America for the treatment of depression with three-times-a-day dosing. Tonix’s proprietary, tianeptine oxalate, is crystalline and has improved pharmaceutical properties, including improved stability, consistency, and manufacturability, as compared to tianeptine sodium, which is amorphous. Tianeptine is believed to work in depression as a modulator of the glutamatergic system. In animals, tianeptine has been shown to reverse the adverse neuroplastic changes that are observed during periods of extreme stress and elevated corticosteroid exposure. Tianeptine and its major metabolite MC5 are weak agonists of the mu-opioid receptor.  Neither tianeptine nor MC5 have been shown to bind other neurotransmitter receptors. Tianeptine’s reported pro-cognitive and anxiolytic effects as well as its ability to attenuate the neuropathological effects of excessive stress responses suggest that it may be used to treat PTSD by a different mechanism of action than TNX-102 SL. Several preliminary clinical studies conducted by others have suggested that tianeptine immediate release tablets have activity in combat and military-related PTSD.

 

TNX-601 CR is in the pre-IND stage and we intend to request a pre-IND meeting with the FDA in 2020. Tonix recently completed a Phase 1 study for formulation development ex-U.S. and we are planning for a Phase 2 study in depression ex-U.S. in the first half of 2021, however, we cannot predict whether the global COVID-19 pandemic will impact the timing of this study.

 

 TNX-1300 – Cocaine Intoxication

 

We licensed TNX-1300 from Columbia University in May 2019. We are developing TNX-1300 for the treatment of cocaine intoxication.  TNX-1300 (T172R/G173Q double-mutant cocaine esterase 200 mg, i.v. solution) is a recombinant protein enzyme produced through rDNA technology in a non-disease-producing strain of E. coli bacteria.  Cocaine Esterase (CocE) was identified in a bacterium (Rhodococcus) that uses cocaine as its sole source of carbon and nitrogen and that grows in soil surrounding coca plants.  The gene encoding CocE was identified and the protein was extensively characterized. CocE catalyzes the breakdown of cocaine into metabolites ecgonine methyl ester and benzoic acid.  Wild-type CocE is unstable at body temperature, so targeted mutations were introduced in the CocE gene and resulted in the T172R/G173Q double-mutant CocE, which shows activity for approximately 6 hours at body temperature. In a Phase 2 study, of volunteer cocaine abusers conducted prior to Tonix licensing the program, TNX-1300 was well tolerated at 100 mg or 200 mg i.v. doses and rapidly, within a few minutes, interrupted cocaine effects after cocaine 50 mg i.v. challenge. TNX-1300 has been granted Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA for the treatment of cocaine intoxication. In August 2019, we met with the FDA to seek guidance on the nonclinical study plans to support the clinical development of TNX-1300.

   

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Other Preclinical Product Candidates

 

TNX-1600 – PTSD, Depression and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD

TNX-1600 was licensed from Wayne State in August 2019 in a transaction that included an asset acquisition agreement with TRImaran, a biopharmaceutical company that had previously licensed the technology from Wayne State.  TNX-1600 is a triple reuptake inhibitor, which inhibits the reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. TNX-1600 is in development to treat PTSD, depression and ADHD and potentially other central nervous system disorders. TNX-1600 is a new chemical entity and is being developed as first line monotherapy, as an oral daytime treatment. 

 

  TNX-1500 - Prevention and Treatment of Organ Transplant Rejection; Treatment for Autoimmune Conditions including Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Multiple Sclerosis

TNX-1500 (monoclonal antibody anti-CD40-L or anti-CD154) is a third-generation monoclonal antibody, or mAb, currently in preclinical development as a potential first line monotherapy for autoimmunity and as an adjunctive therapy for preventing and treating organ transplant rejection. Several studies have shown mAbs that react with the same molecular target as TNX-1500 to be active in the treatment of human systemic lupus erythematosus and in transplant rejection.  TNX-1500 is specifically designed to retain the efficacy of anti-CD40L mAbs while mitigating potential side effects. In August 2019, we announced a research collaboration with the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston for the testing of TNX-1500 for the prevention of organ transplant rejection.

 

  TNX-1700 – Gastric and Pancreatic Cancers

TNX-1700 (rTFF2) was licensed from Columbia University in September 2019. TNX-1700 is a biologic molecule currently in preclinical development as a treatment for gastric and pancreatic cancers. TFF2 is a small secreted protein, encoded by the TFF2 gene in humans, that is expressed in gastrointestinal mucosa where it functions to protect and repair mucosal tissue. TFF2 is also expressed at low levels in splenic immune cells and is now appreciated to have intravascular roles in spleen and in the microenvironment of tumors. In gastric cancer, TFF2 is epigenetically silenced, and TFF2 is suggested to be protective against cancer development through several mechanisms. The mechanism of action of rTFF2 is different from anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies and Tonix is studying rTFF2 to determine whether there are additive or synergistic effects of combining rTFF2 with other anti-neoplastic treatments in gastric and pancreatic cancers.

 

  TNX-701

 We own rights to intellectual property on a biodefense technology relating to the development of protective agents against radiation exposure, which we refer to as TNX-701. We have begun preclinical research and development on TNX-701. We plan to develop TNX-701 under the Animal Rule, which is applicable when human efficacy studies are not ethical or feasible.

 

Our Strategy

 

Our objective is to develop and commercialize our product candidates. The principal components of our strategy are to: 

Develop TNX-1800 for COVID-19. We currently are focusing on the development of TNX-1800 for protection against COVID-19. We expect to be engaged in laboratory experiments and then animal experiments to determine whether TNX-1800 protects against effects of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection.  There are no vaccines available to prevent COVID-19 and thus this program may address a large unmet medical need;

 

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Develop TNX-801 for preventing smallpox and monkeypox. We currently are focusing on the development of TNX-801 to protect against smallpox and monkeypox.  Based on the results of TNX-801 in an experiment which showed protection of macaques against monkeypox, we are focused on manufacturing TNX-801 vaccine at GMP standard, for further studies;

 

Develop TNX-102 SL for FM and TNX-102 SL for PTSD and Other Indications.  We currently are developing TNX-102 SL for the management of FM and the treatment of PTSD. Our broader development strategy is to leverage the patented formulation to explore the clinical potential of TNX-102 SL in multiple other pain, psychiatric, and addiction conditions, including AAD and AUD, that are either underserved by currently approved medications or have no approved treatment thus representing large unmet medical needs;

 

Maximize the commercial potential of TNX-102 SL. We plan to commercialize TNX-102 SL, either on our own or through collaboration with partners. We believe TNX-102 SL can be marketed to U.S. physicians either by an internal sales force that we will build or by a contract sales organization, which we would engage. An alternative strategy would be to enter into partnership agreements with drug companies that already have significant marketing capabilities in the same, or similar, therapeutic areas. If we determine that such a strategy would be more favorable than developing our own sales capabilities, we would seek to enter into collaborations with pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies for the commercialization of TNX-102 SL;
   

Pursue a broad intellectual property strategy to protect our product candidates. We are pursuing a broad patent strategy for our product candidates, and we endeavor to generate new patent applications as supported by our innovations and conceptions as well as to advance their prosecution. In the cases of TNX-801 and TNX-1800, we own patent applications protecting their composition-of-matter and certain methods of its use. In the cases of TNX-102 SL, we own patents and patent applications protecting its composition-of-matter, certain methods of its use, its formulation, and its pharmacokinetic properties. We plan to opportunistically apply for new patents to protect TNX-102 SL and our other product candidates;
   
Provide value propositions to merit market demand and reimbursement for our product candidates. We are designing the development programs for our product candidates to demonstrate their value propositions to patients, prescribers, and third-party payors. In the case of TNX-102 SL, we have been engaged in market research and commercial assessment activities, the results of which we may use to inform future commercial strategy. We plan to continue these activities in tandem with our clinical development of TNX-102 SL and to conduct similar work in relation to our other product candidates as they advance in their development; and
   
Pursue additional indications and commercial opportunities for our product candidates. We will seek to maximize the value of TNX-102 SL, and our other product candidates by pursuing other indications and commercial opportunities for such candidates. For example, we own rights related to the development and commercialization of CBP for generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and fatigue related to disordered sleep.

 

Disease and Market Overview

 

Our product candidates address disorders that are not well served by currently available therapies or have no approved treatment which represent large potential commercial market opportunities. Background information on the disorders and related commercial markets that may be addressed by our clinical-stage product candidates is set forth below.

 

COVID-19

 

On December 31, 2019 the Wuhan Health Commission reported a cluster of atypical pneumonia cases in the city of Wuhan, China. The first patients began experiencing symptoms of illness in mid-December 2019. Clinical isolates were found to contain a novel coronavirus. The novel coronavirus is currently referred to as SARS-CoV-2 and is related to SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), although with only approximately 80% similarity at the nucleotide level. There are currently no vaccines to protect against COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is reportedly highly contagious.

 

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COVID-19 is a respiratory disease. Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure and include fever, cough and shortness of breath. This is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation and it is expected that the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC, and the World Health Organization, or WHO, will continue to provide updated information as it becomes available, in addition to updated guidance. WHO declared COVID-19 a global pandemic.

 

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in people and many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (SARS-CoV-2). The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

 

The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Information so far suggests that most COVID-19 illness is mild, with serious illness occurring in a proportion of cases. Older people and people with certain underlying health conditions like heart disease, lung disease and diabetes, for example, seem to be at greater risk of serious illness.

 

Currently, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no antiviral medications approved to treat it. Individuals with COVID-19 receive supportive care to help relieve symptoms, and for severe cases, treatment includes care to support vital organ functions. Currently, the best way to prevent illness due to COVID-19 is to avoid exposure.

 

COVID-19 was discovered only recently, so it is difficult to forecast a market. Much of what we posit about COVID-19 is based on SARS and MERS, which are coronavirus-related contagious diseases. If the number of COVID-19 cases evolve like SARS, then the number of cases could increase dramatically and then decrease dramatically over the next months. If the number of COVID-19 cases evolve like MERS, then COVID-19 could persist for many years and continue to resurface in new outbreaks. Some coronavirus illnesses can also appear seasonally, but it is not currently known if this will be a characteristic of COVID-19 epidemiology.

 

Smallpox and Monkeypox

 

Smallpox is an acute contagious disease caused by the variola virus, or VARV, which is a member of the orthopoxvirus family. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980 following a global immunization campaign. Smallpox is transmitted from person to person by infective droplets during close contact with infected symptomatic people. Monkeypox is an acute contagious disease caused by the monkeypox virus or MPXV, which is also a member of the orthopoxvirus family. Monkeypox symptoms are similar to those of smallpox, although less severe. Monkeypox is emerging as an important zoonotic infection in humans in Central and West Africa.

 

Smallpox was eradicated by a World Health Organization program that vaccinated individuals with live replicating vaccinia vaccines wherever smallpox appeared. In the 1970s, vaccination of civilians to protect against smallpox was discontinued in the U.S.; however, smallpox remains a material threat to national security and a proportion of military personnel, including members of the Global Response Force continue to be vaccinated. We are developing TNX-801 as a potential smallpox-preventing vaccine for the U.S. strategic national stockpile and for potential widespread immunization in the event of malicious reintroduction of variola, which is the virus that causes smallpox. Monkeypox is a growing problem in certain regions of Africa. Some cases of monkeypox have been reported outside of Africa in patients who had been infected while in Africa.

 

Currently, there are two FDA approved smallpox vaccines, one of which is also indicated for monkeypox. ACAM2000® (Smallpox [Vaccinia] Vaccine, Live) was approved in 2007 and is indicated for active immunization against smallpox disease in persons determined to be at high risk for smallpox infection. Jynneos® (Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine, Live, Non-replicating) or MVA-BN is indicated for the prevention of smallpox and monkeypox disease in adults 18 years of age and older determined to be at high risk for smallpox or monkeypox infection.

 

These two smallpox vaccines are FDA approved and purchased by the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile. The US Strategic National Stockpile currently stores more than 300 million doses of smallpox vaccine to protect the U.S. population in the event of reintroduction of variola. We believe that the Strategic National Stockpile will continue to be stocked primarily with a live replicating virus vaccine and secondarily with a non-replicating virus. ACAM2000® is the only replicating vaccinia virus vaccine currently approved by the FDA to protect against smallpox. Jynneos® is the only non-replicating virus vaccine currently approved by the FDA to protect against smallpox. In the post-eradication world, the risk of variola infection is low, so non-replicating vaccines like Jynneos have an appropriate ratio of risk and benefit. However, in a potential post-reintroduction world, we believe live replicating virus vaccines like TNX-801 would be administered to healthy, immunocompetent, non-pregnant adults without risk factors such as eczema or heart disease. The assessment of efficacy of modern smallpox vaccines and the expected benefit of vaccination policy are based on the historical success of predicate live replicating vaccinia vaccines to control smallpox during the time the disease was endemic. We believe TNX-801 has the potential to have improved safety and tolerability relative to replicating vaccinia vaccines and the potential to have improved efficacy relative to non-replicating vaccinia vaccines.

 

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 Fibromyalgia, or FM

 

FM is a chronic syndrome characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue, sleep, memory and mood issues. The peak incidence of FM occurs between 20-50 years of age, and 80-90% of diagnosed patients are female. FM may have a substantial negative impact on social and occupational function, including disrupted relationships with family and friends, social isolation, reduced activities of daily living and leisure activities, avoidance of physical activity, and loss of career or inability to advance in career or education.  According to the American Chronic Pain Association, an estimated six to twelve million adults in the U.S. have FM.

 

According to a report by Frost and Sullivan that we commissioned, despite the availability of approved medications, the majority of patients fail therapy due to either insufficient efficacy, poor tolerability, or both. Prescription pain and sleep medications are frequently prescribed off-label for symptomatic relief, despite the lack of evidence that such medications provide a meaningful or durable therapeutic benefit, and many of these medications carry significant safety risks and risk of dependence. For example, approximately 30% of patients diagnosed with FM take chronic opioids, despite the lack of evidence for their effectiveness and the risk of addiction and toxicity, including overdose.

 

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, or PTSD

 

 PTSD is a chronic condition that may develop after a person is exposed to one or more traumatic events, such as warfare, sexual assault, serious injury, or threat of imminent death. The core symptom clusters of PTSD are avoidance, emotional numbing, hyperarousal, and intrusion, where the triggering traumatic event is commonly re-experienced by the individual through intrusive, recurrent recollections, flashbacks, and nightmares. People with PTSD suffer significant impairment in their daily functioning, including occupational activities and social relations, and are at elevated risk for impulsive violent behaviors toward others and themselves, including suicide. Of those who experience a significant trauma, approximately 20% of women and 8% of men develop PTSD. An estimated 12 million adults annually in the U.S. suffer from PTSD. According to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the prevalence rate of PTSD in the military population is higher than that among civilians. As of 2012, there were approximately 638,000 veterans receiving treatment for PTSD in the Veterans Health Administration, or VHA. Based on March 2015 VHA data, more than 19% of military veterans involved in recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan were seen at VHA facilities for potential or provisional PTSD.

 

Many patients fail to adequately respond to the medications approved for PTSD and approved medications show little evidence of a treatment effect in men, lack evidence of efficacy in those for whom the traumatic event was combat-related, and carry suicidality warnings. Sleep disturbances are central features of PTSD and are predictive of disease severity, depression, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation, yet are resistant to the approved medications and present a difficult therapeutic challenge. Current PTSD treatments include off-label use of anxiolytics, sedative-hypnotics, and antipsychotics, many of which lack reliable evidence of efficacy, and many have significant safety liabilities and dependence risk.

  

Agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease, or AAD

 

Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease in which behavioral symptoms are a major clinical complication. Sleep disturbances and agitation are common and co-morbid features of Alzheimer’s disease. Agitation, which includes emotional lability, restlessness, irritability, and aggression, is one of the most distressing and debilitating of these behavioral complications of Alzheimer’s disease. AAD is likely to affect more than half of the 5.3 million Americans who currently suffer from Alzheimer’s disease, and this number is expected to nearly triple by 2050. The presence of agitation nearly doubles the cost of caring for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and agitation is estimated to account for more than 12 percent of the $256 billion in healthcare and societal cost of associated with Alzheimer’s disease for the year 2017 in the U.S..

 

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Agitation in Alzheimer’s disease is associated with significant negative consequences for both patients as well as their caregivers. Development of agitation, or its worsening, is one of the most common reasons for patients having to transition to nursing homes and other long-term care settings.

 

Currently, there is no treatment approved by the FDA for behavioral symptoms such as agitation and aggression in Alzheimer’s which affect the quality of life of both the patients and caregivers. Off-label use of atypical anti-psychotic medications for behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease is a common practice, despite the lack of evidence for their effectiveness and significant morbidity and mortality risks associated with their use in this population.

 

Alcohol Use Disorder, or AUD

 

An estimated 36 million adults in the U.S. have AUD.  AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using. Sleep disturbance is extremely common in alcohol recovery and it significantly impacts daytime cognition, mood, and ability to participate in alcohol treatment, and, importantly, is associated with increased risk of relapse. Three drugs have been approved by the FDA, but AUD remains an unmet need due to compliance and safety issues.

 

Major Depressive Disorder, or Depression

 

According to the National Institute of Mental Health, depression affects approximately 16 million adults in the U.S., with approximately 2.5 million adults treated with adjunctive therapy. Depression is a condition characterized by symptoms such as a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities most of the time for two weeks or more, accompanied by appetite changes, sleep disturbances, motor restlessness or retardation, loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, poor concentration, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. These symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The majority of people who suffer from depression do not respond adequately to initial antidepressant therapy.

 

Cocaine Intoxication

 

Cocaine is an illegal recreational drug which is taken for its pleasurable effects and associated euphoria. Pharmacologically, cocaine blocks the reuptake of the neurotransmitter dopamine from central nervous system synapses, resulting in the accumulation of dopamine within the synapse and an amplification of dopamine signaling that is related to its role in creating positive feeling. With the continued use of cocaine, however, intense cocaine cravings occur resulting in a high potential for abuse and addiction, or dependence, as well as the risk of cocaine intoxication. Cocaine intoxication refers to the deleterious effects on other parts of the body, especially those involving the cardiovascular system.  Common symptoms of cocaine intoxication include tachyarrhythmias and elevated blood pressure, either of which can be life-threatening.  As a result, individuals with known or suspected cocaine intoxication are sent immediately to the emergency department, preferably by ambulance in case cardiac arrest occurs during transit.  There are approximately 505,000 emergency room visits for cocaine abuse each year in the U.S., of which 61,000 require detoxification services.  According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, over 13,900 individuals died of cocaine overdose in 2017. According to a recent report by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and covered by news reports, among all 2017 U.S. drug overdose deaths, approximately 20% involved cocaine.  Overdose deaths involving cocaine increased 34 percent from 2016 to 2017.

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD

 

Previously called hyperkinetic syndrome, ADHD is defined by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. Symptoms of ADHD must have been present prior to 12 years of age and must have been present in two or more settings, e.g. at home, school, work; with friends or relatives; in other activities. And there must be clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with, or reduce the quality of, social, academic, or occupational functioning. ADHD is a chronic condition that begins in childhood and is one of the most common mental disorders among children. While high activity levels and short attention spans are generally observed in young children, children with ADHD have greater hyperactivity and inattention relative to children their same age. The consequences of ADHD can cause distress for the individual and result in behavioral problems in structured environments such as school, as well as in less structured environments which occur in social settings or in the home. For a majority of these individuals, the diagnosis will carry into adulthood, and symptoms may only partially remit. The American Psychiatric Association estimates that 8.4 percent of children and 2.5 percent of adults have ADHD.

 

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Our Product Candidates

 

We believe that our product candidates offer innovative therapeutic approaches and may provide significant advantages relative to available therapies. The following table summarizes our most advanced product candidates, for which we plan to complete the required clinical studies to support their NDA approvals:

 

Product Candidate   Indication   Stage of Development            Commercialization Rights
TNX-1800   COVID-19 vaccine   Pre-clinical   Worldwide
TNX-801   Smallpox and monkeypox vaccine   Pre-clinical   Worldwide
TNX-102 SL   Fibromyalgia   Phase 3   Worldwide
TNX-102 SL   Posttraumatic stress disorder   Phase 3   Worldwide
TNX-102 SL   Agitation in Alzheimer’s disease   Phase 2 ready   Worldwide
TNX-102 SL   Alcohol Use Disorder   Pre-IND   Worldwide
TNX-601 CR   Depression, PTSD, Neurocognitive Dysfunction from Corticosteroids   Pre-IND   Worldwide
TNX-1300   Cocaine Intoxication   Phase 2   Worldwide
TNX-1600   PTSD, ADHD, Depression   Pre-IND   Worldwide

 

TNX-1800 – Potential COVID-19 Vaccine

 

Overview

 

We are developing TNX-1800 (live modified horsepox virus vaccine for percutaneous administration), a potential vaccine to protect against COVID-19. TNX-1800 is based on Tonix’s proprietary horsepox vaccine platform, which we believe can be engineered to express relevant protein antigens from different infectious diseases to make a variety of vaccines. On February 26, 2020, Tonix announced a strategic collaboration with the Southern Research Institute to support the development of TNX-1800. The collaboration with Southern Research will develop and test TNX-1800, which is designed to express the spike protein from the virus that causes COVID-19, which is called SARS-CoV-2. Under the terms of the research collaboration, Southern Research will test TNX-1800 for its ability to express the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, elicit immune responses to it and test whether such an immune response will protect against COVID-19. We expect to receive preliminary data from the first of these experiments in small animals in the second quarter of 2020. The further development of TNX-1800 for human clinical trials will require manufacturing according to Good Manufacturing Practice, or GMP, standards and sufficient animal testing in small animals and in non-human primates.

 

There are currently no vaccines approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, to protect against COVID-19. Multiple companies and research institutions are developing potential COVID-19 vaccines. TNX-1800 is in the pre-clinical, pre-Investigational New Drug application, or pre-IND, stage of development and has not been approved for any indication.

 

 We intend to meet with the FDA to discuss the most efficient and appropriate investigational plan to establish the safety and effectiveness evidence to support the licensure of TNX-1800. We recently filed a patent on the COVID-19 vaccine. In addition, 12 years of non-patent-based exclusivity is expected under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or PPACA.

 

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TNX-801 – Potential Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine

 

Overview

 

TNX-801 (live horsepox virus vaccine for percutaneous administration), Investigational Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine, consists of a live replicating horsepox virus. The investigational product formulation for nonclinical GLP and clinical studies has not been finalized but is expected to be a sterile liquid for administration by percutaneous scarification. TNX-801 is being developed for the prevention of smallpox and monkeypox disease for immunocompetent, non-pregnant adults at high risk for infection, who lack risk factors such as eczema or heart disease.

 

Tonix is developing TNX-801 as a prophylactic vaccine for active immunization against smallpox and monkeypox disease for individuals at high risk for infection. Tonix believes the efficacy and safety data generated in the course of the proposed studies would facilitate a biologics license application (BLA) for both smallpox and monkeypox vaccine indications.

 

Smallpox is an acute contagious disease caused by the variola virus, or VARV, which is a member of the orthopoxvirus family. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980 following a global immunization campaign. Smallpox is transmitted from person to person by infective droplets during close contact with infected symptomatic people. Monkeypox is an acute contagious disease caused by the monkeypox virus or MPXV, which is also a member of the orthopoxvirus family. Monkeypox symptoms are similar to those of smallpox, although less severe. Monkeypox is emerging as an important zoonotic infection in humans in Central and West Africa. Monkeypox is a growing problem in certain regions of Africa. Some cases of monkeypox have been reported outside of Africa in patients who had been infected while in Africa.

 

Smallpox was eradicated by a World Health Organization program that vaccinated individuals with live replicating vaccinia vaccines wherever smallpox appeared. In the 1970s, vaccination of civilians to protect against smallpox was discontinued in the U.S.; however, smallpox remains a material threat to national security and a proportion of military personnel, including members of the Global Response Force continue to be vaccinated. We are developing TNX-801 as a potential smallpox-preventing vaccine for the U.S. strategic national stockpile and for potential widespread immunization in the event of malicious reintroduction of variola, the virus that causes smallpox.

 

Currently, there are two FDA approved smallpox vaccines, one of which is also indicated for monkeypox. Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine, Live (ACAM2000®) was approved in 2007 and is indicated for active immunization against smallpox disease in persons determined to be at high risk for smallpox infection. In September 2019, the FDA approved J Jynneos® (or MVA-BN), Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine, Live, Non-replicating. Jynneos® is indicated for the prevention of smallpox and monkeypox disease in adults 18 years of age and older determined to be at high risk for smallpox or monkeypox infection. Certain potential limitations of ACAM2000 and MVA-BN have prompted Tonix to pursue the development of TNX-801 based on evidence suggesting TNX-801 could provide an alternative to the two approved vaccines. TNX-801 may have advantages for use in healthy, immunocompetent non-pregnant individuals, without a history of eczema or cardiac disease, and as part of a public health vaccination policy to respond to an event of variola reintroduction. The assessment of efficacy of modern smallpox vaccines and the expected benefit of vaccination policy are based on the historical success of predicate live replicating vaccinia vaccines to control smallpox during the time the disease was endemic.

 

The FDA-approved label for ACAM2000 carries a boxed warning related to suspected cases of myocarditis and/or pericarditis in healthy adult primary vaccinees and other safety concerns. The rate of cardiac adverse events (AEs) was estimated at 5.7 per 1000 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.9-13.3]. The molecular mechanism of ACAM2000 associated cardiotoxicity remains unclear.

 

Since the eradication of smallpox in 1980, the risk and reward ratio of vaccination against smallpox has changed. At the present time, the risks associated with universal ACAM2000 vaccination of the general population outweigh the potential benefits. In addition, ACAM2000 vaccination is not indicated even for first responders. In most of the U.S., routine vaccination against smallpox ended in the early 1970s. In the military, routine vaccinations were limited to recruits entering basic training starting in 1984. In 1990, the Department of Defense (DoD) discontinued routine vaccination of recruits, primarily due to its cardiotoxicity risks. ACAM2000 is currently used primarily in US military personnel deployed to areas that the US government has determined to be at increased risk of malicious smallpox reintroduction and in laboratory workers at potential occupational risk for exposure to orthopoxviruses. According to the Military Health System Smallpox Vaccine Q&A’s, more than 2.6 million service members received a smallpox vaccination between December 2002 and December 2017. Currently, it is believed that approximately 60,000 US military personnel are vaccinated each year, mostly in the global response force. This represents hundreds of potential cases of myocarditis and pericarditis among vaccinated troops. Since the threat of intentional or accidental release of VARV and the reemergence of smallpox has not completely disappeared, we believe efforts to develop safer smallpox vaccines must continue.

 

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In the post-eradication world, the risk of variola infection is low, so non-replicating vaccines like Jynneos have an appropriate ratio of risk and benefit. However, in a potential post-reintroduction world, we believe live replicating virus vaccines like TNX-801 would be administered to healthy, immunocompetent, non-pregnant adults without risk factors such as eczema or heart disease. The assessment of efficacy of modern smallpox vaccines and the expected benefit of vaccination policy are based on the historical success of predicate live replicating vaccinia vaccines to control smallpox during the time the disease was endemic. We believe TNX-801 has the potential to have improved tolerability relative to replicating vaccinia vaccines and the potential to have improved efficacy relative to non-replicating vaccinia vaccines.

 

The FDA approved Jynneos in 2019 based on the demonstration of immunologic non-inferiority to ACAM2000 in humans (peak serum neutralizing antibody titers) and protection against monkeypox virus (MPXV) challenge in a non-human primate (NHP) model. While live replicating vaccinia virus vaccines are administered by a single percutaneous scarification procedure, Jynneos is administered by subcutaneous injection and requires two injections separated by a month or more to induce acceptable neutralizing antibodies.

 

We intend to meet with the FDA to discuss the most efficient and appropriate investigational plan to establish the safety and effectiveness evidence to support the licensure TNX-801. We recently filed a patent on the novel virus vaccine. In addition, 12 years of non-patent-based exclusivity is expected under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or PPACA. Following the recent passage of the 21st Century Cures Act, we believe TNX-801 qualifies as a medical countermeasure, and therefore should be eligible for a Priority Review Voucher upon receiving FDA licensure. However, the Priority Review Voucher program provision of the 21st Century Cures Act is set to expire in 2023. If TNX-801 does not receive FDA licensure by 2023, we may not be able to capitalize on the incentives contained in the 21st Century Cures Act unless the provision allowing for the Priority Review Voucher Program is extended until such time as TNX-801 is licensed. We are currently working to develop a vaccine that meets cGMP quality to support an IND study.

 

TNX-102 SL

 

Overview

 

TNX-102 SL, in clinical development for registration in four indications. TNX-102 SL is a proprietary sublingual tablet formulation of CBP that efficiently delivers CBP across the oral mucosal membrane into the systemic circulation. We are developing TNX-102 SL as a bedtime treatment for FM and PTSD. We own all rights to TNX-102 SL in all geographies, and we bear no obligations to third-parties for any future development or commercialization. Excipients used in TNX-102 SL are approved for pharmaceutical use. Some of the excipients were specially selected to promote a local oral environment that facilitates mucosal absorption of CBP. 

 

 The current TNX-102 SL sublingual tablets contain 2.8 mg of CBP. For the treatment of FM and PTSD, TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg (two 2.8 mg tablets) at bedtime is in Phase 3 development. We selected this dose with the goal of providing a balance of efficacy, safety, and tolerability that would be acceptable as a first-line therapy and for long-term use, and in-patient populations characterized by burdensome symptoms and sensitivity to medications.

 

The active ingredient in TNX-102 SL, is cyclobenzaprine or CBP, a serotonin-2A and alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist as well as an inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. In addition, TNX-102 SL acts upon other receptors in the central nervous system not targeted by products approved for PTSD, including the serotonin-2A, adrenergic alpha-1, muscarinic M1 and histaminergic H1 receptors.

 

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CBP is the active ingredient of two products that are approved in the U.S. for the treatment of muscle spasm: Flexeril® (5 mg and 10 mg oral immediate-release, or IR, tablet) and Amrix® (15 mg and 30 mg oral extended-release capsule). The Flexeril brand of CBP IR tablet has been discontinued since May 2013. There are numerous generic versions of CBP IR tablets on the market. CBP-containing products are approved for short term use (two to three weeks) only as an adjunct to rest and physical therapy for relief of muscle spasm associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. IR CBP tablets are recommended for three times per day dosing, which results in relatively stable blood levels of CBP after several days of treatment. Extended-release CBP capsules taken once a day mimic, and flatten, the pharmacokinetic profile of three times per day IR CBP tablets.

 

We designed TNX-102 SL to be administered once-daily at bedtime and with the intention for long-term use. We believe the selected dose of TNX-102 SL and its unique pharmacokinetic profile will enable it to achieve a desirable balance of efficacy, safety, and tolerability in PTSD and FM. Our Phase 1 comparative trials showed that, on a dose-adjusted basis, TNX-102 SL results in faster systemic absorption and significantly higher plasma levels of CBP in the first hour following sublingual administration relative to oral IR CBP tablets. It also showed that the sublingual route of administration, which largely bypasses the “first pass” hepatic metabolism that swallowed medications undergo, results in a higher plasma ratio of CBP to its main active metabolite, norcyclobenzaprine. In clinical studies, TNX-102 SL 2.8 mg and TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg were generally well-tolerated, with no drug-related serious and unexpected adverse reactions reported in these studies. Some subjects experienced transient numbness of the tongue after TNX-102 SL administration.

 

We have successfully completed the pivotal exposure bridging study with TNX-102 SL using Amrix as the reference listed drug or RLD.  Results from this study support the approval of TNX-102 SL under Section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA. In general, the development timeline for a 505(b)(2) NDA is shorter and less expensive than an NDA developed under Section 505(b)(1), which is for new chemical entities, or NCEs, that have never been approved in the U.S. We believe that TNX-102 SL has the potential to provide clinical benefit to FM and PTSD patients and possibly other CNS (central nervous system) indications that are underserved by currently marketed products or have no approved treatment.

 

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TNX 102 SL – FM program 

 

We are developing TNX-102 SL as a bedtime treatment for FM under an effective IND application. The approval of TNX-102 SL for FM will be under Section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA.

 

Clinical Development Plan

 

Ongoing Phase 3 RELIEF Study (F304)

 

We are enrolling patients into the Phase 3 RELIEF study. We enrolled the first patient in December 2019. The RELIEF study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled adaptive design trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TNX-102 SL in FM. The trial is expected to enroll approximately 470 patients across approximately 40 U.S. sites. For the first two weeks of treatment, there will be a run-in period in which patients will start on TNX-102 SL 2.8 mg (1 tablet) or placebo. After the first two weeks, all patients will have the dose increased to TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg (2 x 2.8 mg tablets) or two placebo tablets for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint is daily diary pain severity score change from baseline to Week 14 (using the weekly averages of the daily numerical rating scale scores), analyzed by mixed model repeated measures with multiple imputation.

 

The RELIEF study is expected to have one unblinded interim analysis by an IDMC when the study has results from approximately the first 50% of efficacy-evaluable patients, pending agreement with the FDA. We expect results from the interim analysis in the third quarter of 2020 and topline results from this study in the first half of 2021, assuming the target population remains 470 patients, however, we cannot predict whether the global COVID-19 pandemic will impact the timing of our interim analysis and topline results.

 

Completed Phase 3 AFFIRM Study (F301)

 

In the third quarter of 2016, we announced the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week Phase 3 study of TNX-102 SL in 519 participants with FM, which we refer to as the AFFIRM study. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential clinical benefit of using TNX-102 SL to treat FM at a dose of 2.8 mg, administered sublingually once daily at bedtime for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint of the AFFIRM trial was the 30% pain responder analysis in which a responder is defined as a subject for whom pain intensity was reduced by at least 30% at Week 12 as compared to baseline. AFFIRM did not achieve statistical significance at the primary endpoint (p=0.095). Yet, statistical significance was achieved when pain was analyzed instead as a continuous variable, either by MMRM (p<0.001) or by MMRM with multiple imputation for missing data (p=0.005), a generally accepted approach to pain data. TNX-102 SL also showed statistically significant improvements in the declared secondary analyses of the Patient Global Impression of Change, or PGIC (p=0.038) and the FM Impact Questionnaire-Revised, or FIQ-R (p<0.001). The study also showed statistically significant improvement with TNX-102 SL on measures of sleep quality, including the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, or PROMIS, Sleep Disturbance instrument (p<0.001). We believe that given the consistent results of the analyses of pain as a continuous endpoint, as well as the nominal significance shown on multiple key secondary endpoints, TNX-102-SL 2.8 mg taken daily at bedtime for 12 weeks showed meaningful clinical benefit in this typical FM population. Although, in light of improved results in PTSD with the higher TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg dose, and also better effects on pain in PTSD of 5.6 mg over 2.8 mg, it was predicted that TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg would have a stronger effect on pain in FM. 

 

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TNX-102 SL was well tolerated in the AFFIRM trial. Among patients randomized to the active and control arms, 78% and 86%, respectively, completed the 12-week dosing period. The most common adverse events were local in nature, with transient tongue or mouth numbness occurring in 40% of participants on TNX-102 SL vs. 1% on placebo. These local adverse events did not appear to affect either rates of retention of study participants or their compliance with taking TNX-102 SL. Systemic adverse events were similar between TNX-102 SL and placebo. No serious adverse events were reported.

 

Completed Phase 2b BESTFIT Study (F202)

 

In the third quarter of 2014, we announced the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week Phase 2b study of TNX-102 SL in 205 participants with FM, which we refer to as the BESTFIT study. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential clinical benefit of using TNX-102 SL to treat FM at a dose of 2.8 mg, administered sublingually once daily at bedtime for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure of the BESTFIT trial was the mean change in week 12 average daily pain intensity from baseline on the 11-point Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), using a daily telephonic diary. BESTFIT did not achieve statistical significance in the primary outcome measure (p=0.172), whereas TNX-102 SL 2.8 mg did show a statistically significant effect on pain as measured by a 30% responder analysis of the primary pain data (p=0.033). The 30% response rate in the final analysis was 34.0% in the active treatment arm as compared to 20.6% in the control arm. The BESTFIT trial also showed statistically significant improvements with TNX-102 SL in the declared secondary analyses of the PGIC (p=0.025) and the FIQ-R (p=0.015). The study showed statistically significant improvement with TNX-102 SL on measures of sleep quality, including the PROMIS, Sleep Disturbance instrument (p=0.004). In addition, statistically significant improvements with TNX-102 SL were observed on several FIQ-R items (pain, sleep quality, anxiety, stiffness, and sensitivity) as well as on the overall symptom subdomain.

 

TNX-102 SL was well tolerated in the BESTFIT trial. Among patients randomized to the active and control arms, 86% and 83%, respectively, completed the 12-week dosing period. The most common adverse events were local in nature, with transient tongue or mouth numbness occurring in 44% of participants on TNX-102 SL vs. 2% on placebo, and bitter taste in 8% on TNX-102 SL compared to none on placebo. These local adverse events did not appear to affect either rates of retention of study participants or their compliance with taking TNX-102 SL. Systemic adverse events were similar between TNX-102 SL and placebo. No serious and unexpected adverse events were reported.

 

Regulatory Update

 

In October 2011, we filed the first IND for TNX-102 SL 2.8 mg indicated for the management of FM.

 

In February 2013, we had a Type B End-of-Phase 2/Pre-Phase 3 meeting with the FDA to discuss the study design of the Phase 2b BESTFIT study and the proposed 505(b)(2) NDA package to support the approval of TNX-102 SL for FM.  In June 2013, we received the FDA’s acceptance of the final Phase 2b BESTFIT study design, which was positioned as a pivotal efficacy study. 

 

In April 2015, we received the FDA’s acceptance on the Phase 3 AFFIRM study design and in August 2016, we reached an agreement with the FDA on the AFFIRM statistical analysis plan.  

 

In May 2015, we received FDA conditional acceptance of the proposed proprietary name, Tonmya, for TNX-102 SL for FM.  

 

In September 2015, we reached an agreement with the FDA on the Initial Pediatric Study Plan for FM.  The FDA has accepted our request to waive studies in pediatric patients from birth to 12 years of age.

 

In February 2016, we had a Type B End-of-Phase 2 CMC meeting with the FDA to review our proposed CMC data to support the NDA submission and discuss our plan to establish regulatory specifications for the commercial product.  Based on the FDA official meeting minutes received on in March 2016, FDA accepted our NDA CMC plan and proposal to establish regulatory specifications for commercial product.

 

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In December 2016, we notified FDA in our IND annual update that the FM development program was put on hold for business reasons after the Phase 3 AFFIRM study topline data was reported in September 2016. 

 

In April 2017, we withdrew the proposed proprietary name, Tonmya, for TNX-102 SL for FM. 

 

In March 2019, we had a Type C Clinical Guidance meeting with the FDA to discuss the clinical development plan for TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg and obtained the FDA’s agreement on the Phase 3 RELIEF study design to support the FM indication.

 

Other NDA Requirements

 

The Agreed Initial Pediatric Study Plan, or Agreed iPSP, was accepted by the FDA in September 2015). Updates to the Agreed iPSP will be submitted after we confirm the therapeutic dose in adults from the ongoing Phase 3 RECOVERY study, which was initiated in December 2019.

 

Based on our discussions with the FDA and the FDA official meeting minutes, we will not have to conduct special populations, such as geriatric and renal/hepatic impaired patients, drug-drug interaction or cardiovascular safety studies to support the TNX-102 SL NDA filing since the pivotal systemic exposure bridging study using Amrix as the reference listed drug, or RLD, has been successfully completed. Due to the well-established safety profile of CBP at much higher doses than we proposed for FM and the long-term safety data in PTSD, up to 15 months, on TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg, the FDA has not requested a risk management plan or medication guide for this product.

 

TNX-102 SL – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Program

 

We are developing TNX-102 SL as a bedtime treatment of PTSD under an effective IND application. The approval of TNX-102 SL for PTSD will be under Section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA. 

 

Ongoing Phase 3 RECOVERY Study (P302)

 

 We initiated the RECOVERY study (P302) in March 2019. The RECOVERY Phase 3 study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg (2 x 2.8 mg sublingual tablets) over 12 weeks of treatment. The RECOVERY study is being conducted at approximately 30 U.S. sites.  The study planned to enroll 250 participants with civilian and military-related PTSD.  The design of this study was guided based on the results of the Phase 3 HONOR study and Phase 2 AtEase study. RECOVERY restricts enrollment of study participants to individuals with PTSD who experienced an index trauma within nine years of screening. The two previous PTSD studies of TNX-102 SL (P201 and P301) restricted enrollment to participants who experienced traumas during military service since 2001.  The primary efficacy endpoint is the Week 12 mean change from baseline in the severity of PTSD symptoms as measured by CAPS-5 between those treated with TNX-102 SL and those receiving placebo.  Based on interim analysis results of the first 50% of enrolled participants, an Independent Data Monitoring Committee recommended stopping the Phase 3 RECOVERY trial (P302) in PTSD for futility as TNX-102 SL was unlikely to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in the primary endpoint of overall change from baseline in the severity of PTSD symptoms between those treated with TNX-102 SL and those receiving placebo. New enrollment for the RECOVERY study was stopped in February 2020, but we intend to continue studying those participants currently enrolled until completion and then proceed with a full analysis of the unblinded data to determine the next steps in this program. Topline data are expected in the second quarter of 2020.

 

Discontinued Phase 3 HONOR Study (P301)

 

In the third quarter of 2018, we announced the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 3 study of TNX-102 SL, planned for enrollment of approximately 550 participants with military-related PTSD conducted at approximately 40 U.S. sites, which we refer to as the HONOR study. This study was an adaptive design study based on the results of the Phase 2 AtEase study. The study design was very similar to the Phase 2 AtEase study, except there was one planned IA and the involvement of an IDMC, which reviewed the unblinded IA results. In addition, only one active dose (5.6 mg administered as 2 x 2.8 mg tablets) was investigated and the baseline severity entrance criterion was a CAPS-5 total score ≥ 33 in this Phase 3 study. The primary efficacy endpoint of the HONOR study was the 12-week mean change from baseline in the severity of PTSD symptoms as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5, or CAPS-5, between those treated with TNX-102 SL and those receiving placebo. The CAPS-5 is a standardized structured clinical interview and serves as the standard in research for measuring the symptom severity of PTSD.  The IA was conducted when approximately 50% of the initially planned participant enrollment was evaluable for efficacy. HONOR was discontinued after the results of the IA indicated a pre-defined threshold p-value for continuing enrollment was not achieved.  The modified Intent-to-Treat (mITT) population analyzed at the time of the IA included 252 participants.

 

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The HONOR study demonstrated that TNX-102 SL was well tolerated and that the 5.6 mg (administered as 2 x 2.8 mg tablets) dose showed meaningful improvement in overall PTSD symptoms at Week 4. At Week 4, the TNX-102 SL treated group separated from placebo in CAPS-5 (p = 0.019) and in the Clinical Global Impression – Improvement (CGI-I) scale (p = 0.015), a key secondary endpoint. A CGI-I responder analysis, with responder defined as ‘much improved’ or ‘very much improved’ on the CGI-I, demonstrated significantly greater responders in the TNX-102 SL group (29.1% v 45.6%; p=0.007) at Week 4.  Also, at Week 4, sleep quality improved as measured by both the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance scale (p=0.015) and the CAPS-5 sleep disturbance item (p=0.002), supporting the proposed mechanism of action of TNX-102 SL. And the CAPS-5 reckless or self-destructive behavior item at Week 4 was significantly more improved (p=0.013). Safety data from these participants did not reveal any serious and unexpected adverse events. The most common adverse events were mostly related to local administration site reactions, such as oral hypoaesthesia (37.3%), abnormal product taste (11.9%), and oral paraesthesia (9.7%). The most common systemic adverse event was somnolence (15.7%).

 

Retrospective analysis of the HONOR study revealed a treatment effect in participants who experienced trauma less than or equal to nine years prior to screening. In the participants who experienced trauma within nine years, the p-value of the CAPS-5 primary endpoint at Week 12, using mixed model repeated measures with multiple imputation (MMRM with MI), was 0.039, with a least-squares mean difference from placebo of -5.9 units. In contrast, there was no difference in CAPS-5 in the participants who experienced trauma more than nine years prior to screening compared to placebo. This analysis defined an optimal treatment window for treatment with TNX-102 SL for PTSD of the first nine years after the index trauma that resulted in PTSD and guided the design of the currently ongoing Phase 3 RECOVERY study.

 

Completed Phase 2 AtEase Study (P201)

 

  In the second quarter of 2016, we announced the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week Phase 2 study of TNX-102 SL in participants with military-related PTSD, which we refer to as the AtEase study. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential clinical benefit of using TNX-102 SL to treat military-related PTSD at a dose of 2.8 mg or 5.6 mg (2 x 2.8 mg tablets). The AtEase study demonstrated that TNX-102 SL was well tolerated and that the 5.6 mg dose of TNX-102 SL had a therapeutic effect as assessed by the CAPS-5 scale, which was statistically significant by MMRM with MI analysis (p-value = 0.031). The AtEase study also demonstrated that although the 2.8 mg dose trended in the direction of a therapeutic effect, it did not reach statistical significance on the primary endpoint, a 12-week mean change from baseline in the severity of PTSD symptoms as measured by the CAPS-5 scale.

 

Four distinct serious adverse events, or SAEs, were reported in the AtEase study; three were in the placebo group, and one (proctitis/peri-rectal abscess) in the TNX-102 SL arm, which was determined to be unrelated to TNX-102 SL. The most common non-dose-related adverse events were mild and transient local administration site conditions. Systemic adverse events that were potentially dose-related and occurred in greater than or equal to 5% of participants treated with the 2.8 mg or 5.6 mg dose included: somnolence (drowsiness), dry mouth, headache, insomnia, and sedation. For the participants treated with the 2.8 mg dose, the incidence of the most common systemic adverse events reported above were less frequent than participants treated with the 5.6 mg dose with the exception of insomnia, which was 8.5% in placebo, 7.5% in TNX-102 SL 2.8 mg, and 6.0% in TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg.

 

 The primary MMRM analysis of the AtEase study, which controlled for baseline severity, indicated greater response to TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg in those with greater PTSD severity by CAPS-5 at baseline. As the first industry PTSD trial to employ the CAPS-5 (based on the DSM-5 published in 2013), it was not clear what was the ideal severity threshold for randomization into the study comparable to the standard threshold used in precedent studies that employed prior versions of the CAPS. Retrospective analysis imputing scores for all participants assuming a prior version of CAPS suggested a CAPS-5 baseline threshold for randomization of 33 or higher was equivalent to the threshold used in precedent PTSD studies on prior CAPS versions. 

 

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A retrospective analysis of the subgroup of participants in AtEase with baseline CAPS-5 score of 33 or higher supported the hypothesized mechanism of sleep quality improvement, since sleep improvement at Week 4, measured by the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance instrument, predicted treatment response (by improvement in total CAPS-5 score without the sleep item) at Week 12 in the TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg group (p = 0.01, linear regression), whereas these measures were not related in placebo.

 

Open-label Extension Study for AtEase

 

Participants who completed the AtEase study were eligible to enroll into a 12-week open-label extension (OLE) study with TNX-102 SL 2.8 mg. We conducted this open-label extension study to obtain additional safety information from participants in the AtEase study. TNX-102 SL 2.8 mg was well tolerated for up to six months of treatment and no new safety signals were revealed in this open-label extension study.

 

Long-Term Safety Exposure Study for TNX-102 SL

 

In October 2019, we completed long-term safety exposure studies in participants with PTSD to evaluate the tolerability of TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg to support an NDA for the treatment of PTSD.  The data provide us with exposure data of daily dosing of TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg for at least 12 months in more than 50 individuals, and daily dosing of TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg for at least 6 months in more than 100 individuals. The data was collected in OLE studies of the PTSD program.  Based on the FDA’s guidance, the long-term safety exposure studies in PTSD are also expected to support an NDA for the management of FM.

 

Regulatory Update

 

In May 2014, we submitted an IND for TNX-102 SL indicated for the treatment of PTSD.

 

In December 2016, the FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy designation, or BTD, to TNX-102 SL for the treatment of PTSD. The Breakthrough Therapy designation request was based on the preliminary clinical evidence of TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg on military-related PTSD in the AtEase study.

 

In March 2017, we held the Initial Cross-Disciplinary Breakthrough Therapy Type B meeting with the FDA to discuss the opportunity to accelerate the development and submission of the TNX-102 SL NDA for the treatment of PTSD. Due to the lack of evidence of potential abuse in clinical studies of TNX-102 SL, the FDA agreed that studies in assessing abuse and dependency potential of TNX-102 SL are not required to support the TNX-102 SL NDA filing.

 

In June 2017, the FDA conditionally accepted the proposed trade name Tonmya® for TNX-102 SL for the treatment of PTSD.

 

In September 2017, we had a Breakthrough Therapy Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls (“CMC”) guidance meeting with the FDA regarding the CMC data required to support the TNX-102 SL NDA and commercial product.  We received the FDA official meeting minutes from that meeting in October 2017 that reflect our readiness to manufacture TNX-102 SL commercial product at production scale if an NDA could have been submitted based on the HONOR study. In principle, our proposed CMC data package to support TNX-102 SL’s NDA approval and commercial manufacturing plans was acceptable to the FDA.

 

In April 2018, we held a Breakthrough Therapy Type B Statistical Guidance teleconference meeting with the FDA to reach an agreement on the statistical methods in the Statistical Analysis Plan (SAP) and Interim SAP (ISAP) for the Phase 3 HONOR study. The final SAP and ISAP was accepted by the FDA in June 2018.

 

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In October 2018, subsequent to reporting the Phase 3 HONOR study IA results, we held a Type B Clinical Guidance Meeting with the FDA in October 2018 to discuss the Phase 3 HONOR study results and the proposed design of the new Phase 3 RECOVERY study to support the registration of TNX-102 SL for the treatment of PTSD and the remaining data package for the NDA filing. We received the FDA’s acceptance of the RECOVERY trial design in November 2018, including the expansion to study both civilian and military-related PTSD, enrollment restricted to index traumas within nine years of screening, and primary endpoint of improvement of CAPS-5 from baseline as assessed at Week 4, with the first key secondary endpoint at Week 12.

 

In October 2018, we held a Breakthrough Therapy Type B CMC Guidance teleconference meeting with the FDA to seek acceptance of the proposed regulatory specifications for TNX-102 SL commercial product.

 

In December 2018, the FDA issued an Intent-to-Rescind letter for BTD status for TNX-102 SL for the treatment of PTSD because the IA results of the HONOR study did not meet the criteria for the BTD granted in December 2016.

 

In March 2019, the FDA rescinded the BTD, but subsequently withdrew the BTD rescission in April 2019 and granted a meeting in August 2019 to discuss the continuation of BTD for TNX-102 SL.

 

In August 2019, we held a Breakthrough Therapy Type B Meeting for continuing BT designation with the FDA. FDA agreed to consider the Phase 3 HONOR study additional data and information we presented at the meeting. The FDA’s decision for whether to maintain BTD for TNX-102 SL for PTSD is pending. The FDA will inform us of the BTD decision, but no timeframe was given.

 

In October 2019, we held of Breakthrough Therapy Type B Clinical Guidance meeting with the FDA to discuss the timing of the primary endpoint in the currently ongoing RECOVERY study. Based on guidance from the FDA, the timing of the primary endpoint analysis of improvement of CAPS-5 from baseline was changed from Week 4 to Week 12, and the interim analysis allowing for a potential sample size adjustment was added to the study. In February 2020, based on interim analysis results of the first 50% of enrolled participants, an Independent Data Monitoring Committee recommended stopping the Phase 3 RECOVERY trial (P302) in PTSD for futility as TNX-102 SL was unlikely to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in the primary endpoint of overall change from baseline in the severity of PTSD symptoms between those treated with TNX-102 SL and those receiving placebo. New enrollment for the RECOVERY study was stopped in February 2020, but we intend to continue studying those participants currently enrolled until completion and then proceed with a full analysis of the unblinded data to determine the next steps in this program. Topline data from the RECOVERY trial is expected in the second quarter of 2020.

 

Other NDA Requirements

 

An Agreed Initial Pediatric Study Plan, or Agreed iPSP, is required for the initial NDA submission. We submitted a revised iPSP in the first quarter of 2017, which incorporated the FDA comments received on our iPSP submitted in the third quarter of 2016. Additional comments from the FDA were received in second quarter of 2017 on our revised iPSP. We plan to submit an Agreed PSP once a therapeutic dose in adults is established. An acceptable Pediatric Study Plan will be determined at the time of the NDA approval.

 

Based on our discussions with the FDA and the FDA official meeting minutes, we will not have to conduct special populations (geriatric and renal/hepatic impaired), drug-drug interaction or cardiovascular safety studies to support the TNX-102 SL NDA filing since the pivotal systemic exposure bridging study using AMRIX as the reference listed drug, or RLD, has been successfully completed. Due to the well-established safety profile of CBP at much higher doses than we proposed for PTSD and the long-term safety data (up to 15 months) on TNX-102 SL 2.8 mg in a prior FM program, the FDA has not requested a risk management plan or medication guide for this product.

 

 Phase 1 Bioequivalence, Bridging PK, Food-Effect and Dose-Proportionality Studies

 

Completed Bioequivalence Study

 

We completed a Phase 1 bioequivalence study that compared the pharmacokinetic profiles of a single-dose of TNX-102 SL 2.8 mg tablets manufactured at two facilities: (i) the facility used to produce TNX-102 SL 2.8 mg tablets for the Phase 2 AtEase study; and (ii) the facility used to produce TNX-102 SL 2.8.mg tablets for our clinical studies required to support the PTSD NDA submission and the to-be-marketed product. This bioequivalence study demonstrated that TNX-102 SL, 2.8 mg tablets manufactured at these two facilities were bioequivalent, supporting the use of the AtEase study to support the Phase 3 studies.

 

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Completed Multi-dose Bridging PK Study

  

We intend to seek the FDA’s marketing approval for TNX-102 SL pursuant to Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA using AMRIX® extended-release, or ER, capsules (30 mg) as our RLD. We completed a study of TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg (2 x 2.8 mg tablets) in comparison to AMRIX 30 mg ER capsules in a randomized, open-label, parallel, multiple-dose bridging PK study to provide a systemic exposure bridge.  The TNX-102 SL initial dose and at steady state exposures were less than the RLD maximum approved dose (30 mg) and the metabolic profile was similar to AMRIX. The results of this study provide the necessary systemic exposure bridge of TNX-102 SL to AMRIX. The approval of TNX-102 SL for PTSD can thus rely on the safety findings (clinical and nonclinical) and relevant labeling information in the approved AMRIX prescribing information.

 

Food Effect and Dose-proportionality Study

 

To support the TNX-102 SL product registration, a randomized, open-label, 3-way crossover, food-effect, dose-proportionality, comparative bioavailability study of TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg following a single dose in healthy subjects under fasting and fed conditions, and comparing TNX-102 SL 2.8 mg to TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg (administered as 2 x 2.8 mg tablets) in healthy subjects under fasting conditions has been completed (TNX-CY-F110). Preliminary results from this study confirmed that the rate and extent of absorption of cyclobenzaprine and its long-lived metabolite, norcyclobenzaprine, increased in a dose-proportional manner from 2.8 mg to 5.6 mg of TNX-102 SL. No food effect was observed for cyclobenzaprine or norcyclobenzaprine for TNX-102 SL 5.6 mg.

 

Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride Nonclinical Development

 

The FDA has accepted our proposed nonclinical data package to support our PTSD NDA filing. In October 2016, we completed the six-month repeated-dose toxicology study of the active ingredient, CBP, in rats and a nine-month repeated-dose toxicology study in dogs required for the NDA filing and to support Phase 3 clinical studies outside the U.S., if necessary. These chronic toxicity studies were requested by the FDA to augment the nonclinical information in the AMRIX prescribing information, or labeling, which is necessary to support the TNX-102 SL labeling for long-term use. Due to the lack of evidence of potential abuse in clinical studies of TNX-102 SL, the FDA agreed that nonclinical study to assess CBP abuse and dependency potential is not required to support the TNX-102 SL NDA filing.

 

Manufacturing

 

TNX-102 SL drug product for Phase 3 and the associated registration batches for the NDA are manufactured at a commercial cGMP facility. We currently have in excess of 24 months stability data in a number of packaging configurations ready for commercialization. The FDA has accepted our proposed CMC data package to support TNX-102 SL’s NDA approval and commercial manufacturing plans, reflecting our readiness to manufacture TNX-102 SL commercial product at production scale.

 

TNX 102 SL – Agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease

 

Regulatory Update

 

In November 2017, we held a pre-IND meeting with the FDA to discuss our proposed development of TNX-102 SL for the treatment of AAD. We received the formal minutes from that meeting in December 2017 that reflect that we have the data needed to file an IND to support a Phase 2 study which can potentially be one of the pivotal efficacy studies. In April 2018, the FDA cleared our IND to support a Phase 2 potential pivotal efficacy study.

 

In July 2018, the FDA granted Fast Track Therapy designation to TNX-102 SL for the treatment of AAD.

 

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In September 2018, we received the FDA’s comments on our proposed Phase 2 potential pivotal efficacy study protocol. The proposed Phase 2 study can potentially serve as a pivotal efficacy study to support NDA approval.

 

TNX 102 SL – Alcohol Use Disorder

 

Regulatory Update

 

In October 2019, we held a Type B pre-IND meeting with the FDA to discuss our proposed 505(b)(2) development plan for TNX-102 SL as a treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD). We received the formal minutes from that meeting in November 2019 which provided guidance and feedback supportive of our clinical development plans.

 

Based on this feedback, we plan to submit an IND application in the first half of 2020, however, we cannot predict whether the global COVID-19 pandemic will impact the timing of our IND submission.  Upon receiving FDA clearance of an IND application, this program will be Phase 2 proof-of-concept ready and is expected to qualify for the 505(b)(2) pathway for approval.

 

Additional Product Candidates

 

We also have a pipeline of other drug and biologic candidates, including, TNX-601 CR, a pre-IND daytime treatment for depression, PTSD and Neurocognitive Dysfunction from Corticosteroids; TNX-701, a preclinical drug for radioprotection; TNX-1200, a preclinical smallpox vaccine, TNX-1300, a Phase 2 treatment for cocaine intoxication, TNX-1500 a preclinical treatment for transplant organ rejection and autoimmune conditions, TNX-1600, a preclinical treatment for PTSD, ADHD and depression and TNX-1700 a preclinical treatment for cancers of the gastrointestinal system.

 

TNX-601 CR

 

TNX-601 is a novel oral controlled release, or CR, formulation of tianeptine oxalate in the pre-IND stage of development for the once-daily treatment for depression and PTSD. Currently there is no tianeptine-containing product approved in the U.S., but tianeptine sodium (amorphous) immediate release tablets have been marketed in Europe, Asia, and Latin America as a three-times-a-day treatment for depression since 1987. Tianeptine sodium is reportedly effective in various depressive states and also improves depression-associated anxiety and somatic complaints. We have discovered a novel oxalate salt and polymorph, which we believe may provide improved stability, consistency, and manufacturability relative to the known forms of tianeptine. Like CBP, tianeptine shares structural similarities with classic tricyclic antidepressants, but it has unique pharmacological and neurochemical properties. Tianeptine modulates the glutamatergic system indirectly and reverses the neuroplastic changes that are observed during periods of stress and corticosteroid use. It is a weak mu-opioid receptor agonist, but does not have significant affinity for other known neurotransmitter receptors. Due to its decades of use in Europe, Asia, and Latin America, tianeptine has an established safety profile. In addition to being used to treat depression, several published studies support the potential of tianeptine as an effective and safe therapy for patients with PTSD. Leveraging our development expertise in PTSD, TNX-601 CR is being developed for daytime usage as a first-line monotherapy for depression, PTSD and neurocognitive dysfunction from corticosteroids use. Tianeptine’s reported pro-cognitive and anxiolytic effects as well as its ability to attenuate the neuropathological effects of excessive stress responses suggest that it may be used to treat PTSD by a different mechanism of action than TNX-102 SL.

 

We intend to develop TNX-601 CR under Section 505(b)(1) of the FDCA as a potential daytime treatment for depression and PTSD. TNX-601 CR will also be developed as a treatment for a potential indication, neurocognitive dysfunction associated with corticosteroid use. Pharmaceutical development work on TNX-601 CR has been initiated. We completed a non-IND formulation selection pharmacokinetic study ex-U.S. in the fourth quarter of 2019.

 

TNX-701

 

We own rights to intellectual property on a biodefense technology relating to the development of protective agents against radiation exposure, which we refer to as TNX-701. We have begun nonclinical research and development on TNX-701. We plan to develop TNX-701 under the Animal Rule, which is applicable when human efficacy studies are not ethical or feasible.

 

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TNX-1200

 

TNX-1200 is a live, replicating vaccinia virus vaccine that we are developing for the protection against smallpox. Currently, there are two smallpox vaccines approved by the FDA, one of which is also indicated for monkeypox. Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine, Live (ACAM2000®) was approved in 2007 and is indicated for active immunization against smallpox disease in persons determined to be at high risk for smallpox infection. In September 2019, the FDA approved Jynneos® (MVA-BN), Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine, Live, Non-replicating. Jynneos is indicated for the prevention of smallpox and monkeypox disease in adults 18 years of age and older determined to be at high risk for smallpox or monkeypox infection. TNX-1200 may be indicated for healthy, immunocompetent non-pregnant individuals, without a history of eczema or cardiac disease, and as part of a public health vaccination policy to respond to an event of variola reintroduction. The assessment of efficacy of modern smallpox vaccines and the expected benefit of vaccination policy are based on the historical success of predicate live replicating vaccinia vaccines to control smallpox during the time the disease was endemic.

 

Both of the FDA approved smallpox vaccines are purchased by the Strategic National Stockpile or SNS. We believe that the SNS will continue to be stocked primarily with a live replicating virus vaccine and secondarily with a non-replicating virus. The U.S. SNS currently keeps more than 300 million doses to protein the U.S. population in the event of reintroduction of variola. In the post-eradication world, the risk of variola is low, so non-replicating vaccines have a favorable risk to benefit ratio. However, in a potential post-reintroduction world, we believe live replicating virus vaccines like TNX-1200 would have a positive benefit/risk ratio.

 

Competition

 

 Our industry is highly competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological change. Our potential competitors include large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, specialty pharmaceutical and generic drug companies, academic institutions, government agencies and research institutions. We believe that key competitive factors that will affect the development and commercial success of our product candidates are efficacy, safety, tolerability, reliability, price and reimbursement level. Many of our potential competitors, including many of the organizations named below, have substantially greater financial, technical and human resources than we do and significantly greater experience in the discovery and development of product candidates, obtaining the FDA’s and other regulatory approvals of products and the commercialization of those products. Accordingly, our competitors may be more successful than we may be in obtaining FDA approval for drugs and achieving widespread market acceptance. Our competitors’ drugs may be more effective, or more effectively marketed and sold, than any drug we may commercialize and may render our product candidates obsolete or non-competitive before we can recover the expenses of developing and commercializing any of our product candidates. We anticipate that we will face intense and increasing competition as new drugs enter the market and advanced technologies become available. Further, the development of new treatment methods for the conditions we are targeting could render our drugs non-competitive or obsolete.

 

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Projects

 

The activity for developing vaccines for COVID-2019 is competitive and includes companies and academic institutions. Sanofi, Johnson & Johnson, Geovax Labs / BravoVax, CanSino Biologics, Greffex, and Codagenix are working on viral vector based vaccines. Moderna, CureVac, Inovio, Applied DNA Sciences / Takis Biotech, Zydus Cadlia, Stermina Therapeutics and the Imperial College London are working on RNA or DNA based vaccines. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) / Clover Biopharmaceuticals, Novavax, Altimmune, Vaxart, Generex Biotechnology, Vaxil Bio, iBio, Baylor College of Medicine / New York Blood Center, University of Queensland, University of Saskatchewan, University of Oxford / Advent Srl are working on protein-based vaccines.

 

Smallpox vaccines and antivirals

 

A number of companies are marketing or developing vaccines and treatments for smallpox, including Emergent BioSolutions, Bavarian Nordic, SIGA Technologies and Chimerix. Emergent BioSolutions markets ACAM2000, which is a replicating vaccinia vaccine for the prevention of smallpox.  Bavarian Nordic received FDA approval and markets Jynneos® (or Modified Virus Ankara, strain BN or MVA-BN), which is a non-replicating vaccinia virus vaccine for the prevention of smallpox and monkeypox. SIGA received FDA approval and markets TPOXX® (tecovirimat), which is an antiviral for smallpox. Chimerix is developing brincidofovir (CMX001), which is an antiviral.

 

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CNS Condition Therapeutics

 

The market for therapies to treat FM, PTSD and other CNS conditions is well developed and populated with established drugs marketed by large and small pharmaceutical, biotechnology and generic drug companies.

 

Fibromyalgia

 

Three drugs have been approved by the FDA for the management of FM: Pfizer’s Lyrica®, Lilly’s Cymbalta (duloxetine) and Forest’s Savella (Milnacipran). Each of these products has subsequently lost patent protection and is available in generic forms.

 

A number of companies are developing prescription medicines for FM, including Aptinyx (NYX-2925), Innovative Medical Concepts (celecoxib and famciclovir or IMC-1) and Axsome (eseboxetine or AXS-14). NYX-2925 is in Phase 2 for the treatment of FM and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and has been granted a Fast Track Designation by the FDA for DPN. IMC-1 has completed a successful Phase 2 trial and has been granted a Fast Track Designation by the FDA for the treatment of FM. AXS-14 (esreboxetine) was licensed by Axsome from Pfizer and already includes non-clinical and clinical data supporting its use in FM.

 

PTSD

 

In PTSD GlaxoSmithKline (Paxil®) and Pfizer (Zoloft®) developed and market Paxil® and Zoloft®, respectively for PTSD that are approved by the FDA. Paxil and Zoloft lost their U.S. patent exclusivities in 2003 and 2006, respectively.

 

Certain other companies and institutions are known to be developing prescription medications for PTSD, including Bionomics (BNC-201), Otsuka/Lundbeck (Rexulti® [brexpiprazole]), Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (riluzole), the Multidisciplinary Association of Psychedelic Studies (methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) and Aptinyx (NYX-783). Bionomics’ BNC-201 completed a Phase 2 for PTSD and Bionomics announced that after reformulation a new Phase 2 will be started.  BNC-201 is an allosteric modulator of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Rexulti is in Phase 3 for PTSD and is an atypical antipsychotic. Aptinyx drug (NYX-783) is Phase 2 for PTSD and is a modulator of the NMDA receptor.  Riluzole is in a Phase 2 trial for active duty military members and veterans with PTSD and is a blocker of certain sodium channels and a modulator of the glutamatergic system. MDMA is in Phase 3 for PTSD and is a DEA schedule 1 hallucinogen that is being studied for drug-assisted psychotherapy. MDMA was granted Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA in August 2017. Brainsway Ltd., a medical device company, is currently recruiting patients for a pivotal Phase 3 trial using a deep transcranial magnetic stimulation device for treatment of PTSD. A number of other companies and institutions have or may be developing prescription medications for PTSD, including: Mt. Sinai Hospital and Medical School in New York City is developing ketamine which is in Phase 2 and targets the NMDA receptor, Azevan Pharmaceuticals is developing SRX246 which is in Phase 2 and targets the vasopressin V1A receptor, University of California, San Diego (UCSD) is developing losartan which is in Phase 2 and is an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) are developing oxytocin which is in Phase 2 and targets the oxytocin receptor, Nobilis Therapeutics is developing NBTX-001, a noble gas, which is in Phase 2, EpiVario is developing inhibitors of Acetyl CoA synthetase, which is in Phase 1 and Seelos Therapeutics (recently merged with Apricus Biosciences) is developing an intranasal racemic ketamine to treat PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD).

 

Several companies have clinical candidates for which PTSD is being considered as a secondary indication. Johnson and Johnson is developing CERC-501 which is in Phase 2 for depression, targeting the kappa opioid receptor, Merck is studying Belsomra® (suvorexant) for PTSD, which is already approved for insomnia, NeuroRx is developing NRX-101 which is in Phase 2 for bipolar depression and which comprises a treatment regimen starting with ketamine, and followed by a proprietary combination of lurasidone and d-cycloserine, Roche is developing RG7314 which is in Phase 3 for Autism and was granted Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA in August 2017, Rodin Therapeutics has a preclinical candidate for Alzheimer’s disease that targets histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2 gene product), SpringWorks Therapeutics is developing PF-04457845 which is in Phase 2 for osteoarthritis and targets fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH).

 

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In addition, approved medications that are used off-label for the treatment of PTSD include: anti-depressants, such as nefazodone and trazodone; the antihistamine cyproheptadine; and certain atypical antipsychotics, such as olanzapine and risperidone and the high blood pressure medicine, prazosin.

 

Agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease

 

Additionally, a number of companies are developing prescription medicines for AAD, including Otsuka/Lundbeck (Rexulti® or brexpiprazole), Avanir/Otsuka (deudextromethorphan), Axsome (dextromethorphan/buproprion) and InterCellular (lumateperone). Rexulti® has completed two pivotal studies in AAD. Deudextromethorphan is in Phase 3 for the treatment of agitation in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Dextromethorphan/bupropion is in Phase 3 for the treatment of resistant depression and agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Lumateperone is in Phase 3 for treating behavioral disturbances associated with dementia and was recently approved as CAPLYTA® for the treatment of schizophrenia.

 

Although a number of companies are marketing or developing prescription medicines for sleep disorders, including Merck & Co, Purdue Pharma, Eisai, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson & Johnson and Sage Therapeutics, none of these sleep disorders drugs are approved for PTSD or AAD. Merck is marketing Belsomra® (suvorexant) and Eisai is marketing Dayvigo® (lemborexant) which are dual orexin receptor antagonists indicated for insomnia. GlaxoSmithKline is developing SB-649868 which is also a dual orexin receptor antagonist. Johnson & Johnson and Minerva Neurosciences are developing seltorexant which is a selective orexin-2 antagonist. Sage Therapeutics is developing SAGE-217 which is a neurosteroid derivative that acts as a positive allosteric modulator of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA receptors and was shown to increase sleep efficiency in a 5-hour phase advance model of insomnia.

 

Major Depressive Disorder

 

A number of companies are marketing prescription drugs for depression, including Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen division.  Janssen markets Spravato® (intranasal esketamine).  Many antidepressant medications are beyond their patent life and are generally produced by generic drug companies, including several compounds in the tricyclic class (e.g., amitriptyline), the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor class (e.g, fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline), the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor class (e.g., venlafaxine), as well as the norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, bupropion. A number of companies are developing novel prescription medicines for depression including Johnson & Johnson, Sage, Axsome, Relmada, BlackThorn, Clexio, Acadia, Allergan and Otsuka.  Janssen is developing JNJ-61393215, a selective orexin receptor type-1 antagonist, Sage Therapeutics is developing SAGE-217 or zuranolone, a neurosteroid. Axsome is developing AXS-05 or dextromethorphan/bupropion combination.  Relmada is developing REL-1017 or dextromethadone. BlackThorn is developing BTRX-335140, a selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist.  Clexio is developing adjunctive CLE-100, an oral NMDA modulator. Acadia is developing adjunctive pimavanserin for inadequate response to antidepressant treatment. Allergan is developing adjunctive cariprazine for inadequate response to antidepressant treatment. Otsuka is developing adjunctive brexpiprazole. Several academic institutions are studying ketamine as a fast-acting antidepressant, alone or in combination.

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD

 

Currently there are two main types of medication indicated by the FDA for managing the symptoms of ADHD: stimulants and non-stimulants. Stimulants exert their effect by increasing central dopamine and norepinephrine activity, thereby improving motivation, attention and movement. Commonly used stimulants include amphetamine-based stimulants (Adderall®, Dexedrine®, Dextrostat®), dextromethamphetamine (Desoxyn®), dextromethylphenidate (Focalin®), lisdeamfetamine demesylate (Vyvanse®), and several formulations of the stimulant methylphenidate (Concerta®, Daytrana®, Metadate®, Ritalin®). Non-stimulants act by increasing levels of norepinephrine, which is thought to improve attention and memory. FDA approved non-stimulants include the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine (Strattera®) as well as the α2-adrenergic agonists guanfacine (Intuniv®) and clonidine (Kapvay®). The stimulants are notoriously difficult for balancing efficacy against common adverse events that include anorexia and weight loss, mood lability and anxiety, insomnia, and addiction (dependence). A number of companies are developing drugs for the treatment of ADHD. Companies with late stage (Phase 3) studies on-going include Otsuka Pharmaceuticals (centanafadine, a triple reuptake inhibitor) and Supernus Pharmaceuticals (SPN-812 or viloxazine hydrochloride, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor).

 

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Intellectual Property

 

We believe that we have an extensive patent portfolio and substantial know-how relating to TNX-1800, TNX-801, TNX-102 SL and our other product candidates. Our patent portfolio, described more fully below, includes claims directed to TNX-102 SL compositions and methods of use. As of March 9, 2020, the patents we are either the owner of record of or own the contractual right to include 21 issued U.S. patents and 180 issued non-U.S. patents. We are actively pursuing an additional 22 U.S. patent applications, of which 7 are provisional and 15 are non-provisional, 4 international patent applications, and 102 non-U.S./non-international patent applications.

 

We strive to protect the proprietary technology that we believe is important to our business, including our proprietary technology platform, our product candidates, and our processes. We seek patent protection in the U.S. and internationally for our products, their methods of use and processes of manufacture, and any other technology to which we have rights, where available and when appropriate. We also rely on trade secrets that may be important to the development of our business.

 

 Our success will depend on 1) the ability to obtain and maintain patent and other proprietary rights in commercially important technology, inventions and know-how related to our business, 2) the validity and enforceability of our patents, 3) the continued confidentiality of our trade secrets, and 4) our ability to operate without infringing the valid and enforceable patents and proprietary rights of third parties. We also rely on continuing technological innovation and in-licensing opportunities to develop and maintain our proprietary position.

 

We cannot be certain that patents will be granted with respect to any of our pending patent applications or with respect to any patent applications we may own or license in the future, nor can we be certain that any of our existing patents or any patents we may own or license in the future will be useful in protecting our technology. For this and more comprehensive risks related to our intellectual property, please see “Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Intellectual Property.”

 

The term of individual patents depends upon the legal term of the patents in the countries in which they are obtained. In most countries in which we file, the patent term is 20 years from the date of filing the first non-provisional priority application. In the United States, a patent’s term may be lengthened by patent term adjustment, which compensates a patentee for administrative delays by the PTO in granting a patent or may be shortened if a patent is terminally disclaimed over another patent.  

 

The term of a U.S. patent that covers a drug approved by the FDA or methods of making or using that drug may also be eligible for patent term extension, which permits patent term restoration as compensation for the patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act, also known as the Hatch-Waxman Act, is a federal law that encourages new drug research by restoring patent term lost to regulatory delays by permitting a patent term extension of up to five years beyond the statutory 20-year term of the patent for the approved product or its methods of manufacture or use if the active ingredient has not been previously approved in the U.S. The length of the patent term extension is related to the length of time the drug is under regulatory review. A patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval and only one patent applicable to an approved drug may be extended. Similar provisions are available in Europe and some other foreign jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug. When possible, depending upon the length of clinical trials and other factors involved in the filing of an NDA, we expect to apply for patent term extensions for patents covering our product candidates and their methods of use.

 

The patent portfolios for our proprietary technology platform and our five most advanced product candidates as of March 9, 2020 are summarized below.

  

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 TNX-1800 – Live HPXV Vaccine for Prevention of COVID-19

 

We are developing TNX-1800, a live HPXV that is being developed as a new COVID-19 preventing vaccine. We have a patent application directed to synthetic poxviruses comprising a SARS-CoV-2 protein, poxvirus delivery vectors for SARS-CoV-2 proteins and methods of using these modified poxviruses to protect individuals against COVID-19. This patent application is U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/981,997.

 

TNX-801 — Live Horsepox Vaccine for Prevention of Smallpox

 

We own the rights to develop a potential biodefense technology, TNX-801, a live horsepox that is being developed as a new smallpox preventing vaccine, we have patent applications directed to synthetic chimeric poxviruses and methods of using these poxviruses to protect individuals against smallpox. These applications include U.S. non-provisional Patent Application No. 15/802,189 and International Patent Application No. PCT/US2017/059782. We also own the rights to develop other vaccine candidates against smallpox.  With respect to these vaccine candidates, we own U.S. Patent Application No. 14/207,727 and related intellectual property rights. The smallpox vaccine technologies relate to proprietary forms of live horsepox and vaccinia vaccines which may be safer than ACAM2000, the only currently available replication competent, live vaccinia vaccine to protect against smallpox disease. We believe that this technology, after further development, may be of interest to biodefense agencies in the U.S. and other countries.

 

TNX-102 SL – Central Nervous System Conditions

 

Our patent portfolio for TNX-102 SL includes patent applications directed to compositions of matter of CBP, formulations containing CBP, and methods for treating CNS conditions, such as TNX-102 SL for PTSD, and TNX-102 SL for agitation in neurodegenerative conditions, e.g. AAD, utilizing these compositions and formulations.

 

 Certain eutectic compositions were discovered by development partners and are termed the “Eutectic Technology.” The patent portfolio for TNX-102 SL relating to the Eutectic Technology includes patent applications directed to eutectic compositions containing CBP, eutectic CBP formulations, methods for treating PTSD and other CNS conditions utilizing eutectic CBP compositions and formulations, and methods of manufacturing eutectic CBP compositions. The Eutectic Technology patent portfolio includes U.S. patent applications, such as U.S. Patent Application No. 14/214,433 (now U.S. Patent No. 9,636,408). If U.S. and non-U.S. patents claiming priority from those applications issue, those patents would expire in 2034 or 2035, excluding any patent term adjustments or extensions.

 

The unique pharmacokinetic profile of TNX-102 SL, or the PK Technology, was discovered by Tonix and its development partners. The patent portfolio for TNX-102 SL relating to the PK Technology includes patent applications directed to compositions of matter of CBP, formulations containing CBP, methods for treating PTSD, agitation in neurodegenerative conditions, and other CNS conditions utilizing these compositions and formulations. The PK Technology patent portfolio includes U.S. Patent Application No. 13/918,692. If U.S. and non-U.S. patents claiming priority from those applications issue, those patents would expire in 2033, excluding any patent term adjustments or extensions.

 

On May 2, 2017, U.S. Patent No. 9,636,408 entitled “Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride” issued. The patent claims recite pharmaceutical compositions comprising the eutectic. The patent claims also recite methods of manufacturing the eutectic. Tablets containing CBP and mannitol eutectic have good pharmaceutical stability and manufacturability. A solid eutectic is a form of matter in which two solid crystals co-penetrate each other, such that the inter-molecular space between the units of one crystal lattice are occupied by the other crystal lattice. The distance between the molecular units is not changed.

 

On September 13, 2017, European patent 2,501,234, entitled “Methods and Compositions for Treating Symptoms Associated with PTSD Using Cyclobenzaprine”, issued. This patent recites the use of CBP for the treatment of PTSD, which covers the use of TNX-102 SL for the treatment of PTSD, since the active ingredient in TNX-102 SL is CBP and provides TNX-102 SL with European market exclusivity until 2030 and may be extended based on the timing of the European marketing authorization of TNX-102 SL for PTSD.  In response to an opposition filed in June 2018, the European Patent Office’s Opposition Division in October 2019 upheld the patent in unamended form.  Opponent has appealed.

 

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On December 15, 2017, Japanese Patent No. 6259452, entitled “Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption”, issued.  These claims relate to the pharmacokinetic profile of TNX-102 SL.

 

On March 20, 2018, U.S. Patent No. 9,918,948 entitled “Methods and Compositions for Treating Symptoms Associated with PTSD Using Cyclobenzaprine”, issued. The claims recite a method of using TNX-102 SL’s active ingredient cyclobenzaprine to treat PTSD and provides TNX-102 SL with US market exclusivity until 2030, excluding any patent term extensions.

 

On March 23, 2018, Japanese Patent No. 6310542 entitled “Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride”, issued.  The claims recite pharmaceutical compositions comprising the eutectics and methods of manufacturing these eutectic formulations.

 

 On May 1, 2018, U.S. Patent No. 9,956,188, entitled “Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride”, issued. The claims recite a eutectic of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and mannitol and methods of making those eutectics.

 

 On November 6, 2018, U.S. Patent No. 10,117,936, entitled “Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride”, issued. The claims recite pharmaceutical compositions of eutectics of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and mannitol and methods of making those compositions.

 

On July 23, 2019, U.S. Patent No. 10,357,465 entitled “Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride”, issued. The claims recite pharmaceutical compositions comprising eutectics of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and mannitol and methods of making those compositions.

 

On November 15, 2019, Japanese Patent No. 6614724 entitled “Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride”, issued.  The claims recite pharmaceutical compositions comprising CBP:delta-mannitol eutectics and methods of making the same.

 

On December 11, 2019, European patent 2968992, entitled “Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride”, issued. This patent recites pharmaceutical compositions comprising a eutectic of mannitol and Cyclobenzaprine HCl and methods of making the same.

 

On December 25, 2019, European patent 2,683,245, entitled “Methods and Compositions for Treating Depression Using Cyclobenzaprine”, issued. The claims recite the use of CBP for the treatment of depression in a FM patient.  This patent provides TNX-102 SL with European market exclusivity until March 2032 and may be extended based on the timing of the European marketing authorization of TNX-102 SL for depression in a FM patient.

 

 TNX-601 — Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Neurocognitive Dysfunction

 

Our patent portfolio for tianeptine oxalate includes European Patent No. 2,299,822, entitled “Method for Treating Neurocognitive Dysfunction”, which issued on July 26, 2017.  The ’822 patent recites pharmaceutical compositions comprising various compounds (which include tianeptine) and uses thereof.  This patent provides TNX-601 with European market exclusivity until April 2029 and may be extended based on the timing of the European marketing authorization of TNX-601 for neurocognitive side effects associated with the use of corticosteroids.

 

On February 27, 2019, European Patent No. 3,246,031 entitled “Method for Treating Neurodegenerative Dysfunction”, issued. The claims recite the use of TNX-601, or tianeptine oxalate and other salts, for treating neurocognitive dysfunction associated with corticosteroid treatment. This patent provides TNX-601 with European market exclusivity until April 2029 and may be extended based on the timing of the European market authorization of TNX-601 for neurocognitive disfunction associated with corticosteroid treatment.

 

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On October 22, 2019, U.S. Patent No. 10,449,203) issued.  The claims recite anhydrous crystalline oxalate salts of tianeptine and provides TNX-601 with US market exclusivity until 2037, excluding any patent term extensions.

 

Our patent portfolio for TNX-601 also includes International Patent Application PCT/IB2017/001709 (now nationalized in 15 countries). It includes claims directed to crystalline tianeptine oxalate and compositions of those crystal forms, and disclosures directed to methods of using those crystalline forms and their compositions.

 

TNX-1300 — Cocaine Intoxication Treatment

 

We have licensed rights from Columbia University, University of Michigan, and The Kentucky Research Foundation to develop a potential product, TNX-1300, for the treatment of cocaine intoxication.  The licensed patents are directed to mutant cocaine esterase polypeptides and methods of using these polypeptides as anti-cocaine therapeutics.  They include U.S. Patent Nos. 8,318,156 and 9,200,265, entitled “Anti-Cocaine Compositions and Treatment” and various counterpart patents outside of the U.S. These patents provide TNX-1300 with US market exclusivity until February 2029.  They provide market exclusivity outside of the U.S. until July 10, 2027.  These dates may be subject to patent term extensions.

 

TNX-1500 — anti-CD40L Therapeutics

 

We are collaborating with Harvard Medical School, to develop TNX-1500, a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) that targets CD40L for the prevention and treatment of organ transplant rejection.  In this regard, we filed U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/869,489, entitled “Anti-CD154 antibodies and uses thereof” on July 1, 2019.  We also filed U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/833,473, entitled “Inhibitors of CD40-CD154 Binding” on April 12, 2019.  This application is directed to small molecule inhibitors of CD154.

 

TNX-1600 — Triple Reuptake Inhibitor to Treat PTSD

 

We have licensed rights from Wayne State University to develop a potential product, TNX-1600, for PTSD treatment.  The licensed patents directed to pyran based derivatives and analogues.  They include U.S. Patent Nos. 7,915,433, 8,017,791, 8,519,159, 8,841,464, and 8,937,189, entitled “Tri-substituted 2-benzhydryl 5-benzlamino-tetrahydro-pyran-4-OL and 6-benzhydryl-4-benzylamino-tetrahydro-pyran-3-OL analogues, and novel 3,6 disubstituted pyran derivatives” and U.S. Patent No. 9,458,124, entitled “Substituted Pyran Derivatives”.  These patents provide TNX-1600 with US market exclusivity between April 2024 and February 2034, respectively, subject to any patent term extensions.

 

TNX-1700 — Recombinant Trefoil Family Factor 2 (rTFF2) to Treat Gastric and Pancreatic Cancers

 

We have licensed rights from Columbia University to develop a potential product, TNX-1700, for the treatment of gastric and pancreatic cancers.  The licensed patent and patent application are directed to TFF2 compositions and methods of treatment.  The licensed patent is U.S. Patent No. 10,124,037.  The licensed patent application is U.S. Patent Application No. 16/189,868 entitled “Trefoil Family Factor Proteins and Uses Thereof”.  We have also filed U.S. Patent Application No. 62/892,520, entitled “PEGylated TFF2 Polypeptides” on August 27, 2019.  The licensed patent provides TNX-1700 with US market exclusivity until April 2033, subject to any patent term extensions.

 

On August 27, 2019, we filed U.S. Patent Application No. 62/892,520, entitled “PEGylated TFF2 Polypeptides” and on December 4, 2019, we filed U.S. Patent Application No. 62/943,803, entitled “Modified TFF2 Polypeptides”.

 

TNX-701 — Radioprotection Biodefense Technology

 

We own the rights to develop a potential biodefense technology, which is a potential radioprotective therapy. For protection of our intellectual property, we have not disclosed the identity of the new development candidate.

 

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TNX-1200 — Smallpox Vaccine Technology

 

We own the rights to develop a potential biodefense technology, TNX-1200, a live vaccinia virus that is being developed as a new smallpox preventing vaccine, we have patent applications directed to synthetic chimeric poxviruses and methods of using these poxviruses to protect individuals against smallpox. These applications include U.S. non-provisional Patent Application No. 15/802,189 and International Patent Application No. PCT/US2017/059782. We also own the rights to develop other vaccine candidates against smallpox.  With respect to these vaccine candidates, we own U.S. Patent Application No. 14/207,727 and related intellectual property rights. We believe that this technology, after further development, may be of interest to biodefense agencies in the U.S. and other countries.

 

Trade Secrets

 

In addition to patents, we rely on trade secrets and know-how to develop and maintain our competitive position. For example, significant aspects of our proprietary technology platform are based on unpatented trade secrets and know-how. Trade secrets and know-how can be difficult to protect. We seek to protect our proprietary technology and processes, in part, by confidentiality agreements and invention assignment agreements with our employees, consultants, scientific advisors, contractors, and commercial partners. These agreements are designed to protect our proprietary information and, in the case of the invention assignment agreements, to grant us ownership of technologies that are developed through a relationship with a third party. We also seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our data and trade secrets by maintaining physical security of our premises and physical and electronic security of our information technology systems. While we have confidence in these individuals, organizations and systems, agreements or security measures may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently discovered by competitors. To the extent that our contractors use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to rights in related or resulting inventions and know-how.

 

Issued Patents

 

Our current patents owned include:

 

Sublingual CBP/Amitriptyline    

 

Patent No.   Title   Country / Region   Expiration 
Date
6259452   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Japan   June 14, 2033
631144   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   New Zealand   June 14, 2033
I590820   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Taiwan   June 14, 2033
2013274003   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Australia   June 14, 2033
I642429   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Taiwan   June 14, 2033
726488   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   New Zealand   June 14, 2033

 

CBP – Depression 

 

Patent No.   Title   Country / Region   Expiration 
Date
2012225548  

Methods and Compositions for Treating Depression

Using Cyclobenzaprine

  Australia   March 6, 2032
2016222412  

Methods and Compositions for Treating Depression

Using Cyclobenzaprine

  Australia   March 6, 2032
614725  

Methods and Compositions for Treating Depression

Using Cyclobenzaprine

  New Zealand   March 6, 2032
714294  

Methods and Compositions for Treating Depression

Using Cyclobenzaprine

  New Zealand   March 6, 2032
2683245  

Methods and Compositions for Treating Depression

Using Cyclobenzaprine

  European Patent Office – Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Cyprus, Czechia, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, Finland, France, United Kingdom, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Ireland, Iceland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Monaco, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Sweden, Slovenia, Slovakia, San Marino, and Turkey   March 6, 2032

 

 33 

 

 

Low Dose CBP  

 

Patent No.   Title   Country / Region   Expiration 
Date
6,395,788   Methods for Treating Sleep Disturbances Using Very Low Doses of Cyclobenzaprine   U.S.A.   August 11, 2020
6,541,523   Methods for Treating or Preventing Fibromyalgia Using Very Low Doses of Cyclobenzaprine   U.S.A.   August 11, 2020
1202722; ATE299369T1 in Austria; 60021266.1 in Germany; ES 2245944 T3 in Spain   Uses Compositions for Treating or Preventing Sleep Disturbances Using Very Low Doses of Cyclobenzaprine   European Patent Office – Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Spain, France, United Kingdom, Ireland, Luxembourg, Monaco, Portugal   August 11, 2020
1047691   Uses Compositions for Treating or Preventing Sleep Disturbances Using Very Low Doses of Cyclobenzaprine   Hong Kong   August 11, 2020
516749   Uses Compositions for Treating or Preventing Sleep Disturbances Using Very Low Doses of Cyclobenzaprine   New Zealand   August 11, 2020

 

Low Dose CBP – GAD 

 

Patent No.   Title   Country / Region   Expiration 
Date
6,358,944   Methods and Compositions for Treating Generalized Anxiety Disorder   U.S.A.   August 23, 2020

 

 

 34 

 

 

CBP – PTSD   

 

Patent No.   Title   Country / Region   Expiration 
Date
9,918,948   Methods and Compositions for Treating Symptoms Associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Using Cyclobenzaprine   U.S.A.   November 18, 2030

2501234

 

(AL/P/17/691 in Albania; 602010045270.0 in Germany; 3094254 in Greece; 502017000142469 in Italy; MK/P/17/000807 in Macedonia; 56634 in Serbia; SM-T-201700578 in San Marino; 201717905 in Turkey) 

  Methods and Compositions for Treating Symptoms Associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Using Cyclobenzaprine   European Patent Office – Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Cyprus, Czechia, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, Finland, France, United Kingdom, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Ireland, Iceland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Monaco, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Sweden, Slovenia, Slovakia, San Marino, Turkey   November 16, 2030
HK1176235   Methods and Compositions for Treating Symptoms Associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Using Cyclobenzaprine   Hong Kong   November 16, 2030

 

CBP Fatigue 

 

Patent No.   Title   Country / Region   Expiration 
Date
9,474,728   Methods and Compositions for Treating Fatigue Associated with Disordered Sleep Using Very Low Dose Cyclobenzaprine   U.S.A.   June 9, 2031

 

Tianeptine – Neurocognitive Dysfunction 

 

Patent No.   Title   Country / Region   Expiration 
Date
9,314,469   Method for Treating Neurocognitive Dysfunction   U.S.A.   September 24, 2030
2723688   Method for Treating Neurodegenerative Dysfunction   Canada   April 30, 2029
2299822 (602009047361.1 in Germany)   Method for Treating Neurodegenerative Dysfunction   Europe – Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Spain, France, United Kingdom, Ireland, Luxembourg, Monaco, Portugal   April 30, 2029
3246031 (602009057284.9 in Germany)   Method for Treating Neurodegenerative Dysfunction   Europe – Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Spain, France, United Kingdom, Ireland, Luxembourg, Monaco, Portugal   April 30, 2029

 

 

 35 

 

 

Eutectic CBP/Amitriptyline 

 

Patent No.   Title   Country / Region   Expiration 
Date
631152   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   New Zealand   March 14, 2034
9,636,408   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   U.S.A.   March 14, 2034
9,956,188   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   U.S.A.   March 14, 2034
10,117,936   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   U.S.A.     March 14, 2034
10,322,094   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   U.S.A.   March 14, 2034
10,357,465   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride   U.S.A.   September 18, 2035 
6310542   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Japan   March 14, 2034
6614724   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride   Japan   September 18, 2035
6088   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Saudi Arabia   March 14, 2034
ZL201480024011.1   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   China   March 14, 2034
2014233277   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Australia   March 14, 2034
I661825    Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Taiwan   March 14, 2034
IDP000055516   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Indonesia   March 14, 2034
IDP000063221   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride   Indonesia   September 18, 2035
2968992   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   European Patent Office -Albania,Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Republic of Macedonia, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom  

March 14, 2034

 

241353   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Israel   March 14, 2034
370021   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Mexico   March 14, 2034

  

 

 36 

 

 

Tianeptine Oxalate – Salts and Crystalline Forms  

 

Patent No.   Title   Country / Region   Expiration 
Date
10,449,203   Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs   U.S.A   December 28, 2037

 

Anti-Cocaine Therapeutics

 

Patent No.   Title   Country / Region   Expiration 
Date
8,318,156   Anti-Cocaine Compositions and Treatment   U.S.A   February 14, 2029
9,200,265   Anti-Cocaine Compositions and Treatment   U.S.A.   December 30, 2027
2007272955   Anti-Cocaine Compositions and Treatment   Australia   July 10, 2027
2014201653   Anti-Cocaine Compositions and Treatment   Australia   July 10, 2027
2657246   Anti-Cocaine Compositions and Treatment   Canada   July 10, 2027
612929   Anti-Cocaine Compositions and Treatment   New Zealand   July 10, 2027
2046368 (602007045044.6 in Germany; 502016000056543 in Italy)   Anti-Cocaine Compositions and Treatment   Europe – (Germany, Spain, France, United Kingdom, and Italy)   July 10, 2027
2009/00197   Anti-Cocaine Compositions and Treatment   South Africa   July 10, 2027
305483   Anti-Cocaine Compositions and Treatment   Mexico   July 10, 2027
196411   Anti-Cocaine Compositions and Treatment   Israel   July 10, 2027

 

Triple reuptake inhibitor therapeutics

 

Patent No.   Title   Country / Region   Expiration 
Date
7,915,433   Tri-substituted 2-benzhydryl 5-benzlamino-tetrahydro-pyran-4-OL and 6-benzhydryl-4-benzylamino-tetrahydro-pyran-3-OL analogues, and novel 3,6 disubstituted pyran derivatives   U.S.A  

March 10, 2028

 

8,017,791   Tri-substituted 2-benzhydryl 5-benzlamino-tetrahydro-pyran-4-OL and 6-benzhydryl-4-benzylamino-tetrahydro-pyran-3-OL analogues, and novel 3,6 disubstituted pyran derivatives   U.S.A.   April 14, 2024
8,519,159   Tri-substituted 2-benzhydryl 5-benzlamino-tetrahydro-pyran-4-OL and 6-benzhydryl-4-benzylamino-tetrahydro-pyran-3-OL analogues, and novel 3,6 disubstituted pyran derivatives   U.S.A   December 7, 2025
8,841,464   Tri-substituted 2-benzhydryl 5-benzlamino-tetrahydro-pyran-4-OL and 6-benzhydryl-4-benzylamino-tetrahydro-pyran-3-OL analogues, and novel 3,6 disubstituted pyran derivatives   U.S.A   April 15, 2025
8,937,189   Tri-substituted 2-benzhydryl 5-benzlamino-tetrahydro-pyran-4-OL and 6-benzhydryl-4-benzylamino-tetrahydro-pyran-3-OL analogues, and novel 3,6 disubstituted pyran derivatives   U.S.A   January 12, 2027
9,458,124   Substituted Pyran Derivatives   U.S.A   February 6, 2034

 

TFF2 therapeutics

 

Patent No.   Title   Country / Region   Expiration 
Date
10,124,037   Trefoil family factor proteins and uses thereof   U.S.A   April 2, 2033

 

 37 

 

 

Pending Patent Applications

 

Our current pending patent applications are as follows:

 

CBP/Amitriptyline Eutectic Formulations

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region

16/140,090

16/429,852 

16/518,338

 

Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride

Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride

Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride

 

U.S.A.

U.S.A

U.S.A

16/140,105   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   U.S.A.
2015317336   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride   Australia
BR112015022095-9   Pharmaceutical Composition, Method of Fabrication, Eutectic Composition and Use of Compositions Containing Cyclobenzaprine HCl and Mannitol   Brazil
BR112017005231-8   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride   Brazil
2,904,812   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Canada
2,961,822   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride   Canada

201580050140.2

201910263541.6

 

Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride

Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride

 

China

China

15841528.1    Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride   European Patent Office
19214535.7   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   European Patent Office
16106690.2   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Hong Kong
18101200.4   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride   Hong Kong
42020003105.2   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Hong Kong
P00201808623   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Indonesia
251218   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Methods of Producing Same   Israel
3392/KOLNP/2015   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   India
201717013182   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride   India
2019-151766   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Japan

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region

2018-173466

2019-236602

 

Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride

Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride

 

Japan

Japan

MX/a/2017/003644

MX/a/2019/014200

 

Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride

Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitryptiline Hydrochloride

 

Mexico

Mexico

PI 2015703142   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Malaysia
PI 2017700889   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride   Malaysia
730379   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride   New Zealand
747040   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   New Zealand
517381123   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride   Saudi Arabia

10201707528W

10201902203V

 

Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride

Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride

 

Singapore

Singapore

2015/07443   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride (Allowed)   South Africa
2017/01637   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride   South Africa
108114946   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Taiwan
2014-000391   Eutectic Formulations of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride   Venezuela

 

 38 

 

 

Sublingual CBP/Amitriptyline 

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region
13/918,692   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   U.S.A.
P20130102101   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Argentina
2018241128   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Australia
BR112014031394-6   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Brazil
BR122019024508-8   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Brazil
2,876,902   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Canada
202010024102.2   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   China
13804115.7   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   European Patent Office

2013/24661

2013/37088

 

Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption

Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption

 

Gulf Cooperation Council

Gulf Cooperation Council

15110186.6   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Hong Kong
P-00 2015 00202   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Indonesia
236268   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Israel
139/KOLNP/2015   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   India
2019-91262   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Japan
MX/a/2014/015436   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Mexico
PI 2014703784   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Malaysia
10201605407T   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Singapore
107117266   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption (Allowed)   Taiwan
2013-000737   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   Venezuela
2015/00288   Compositions and Methods for Transmucosal Absorption   South Africa

 

CBP – PTSD 

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region
15/915,688   Methods and Compositions for Treating Symptoms Associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Using Cyclobenzaprine   U.S.A

 

CBP - Fatigue 

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region
16/537,170   Methods and Compositions for Treating Fatigue Associated with Disordered Sleep Using Very Low Dose Cyclobenzaprine   U.S.A.

 

 39 

 

 

CBP - Agitation in Neurodegenerative Condition 

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region
16/215,952   Cyclobenzaprine Treatment for Agitation, Psychosis and Cognitive Decline in Dementia and Neurodegenerative Conditions   U.S.A.
PCT/IB2018/001509       Cyclobenzaprine Treatment for Agitation, Psychosis and Cognitive Decline in Dementia and Neurodegenerative Conditions   PCT

 

CBP - Depression 

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region
13/412,571   Methods and Compositions for Treating Depression Using Cyclobenzaprine   U.S.A.
2018204633   Methods and Compositions for Treating Depression Using Cyclobenzaprine   Australia
2,829,200   Methods and Compositions for Treating Depression Using Cyclobenzaprine   Canada
19214568.8   Methods and Compositions for Treating Depression Using Cyclobenzaprine     European Patent Office

 

Analogs of CBP

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region

16/630,832

CA3069699

(not yet assigned)

EP18831505.5

(not yet assigned)

 

Analogs of Cyclobenzaprine and Amitryptilene

Analogs of Cyclobenzaprine and Amitryptilene

Analogs of Cyclobenzaprine and Amitryptilene

Analogs of Cyclobenzaprine and Amitryptilene

Analogs of Cyclobenzaprine and Amitryptilene

 

U.S.A.

Canada

China

European Patent Office

Japan

 

Tianeptine Oxalate – Salts and Crystalline Forms  

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region
16/597,065   Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs   U.S.A.
2017385958   Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs   Australia 
BR112019013244-9   Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs   Brazil

3,048,324

201780085697.9

17844642.3

P00201906474

267708

201917029300

2019-535330

MX/a/2019/007891

PI2019003711

754797

519402021

11201905974W

2019/04185

 

Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs

Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs

Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs

Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs

Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs

Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs

Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs

Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs

Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs

Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs

Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs

Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs

Tianeptine Oxalate Salts and Polymorphs

 

Canada

China

European Patent Office

Indonesia

Israel

India

Japan

Mexico

Malaysia

New Zealand

Saudi Arabia

Singapore

South Africa

 

 40 

 

 

Tianeptine Neurocognitive Dysfunction  

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region
15/064,196   Method for Treating Neurocognitive Dysfunction   U.S.A.

 

Novel Smallpox Vaccines  

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region
14/207,727   Novel Smallpox Vaccines   U.S.A.

 

 41 

 

 

Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses 

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region
15/802,189   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   U.S.A.
P 20170103043   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   Argentina
2017/34209   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   Gulf Cooperation Council
106137976   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   Taiwan
2017353868   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   Australia
BR112019008781-8   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   Brazil
3,042,694   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   Canada
201780078546.0   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   China
17868045.0   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   European Patent Office

201917021814

PID201904682

 

Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses

Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses

 

India

Indonesia

266399

2019-545700

 

Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses

Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses

 

Israel

Japan

PI2019002462   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   Malaysia

MX/a/2019/005102

752893

11201903893P

 

Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses

Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses

Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses

 

Mexico

New Zealand

Singapore

2019/02868   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   South Africa
2017-000418   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   Venezuela
62020003684.1   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   Hong Kong
62020003675.9   Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses   Hong Kong

 

Synthetic Vaccinia Virus 

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region

PCT/US2019/030486

2019/37492

20190101165

108115290

 

Synthetic Chimeric Vaccinia Virus

Synthetic Chimeric Vaccinia Virus

Synthetic Chimeric Vaccinia Virus

Synthetic Chimeric Vaccinia Virus

 

PCT

Gulf Cooperation Council

Argentina

Taiwan

 

Stem cells-scPV treatment 

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region
PCT/US2019/030488   Stem Cells Comprising Synthetic Chimeric Vaccinia Virus and Methods of Using Them   PCT
2019/37505   Stem Cells Comprising Synthetic Chimeric Vaccinia Virus and Methods of Using Them   Gulf Cooperation Council
20190101166   Stem Cells Comprising Synthetic Chimeric Vaccinia Virus and Methods  of Using Them   Argentina
108115294   Stem Cells Comprising Synthetic Chimeric Vaccinia Virus and Methods of Using Them   Taiwan

 

 42 

 

 

Poxvirus vaccine against COVID-19

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region
62/981,997 Recombinant Poxvirus Based Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 virus U.S.A.

 

CBP – ASD and PTSD 

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region

PCT/IB2019/000940

2019/38140

108129709

 

Methods of Treating Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Methods of Treating Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Methods of Treating Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

 

PCT

Gulf Cooperation Council

Taiwan

 

Salts of glutathione 

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region
62/824,008   Salt forms of S-(N, N-diethylcarbamolyl) glutathione   U.S.A.
62/941,533   Salt forms of S-(N, N-diethylcarbamolyl) glutathione   U.S.A.

  

CD154 Therapeutics

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region

62/833,473

62/869,489

 

Inhibitors of CD40-CD154 Binding

Anti-CD154 antibodies and uses thereof

 

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

 

TFF2 therapeutics

 

Application No.   Title   Country / Region

62/892,520

62/943,803

16/189,868

 

PEGylated TFF2 polypeptide

Modified TFF2 polypeptides

Trefoil Family Factor Proteins and Uses Thereof

 

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A

 

Trademarks and Service Marks

 

We seek trademark and service mark protection in the United States and outside of the United States where available and when appropriate. We are the owner of the following U.S. federally registered marks: TONIX PHARMACEUTICALS (Reg. No. 4656463, issued December 16, 2014) and TONMYA (Reg. No. 4868328, issued December 8, 2015).

 

We are the owner of the following marks for which applications for U.S. federal registration are currently pending: FYMRALIN (Serial No. 88/064191, filed August 3, 2018), MODALTIN (Serial No. 88/196892, filed November 16, 2018), RAPONTIS  (Serial  No. 88/196897, filed November 16, 2018), PROTECTIC (Serial No. 88/196912, filed November 16, 2018), TONIX PHARMACEUTICALS (Serial No. 86/400401, filed September 19, 2014) and ANGSTRO-TECHNOLOGY (Serial No. 88/690384, filed November 13, 2019).

 

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Research and Development

 

We have approximately nine employees dedicated to research and development. Our research and development operations are located in New York, NY, San Diego, CA, Dublin, Ireland and Montreal, Canada. We have used, and expect to continue to use, third parties to conduct our nonclinical and clinical studies. 

 

Manufacturing

 

We have contracted with a third-party cGMP-compliant contract manufacturer organization, or CMOs, for the manufacture of TNX-102 SL drug substances and drug products for investigational purposes, including nonclinical and clinical testing. For TNX-102 SL, we have engaged a cGMP facility for manufacturing of to-be-marketed product for Phase 3 clinical and commercial. Our manufacturing operations are managed and controlled in Dublin, Ireland.

 

All of our small molecules drug candidates are synthesized using industry standard processes, and our drug products are formulated using commercially available pharmaceutical grade excipients.

 

Our smallpox-preventing vaccine candidate is a biologic and uses live form of horsepox. Both the drug substance (HPVX and the cell bank) and the drug product (vaccine) will be manufactured by contract cGMP-compliant facilities capable of manufacturing for nonclinical/clinical testing and licensed product.

 

Government Regulations

 

The FDA and other federal, state, local and foreign regulatory agencies impose substantial requirements upon the clinical development, approval, labeling, manufacture, marketing and distribution of drug products. These agencies regulate, among other things, research and development activities and the testing, approval, manufacture, quality control, safety, effectiveness, labeling, storage, record keeping, advertising and promotion of our product candidates. The regulatory approval process is generally lengthy and expensive, with no guarantee of a positive result. Moreover, failure to comply with applicable requirements by the FDA or other requirements may result in civil or criminal penalties, recall or seizure of products, injunctive relief including partial or total suspension of production, or withdrawal of a product from the market.

 

The FDA regulates, among other things, the research, manufacture, promotion and distribution of drugs in the U.S. under the FDCA and other statutes and implementing regulations. The process required by the FDA before prescription drug product candidates may be marketed in the U.S. generally involves the following:

 

  completion of extensive nonclinical laboratory tests, animal studies and formulation studies, all performed in accordance with the FDA’s Good Laboratory Practice regulations;

 

  submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;

 

  performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with the FDA’s regulations, including Good Clinical Practices, to establish the safety and efficacy of the product candidate for each proposed indication;

 

  submission to the FDA of an NDA for drug products, or a Biologics License Application, or BLA, for biologic products;

 

  satisfactory completion of a preapproval inspection by the FDA of the manufacturing facilities at which the product is produced to assess compliance with cGMP regulations; and

 

  the FDA’s review and approval of the NDA or BLA prior to any commercial marketing, sale or shipment of the drug.

 

The testing and approval process requires substantial time, effort and financial resources, and we cannot be certain that any approvals for our product candidates will be granted on a timely basis, if at all.

 

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Nonclinical tests include laboratory evaluations of product chemistry, formulation and stability, as well as studies to evaluate toxicity in animals and other animal studies. The results of nonclinical tests, together with manufacturing information and analytical data, are submitted as part of an IND to the FDA. Some nonclinical testing may continue even after an IND is submitted. The IND also includes one or more protocols for the initial clinical trial or trials and an investigator’s brochure. An IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA, within the 30-day time period, raises concerns or questions relating to the proposed clinical trials as outlined in the IND and places the clinical trial on a clinical hold. In such cases, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns or questions before any clinical trials can begin. Clinical trial holds also may be imposed at any time before or during studies due to safety concerns or non-compliance with regulatory requirements. An independent Institutional Review Board, or IRB, at each of the clinical centers proposing to conduct the clinical trial must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it commences at that center. An IRB considers, among other things, whether the risks to individuals participating in the trials are minimized and are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. The IRB also approves the consent form signed by the trial participants and must monitor the study until completed.

 

Clinical Trials

 

Clinical trials involve the administration of the product candidate to human subjects under the supervision of qualified medical investigators according to approved protocols that detail the objectives of the study, dosing procedures, subject selection and exclusion criteria, and the parameters to be used to monitor participant safety. Each protocol for a U.S. study is submitted to the FDA as part of the IND.

 

Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases, but the phases may overlap, or be combined.

 

  Phase 1 clinical trials typically involve the initial introduction of the product candidate into healthy human volunteers. In Phase 1 clinical trials, the product candidate is typically tested for safety, dosage tolerance, absorption, metabolism, distribution, excretion and pharmacodynamics.

 

  Phase 2 clinical trials are generally conducted in a limited patient population to gather evidence about the efficacy of the product candidate for specific, targeted indications; to determine dosage tolerance and optimal dosage; and to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks. Phase 2 clinical trials, in particular Phase 2b trials, can be undertaken to evaluate clinical efficacy and to test for safety in an expanded patient population at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites.

 

  Phase 3 clinical trials are undertaken to evaluate clinical efficacy and to test for safety in an expanded patient population at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites. The size of Phase 3 clinical trials depends upon clinical and statistical considerations for the product candidate and disease. Phase 3 clinical trials are intended to establish the overall risk-benefit ratio of the product candidate and provide an adequate basis for product labeling.

 

Post-approval clinical trials, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials, may be conducted after initial approval. These clinical trials are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication, particularly for long-term safety follow-up.

 

Clinical testing must satisfy the extensive regulations of the FDA. Reports detailing the results of the clinical trials must be submitted at least annually to the FDA and safety reports must be submitted for serious and unexpected adverse events. Success in early-stage clinical trials does not assure success in later-stage clinical trials. The FDA, an IRB or we may suspend a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk.

 

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New Drug Applications

 

Assuming successful completion of the required clinical trials, the results of product development, nonclinical studies and clinical trials are submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA (or BLA, in the case of a biologic product). An NDA or BLA also must contain extensive manufacturing information, as well as proposed labeling for the finished product. An NDA or BLA applicant must develop information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the drug and finalize a process for manufacturing the product in accordance with cGMP. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality product within specifications approved by the FDA. The manufacturer must develop methods for testing the quality, purity and potency of the final product. In addition, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested, and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the product does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life. Prior to approval, the FDA will conduct an inspection of the manufacturing facilities to assess compliance with cGMP.

 

The FDA reviews all NDAs and BLAs submitted before it accepts them for filing. The FDA may request additional information rather than accept an NDA for filing. In this event, the NDA or BLA must be resubmitted with the additional information and is subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing. After an application is filed, the FDA may refer the NDA or BLA to an advisory committee for review, evaluation and recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers them carefully when making decisions. The FDA may deny approval of an NDA or BLA if the applicable regulatory criteria are not satisfied. Data obtained from clinical trials are not always conclusive and the FDA may interpret data differently than we interpret the same data. The FDA may issue a complete response letter, which may require additional clinical or other data or impose other conditions that must be met in order to secure final approval of the NDA or BLA. If a product receives regulatory approval, the approval may be significantly limited to specific diseases and dosages or the indications for use may otherwise be limited, which could restrict the commercial value of the product. In addition, the FDA may require us to conduct Phase 4 testing which involves clinical trials designed to further assess a drug’s safety and effectiveness after NDA or BLA approval, and may require surveillance programs to monitor the safety of approved products which have been commercialized. Once issued, the FDA may withdraw product approval if ongoing regulatory requirements are not met or if safety or efficacy questions are raised after the product reaches the market.

 

 Section 505(b) NDAs

 

There are two types of NDAs: the Section 505(b)(1) NDA, or full NDA, and the Section 505(b)(2) NDA. We intend to file Section 505(b)(2) NDAs for TNX-102 SL for FM and PTSD, and for certain other products, that might, if accepted by the FDA, save time and expense in the development and testing of our product candidates. We may need to file a Section 505(b)(1) NDA for certain other products in the future. A full NDA is submitted under Section 505(b)(1) of the FDCA, and must contain full reports of investigations conducted by the applicant to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the drug. A Section 505(b)(2) NDA may be submitted for a drug for which one or more of the investigations relied upon by the applicant was not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has no right of reference from the person by or for whom the investigations were conducted. A Section 505(b)(2) NDA may be submitted based in whole or in part on published literature or on the FDA’s finding of safety and efficacy of one or more previously approved drugs, which are known as reference drugs. Thus, the filing of a Section 505(b)(2) NDA may result in approval of a drug based on fewer clinical or nonclinical studies than would be required under a full NDA. The number and size of studies that need to be conducted by the sponsor depends on the amount and quality of data pertaining to the reference drug that are publicly available, and on the similarity of and differences between the applicant’s drug and the reference drug. In some cases, extensive, time-consuming, and costly clinical and nonclinical studies may still be required for approval of a Section 505(b)(2) NDA.

 

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Our drug approval strategy for our new formulations of approved chemical entities is to submit Section 505(b)(2) NDAs to the FDA. As such, we plan to submit an NDA under Section 505(b)(2) for TNX-102 SL for FM and PTSD. The FDA may not agree that this product candidate is approvable for FM and PTSD as a Section 505(b)(2) NDA. If the FDA determines that a Section 505(b)(2) NDA is not appropriate and that a full NDA is required for TNX-102 SL, the time and financial resources required to obtain FDA approval for TNX-102 SL could substantially and materially increase, and TNX-102 SL might be less likely to be approved. If the FDA requires a full NDA for TNX-102 SL, or requires more extensive testing and development for some other reason, our ability to compete with alternative products that arrive on the market more quickly than our product candidates would be adversely impacted. If CBP-containing products are withdrawn from the market by the FDA for a safety reason, we may not be able to reference such products to support our anticipated TNX-102 SL 505(b)(2) NDA, and we may be required to follow the requirements of Section 505(b)(1).

 

Patent Protections

 

An applicant submitting a Section 505(b)(2) NDA must certify to the FDA with respect to the patent status of the reference drug upon which the applicant relies in support of approval of its drug. With respect to every patent listed in the FDA’s Orange Book, which is the FDA’s list of approved drug products, as claiming the reference drug or an approved method of use of the reference drug, the Section 505(b)(2) applicant must certify that: (1) there is no patent information listed in the orange book for the reference drug; (2) the listed patent has expired; (3) the listed patent has not expired, but will expire on a particular date; (4) the listed patent is invalid or will not be infringed by the manufacture, use, or sale of the product in the Section 505(b)(2) NDA; or (5) if the patent is a use patent, that the applicant does not seek approval for a use claimed by the patent. If the applicant files a certification to the effect of clause (1), (2) or (5), FDA approval of the Section 505(b)(2) NDA may be made effective immediately upon successful FDA review of the application, in the absence of marketing exclusivity delays, which are discussed below. If the applicant files a certification to the effect of clause (3), the Section 505(b)(2) NDA approval may not be made effective until the expiration of the relevant patent and the expiration of any marketing exclusivity delays.

 

If the Section 505(b)(2) NDA applicant provides a certification to the effect of clause (4), referred to as a paragraph IV certification, the applicant also must send notice of the certification to the patent owner and the holder of the NDA for the reference drug. The filing of a patent infringement lawsuit within 45 days of the receipt of the notification may prevent the FDA from approving the Section 505(b)(2) NDA for 30 months from the date of the receipt of the notification unless the court determines that a longer or shorter period is appropriate because either party to the action failed to reasonably cooperate in expediting the action. However, the FDA may approve the Section 505(b)(2) NDA before the 30 months have expired if a court decides that the patent is invalid or not infringed, or if a court enters a settlement order or consent decree stating the patent is invalid or not infringed.

 

 Notwithstanding the approval of many products by the FDA pursuant to Section 505(b)(2), over the last few years certain brand-name pharmaceutical companies and others have objected to the FDA’s interpretation of Section 505(b)(2). If the FDA’s interpretation of Section 505(b)(2) is successfully challenged in court, the FDA may be required to change its interpretation of Section 505(b)(2) which could delay or even prevent the FDA from approving any Section 505(b)(2) NDA that we submit. The pharmaceutical industry is highly competitive, and it is not uncommon for a manufacturer of an approved product to file a citizen petition with the FDA seeking to delay approval of, or impose additional approval requirements for, pending competing products. If successful, such petitions can significantly delay, or even prevent, the approval of the new product. Moreover, even if the FDA ultimately denies such a petition, the FDA may substantially delay approval while it considers and responds to the petition.

 

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Marketing Exclusivity

 

Market exclusivity provisions under the FDCA can delay the submission or the approval of Section 505(b)(2) NDAs, thereby delaying a Section 505(b)(2) product from entering the market. The FDCA provides five-year marketing exclusivity to the first applicant to gain approval of an NDA for an NCE, meaning that the FDA has not previously approved any other drug containing the same active moiety. This exclusivity prohibits the submission of a Section 505(b)(2) NDA for any drug product containing the active ingredient during the five-year exclusivity period. However, submission of a Section 505(b)(2) NDA that certifies that a listed patent is invalid, unenforceable, or will not be infringed, as discussed above, is permitted after four years, but if a patent infringement lawsuit is brought within 45 days after such certification, FDA approval of the Section 505(b)(2) NDA may automatically be stayed until 7½ years after the NCE approval date. The FDCA also provides three years of marketing exclusivity for the approval of new and supplemental NDAs for product changes, including, among other things, new indications, dosage forms, routes of administration or strengths of an existing drug, or for a new use, if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by FDA to be essential to the approval of the application. Five-year and three-year exclusivity will not delay the submission or approval of another full NDA; however, as discussed above, an applicant submitting a full NDA under Section 505(b)(1) would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to all of the nonclinical and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and effectiveness.

 

Other types of exclusivity in the United States include orphan drug exclusivity and pediatric exclusivity. The FDA may grant orphan drug designation to a drug intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available in the United States a drug for this type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales in the United States for that drug. Seven-year orphan drug exclusivity is available to a product that has orphan drug designation and that receives the first FDA approval for the indication for which the drug has such designation. Orphan drug exclusivity prevents approval of another application for the same drug for the same orphan indication, for a period of seven years, regardless of whether the application is a full NDA or a Section 505(b)(2) NDA, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan exclusivity. Pediatric exclusivity, if granted, provides an additional six months to an existing exclusivity or statutory delay in approval resulting from a patent certification. This six-month exclusivity, which runs from the end of other exclusivity protection or patent delay, may be granted based on the voluntary completion of a pediatric study in accordance with an FDA-issued “Written Request” for such a study.

 

Section 505(b)(2) NDAs are similar to full NDAs filed under Section 505(b)(1) in that they are entitled to any of these forms of exclusivity if they meet the qualifying criteria. They also are entitled to the patent protections described above, based on patents that are listed in the FDA’s Orange Book in the same manner as patents claiming drugs and uses approved for NDAs submitted as full NDAs.

 

Breakthrough Therapy Designation

 

On July 9, 2012, the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, or FDASIA, was signed. FDASIA Section 902 provides for a new drug designation, Breakthrough Therapy. A Breakthrough Therapy is a drug:

 

  intended alone or in combination with one or more other drugs to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition; and

 

  preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development.

 

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In December 2016, the FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy designation, or BTD, to TNX-102 SL for the treatment of PTSD. The Breakthrough Therapy designation was granted based on the preliminary clinical evidence of TNX-102 SL on military-related PTSD in the Phase 2 AtEase study.

 

Following the interim analysis (IA) of the Phase 3 HONOR Study, we met with the FDA in October 2018 to seek agreement on the design of the next Phase 3 study (RECOVERY). In December 2018, the FDA issued an Intent-to-Rescind letter for BTD status for TNX-102 SL for the treatment of PTSD because the IA results of the HONOR study did not meet the criteria for the BTD granted in December 2016.  In March 2019, the FDA rescinded the BTD, but subsequently withdrew the BTD rescission in April 2019 and granted a meeting in August 2019 to discuss the continuation of BTD for TNX-102 SL. The BTD for TNX-102 SL for PTSD remains in effect and the FDA’s intent-to-rescind BTD for TNX-102 SL for PTSD also remains in effect. The FDA agreed to consider the additional data and information presented at the August 2019 meeting. The FDA’s decision whether to maintain BTD for TNX-102 SL for PTSD is pending. The FDA will inform us of the BTD decision but no timeframe was given.

 

In October 2014, the FDA granted BTD for TNX-1300 for treatment of cocaine intoxication. We in-licensed TNX-1300 from Columbia University in May 2019.

 

Fast Track Designation

 

A Fast Track is a designation by the FDA of an investigational drug which:

 

  intended alone or in combination with one or more other drugs to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition; and

 

  non-clinical or clinical data demonstrate the potential to address an unmet medical need

 

Fast track is a process designed to facilitate the development and expedite the review of drugs to treat serious conditions and fill an unmet medical need. The benefits of a Fast Track designation include rolling submission of portions of the NDA for the drug candidate and eligibility for priority review of the NDA. Additionally, more frequent meetings and written communication with the FDA regarding the development plan and trial design for the drug candidate are encouraged throughout the entire drug development and review process, with the goal of having earlier drug approval and access for patients.

 

In April 2018, the FDA cleared our IND for TNX-102 SL for treatment of AAD to support a Phase 2, potential pivotal efficacy study, and granted TNX-102 SL for the treatment of AAD Fast Track development program in July 2018.

 

Material Threat Medical Countermeasures

 

In 2016, the 21st Century Cures Act, or Act, was signed into law to support ongoing biomedical innovation. One part of the Act, Section 3086, is aimed at “Encouraging Treatments for Agents that Present a National Security Threat.” The Act created a new priority review voucher program for approved “material threat medical countermeasure applications.” The Act defines such countermeasures as drug or biological products, including vaccines intended to treat biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear agents that present a national security threat or to treat harm from a condition that may be caused by administering a drug or biological product against such an agent. The Department of Homeland Security has identified 13 such threats, including anthrax, smallpox, Ebola/Marburg, tularemia, botulinum toxin, and pandemic influenza, which includes the SARS coronavirus 2, known as SARS-CoV-2. A priority review voucher can be applied to any other product application; it shortens the FDA review timeline for a new application from 10-12 months to 6 months. The recipient of a priority review voucher may transfer it. We intend to seek a priority review voucher if and when a TNX-801 Biologics License Application is approved as a material threat medical countermeasure. However, the Priority Review Voucher program provision of the 21st Century Cures Act is set to expire in 2023. If TNX-801 does not receive FDA licensure by 2023, we may not be able to capitalize on the incentives contained in the 21st Century Cures Act unless the provision allowing for the Priority Review Voucher Program is extended until such time as TNX-801 is licensed.

 

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 Other Regulatory Requirements

 

Maintaining substantial compliance with appropriate federal, state and local statutes and regulations requires the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Drug manufacturers are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies, and after approval, the FDA and these state agencies conduct periodic unannounced inspections to ensure continued compliance with ongoing regulatory requirements, including cGMPs. In addition, after approval, some types of changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications, manufacturing changes and additional labeling claims, are subject to further FDA review and approval. The FDA may require post-approval testing and surveillance programs to monitor safety and the effectiveness of approved products that have been commercialized. Any drug products manufactured or distributed by us pursuant to FDA approvals are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, including:

 

  record-keeping requirements;

 

  reporting of adverse experiences with the drug;

 

  providing the FDA with updated safety and efficacy information;

 

  reporting on advertisements and promotional labeling;

 

  drug sampling and distribution requirements; and

 

  complying with electronic record and signature requirements.

 

In addition, the FDA strictly regulates labeling, advertising, promotion and other types of information on products that are placed on the market. There are numerous regulations and policies that govern various means for disseminating information to health-care professionals as well as consumers, including to industry sponsored scientific and educational activities, information provided to the media and information provided over the Internet. Drugs may be promoted only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. 

 

The FDA has very broad enforcement authority and the failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements can result in administrative or judicial sanctions being imposed on us or on the manufacturers and distributors of our approved products, including warning letters, refusals of government contracts, clinical holds, civil penalties, injunctions, restitution and disgorgement of profits, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, withdrawal of approvals, refusal to approve pending applications, and criminal prosecution resulting in fines and incarceration. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability. In addition, even after regulatory approval is obtained, later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product may result in restrictions on the product or even complete withdrawal of the product from the market.

 

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 Coverage and Reimbursement

 

Sales of our product candidates, if approved, will depend, in part, on the extent to which such products will be covered by third-party payors, such as government health care programs, commercial insurance and managed healthcare organizations. These third-party payors are increasingly limiting coverage or reducing reimbursements for medical products and services. In addition, the U.S. government, state legislatures and foreign governments have continued implementing cost-containment programs, including price controls, restrictions on reimbursement and requirements for substitution of generic products. Third-party payors decide which therapies they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own coverage and reimbursement policies. However, decisions regarding the extent of coverage and amount of reimbursement to be provided for any drug candidates that we develop will be made on a payor-by-payor basis. Each payor determines whether or not it will provide coverage for a therapy, what amount it will pay the manufacturer for the therapy, and on what tier of its formulary it will be placed. The position on a payor’s list of covered drugs, or formulary, generally determines the co-payment that a patient will need to make to obtain the therapy and can strongly influence the adoption of such therapy by patients and physicians. Adoption of price controls and cost-containment measures, and adoption of more restrictive policies in jurisdictions with existing controls and measures, could further limit our net revenue and results. Decreases in third-party reimbursement for our product candidates or a decision by a third-party payor to not cover our product candidates could reduce physician usage of our product candidates, once approved, and have a material adverse effect on our sales, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Other Healthcare Laws

 

Because of our current and future arrangements with healthcare professionals, principal investigators, consultants, customers and third-party payors, we will also be subject to healthcare regulation and enforcement by the federal government and the states and foreign governments in which we will conduct our business, including our clinical research, proposed sales, marketing and educational programs. Failure to comply with these laws, where applicable, can result in the imposition of significant civil penalties, criminal penalties, or both. The U.S. laws that may affect our ability to operate, among others, include: the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, which governs the conduct of certain electronic healthcare transactions and protects the security and privacy of protected health information; certain state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, some of which are more stringent than HIPAA and many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts; the federal healthcare programs’ Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying remuneration, directly or indirectly, in exchange for or to induce either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs; federal false claims laws which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment from Medicare, Medicaid, or other third-party payors that are false or fraudulent; federal criminal laws that prohibit executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters; the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, which requires manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics, and medical supplies to report annually to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, and ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members; and state law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers.

 

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In addition, many states have similar laws and regulations, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws that may be broader in scope and may apply regardless of payor, in addition to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs. Additionally, to the extent that our product is sold in a foreign country, we may be subject to similar foreign laws.

 

The Impact of New Legislation and Amendments to Existing Laws

 

 The FDCA is subject to routine legislative amendments with a broad range of downstream effects. In addition to new legislation, such as the FDA Reauthorization Act of 2017 or the FDASIA in 2012, Congress introduces amendments to reauthorize drug user fees and address emerging concerns every five years. We cannot predict the impact of these new legislative acts and their implementing regulations on our business. The programs established or to be established under the legislation may have adverse effects upon us, including increased regulation of our industry. Compliance with such regulation may increase our costs and limit our ability to pursue business opportunities. In addition, the FDA’s regulations, policies and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by the agency or the courts in ways that may significantly affect our business and our products.

 

We expect that additional federal and state, as well as foreign, healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could result in reduced demand for our products or additional pricing pressure.

 

Employees

 

As of March 23, 2020, we had 16 full-time employees, of whom five hold M.D. or Ph.D. degrees. We have nine employees dedicated to research and development. Our research and development operations are located in New York, NY, San Diego, CA, Dublin, Ireland and Montreal, Canada. We have used, and expect to continue to use, third parties to conduct our nonclinical and clinical studies as well as part-time employees. None of our employees are represented by a collective bargaining agreement, and we believe that our relations with our employees are good.

 

Corporate Information

 

We lease the space for our principal executive offices, which are located at 509 Madison Avenue, Suite 1608, New York, New York 10022, and our telephone number is (212) 980-9155. Our website addresses are www.tonixpharma.com, www.tonix.com, and www.krele.com. We do not incorporate the information on our websites into this annual report, and you should not consider such information part of this annual report.

 

We were incorporated on November 16, 2007 under the laws of the State of Nevada as Tamandare Explorations Inc. On October 11, 2011, we changed our name to Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp. 

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS  

 

We have a history of operating losses and expect to incur losses for the foreseeable future. We may never generate revenues or, if we are able to generate revenues, achieve profitability.

 

We are focused on product development, and we have not generated any revenues to date. We have incurred losses in each year of our operations, and we expect to continue to incur operating losses for the foreseeable future. These operating losses have adversely affected and are likely to continue to adversely affect our working capital, total assets and shareholders’ equity.

 

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We and our prospects should be examined in light of the risks and difficulties frequently encountered by new and early-stage companies in new and rapidly evolving markets. These risks include, among other things, the speed at which we can scale up operations, our complete dependence upon development of our product candidates that currently have no market acceptance, our ability to establish and expand our brand name, our ability to expand our operations to meet the commercial demand of our clients, our development of and reliance on strategic and customer relationships and our ability to minimize fraud and other security risks.

 

The process of developing our products requires significant clinical, nonclinical and CMC development, laboratory testing and clinical studies. In addition, commercialization of our product candidates will require that we obtain necessary regulatory approvals and establish sales, marketing and manufacturing capabilities, either through internal hiring or through contractual relationships with others. We expect to incur substantial losses for the foreseeable future as a result of anticipated increases in our research and development costs, including costs associated with conducting preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies, and regulatory compliance activities.

 

We expect to incur substantial additional operating expenses over the next several years as our research, development, preclinical and nonclinical testing, and clinical study activities increase. The amount of future losses and when, if ever, we will achieve profitability are uncertain. We have no products that have generated any commercial revenue, do not expect to generate revenues from the commercial sale of products in the near future, and might never generate revenues from the sale of products. Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability will depend on, among other things, successful completion of the development of our product candidates; obtaining necessary regulatory approvals from the FDA; establishing manufacturing, sales, and marketing arrangements with third parties; successfully commercializing our products; establishing a favorable competitive position; and raising sufficient funds to finance our activities. Many of these factors will depend on circumstances beyond our control. We might not succeed at any of these undertakings. If we are unsuccessful at some or all of these undertakings, our business, prospects, and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

 

We expect a number of factors to cause our operating results to fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis, which may make it difficult to predict our future performance.

 

We are a development-stage biopharmaceutical and our operations to date have been primarily limited to developing our technology and undertaking preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies of our clinical-stage product candidate, TNX-102 SL for FM and PTSD. We have not yet obtained regulatory approvals for TNX-102 SL or any of our other product candidates. Consequently, any predictions made about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history or commercialized products. Our financial condition has varied significantly in the past and will continue to fluctuate from quarter-to-quarter or year-to-year due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Factors relating to our business that may contribute to these fluctuations include other factors described elsewhere in this annual report and also include, among other things:

 

  our ability to obtain additional funding to develop our product candidates;

 

  delays in the commencement, enrollment and timing of clinical studies;

 

  the success of our clinical studies through all phases of clinical development, including studies of our most advanced product candidate, TNX-102 SL for FM and PTSD;

 

  any delays in regulatory review and approval of product candidates in clinical development;

 

  our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval for our product candidate TNX-102 SL for FM and PTSD or any of our other product candidates in the United States and foreign jurisdictions;

 

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  potential nonclinical toxicity and/or side effects of our product candidates that could delay or prevent commercialization, limit the indications for any approved drug, require the establishment of REMS, or cause an approved drug to be taken off the market;

 

  our ability to establish or maintain collaborations, licensing or other arrangements;

 

  market acceptance of our product candidates;

 

  competition from existing products or new products that may emerge;

 

  the ability of patients or healthcare providers to obtain coverage of or sufficient reimbursement for our products;

 

  our ability to leverage our proprietary technology platform to discover and develop additional product candidates;

 

  our ability and our licensors’ abilities to successfully obtain, maintain, defend and enforce intellectual property rights important to our business; and

 

  potential product liability claims;

 

 Accordingly, the results of any quarterly or annual periods should not be relied upon as indications of future operating performance.

 

RISKS RELATED TO PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT, REGULATORY APPROVAL, MANUFACTURING AND COMMERCILAIZATION

 

Our product candidates are novel and still in development.

 

We are a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company focused on the development of drug product candidates, all of which are still in development. Our drug development methods may not lead to commercially viable drugs for any of several reasons. For example, we may fail to identify appropriate targets or compounds, our drug candidates may fail to be safe and effective in clinical studies, or we may have inadequate financial or other resources to pursue development efforts for our drug candidates. Our drug candidates will require significant additional development, clinical studies, regulatory clearances and additional investment by us or our collaborators before they can be commercialized.

 

Further, we and our product candidates are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA and comparable regulatory authorities in other countries governing, among other things, research, testing, clinical studies, manufacturing, labeling, promotion, selling, adverse event reporting and recordkeeping. We are not permitted to market any of our product candidates in the United States until we receive approval of an NDA for a product candidate from the FDA or the equivalent approval from a foreign regulatory authority. Obtaining FDA approval is a lengthy, expensive and uncertain process. We currently have one product candidate, TNX-102 SL, in Phase 3 development for the treatment of PTSD and FM. The success of our business currently depends on the successful development, approval and commercialization of TNX-1800, TNX-801 and TNX-102 SL. Any projected sales or future revenue predictions are predicated upon FDA approval and market acceptance of TNX-102 SL. If projected sales do not materialize for any reason, it would have a material adverse effect on our business and our ability to continue operations.

 

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 As we have no approved products on the market, we do not expect to generate any revenues from product sales in the foreseeable future, if at all.

 

To date, we have no approved product on the market and have generated no product revenues. We have funded our operations primarily from sales of our securities. We have not received, and do not expect to receive for at least the next couple of years, if at all, any revenues from the commercialization of our product candidates. To obtain revenues from sales of our product candidates, we must succeed, either alone or with third parties, in developing, obtaining regulatory approval for, manufacturing and marketing drugs with commercial potential. We may never succeed in these activities, and we may not generate sufficient revenues to continue our business operations or achieve profitability.

 

We are largely dependent on the success of our clinical-stage product candidate, TNX-102 SL for FM and PTSD , and we cannot be certain that this product candidate will receive regulatory approval or be successfully commercialized.  

 

TNX-102 SL has not completed the clinical development process; therefore, we have not yet submitted an NDA or foreign equivalent or received marketing approval for this product candidate anywhere in the world. The clinical development program for TNX-102 SL for FM and PTSD may not lead to commercial products for a number of reasons, including if we fail to obtain necessary approvals from the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities because our clinical studies fail to demonstrate to their satisfaction that this product candidate is safe and effective or a clinical program may be put on hold due to unexpected safety issues. We may also fail to obtain the necessary approvals if we have inadequate financial or other resources to advance our product candidates through the clinical study process. Any failure or delay in completing clinical studies or obtaining regulatory approvals for TNX-102 SL for FM and PTSD in a timely manner would have a material adverse impact on our business and our stock price.

 

We may not commence or advance clinical trials for TNX-1800 if the COVID-19 disease outbreak subsides.

 

Disease outbreaks are unpredictable. For example, the SARS virus disappeared just four months after it caused a global panic. In the event that COVID-19 has a similar disease cycle, we may be forced to abandon or delay the development of TNX-1800 due to a lack of patients or government funding.

 

Successful development of our products is uncertain.

 

Our development of current and future product candidates is subject to the risks of failure and delay inherent in the development of new pharmaceutical products, including: delays in product development, clinical testing, or manufacturing; unplanned expenditures in product development, clinical testing, or manufacturing; failure to receive regulatory approvals; emergence of superior or equivalent products; inability to manufacture on its own, or through any others, product candidates on a commercial scale; and failure to achieve market acceptance.

 

Because of these risks, our research and development efforts may not result in any commercially viable products. If a significant portion of these development efforts are not successfully completed, required regulatory approvals are not obtained or any approved products are not commercially successfully, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially harmed.

 

Clinical studies required for our product candidates are expensive and time-consuming, and their outcome is uncertain.

 

In order to obtain FDA approval to market a new pharmaceutical product, we must demonstrate proof of safety and effectiveness in humans. To meet these requirements, we must conduct “adequate and well controlled” clinical studies. Conducting clinical studies is a lengthy, time-consuming, and expensive process. The length of time may vary substantially according to the type, complexity, novelty, and intended use of the product candidate, and often can be several years or more per study. Delays associated with products for which we are directly conducting clinical studies may cause us to incur additional operating expenses. The commencement and rate of completion of clinical studies may be delayed by many factors, including, for example: inability to manufacture sufficient quantities of stable and qualified materials under cGMP, for use in clinical studies; slower than expected rates of patient recruitment; failure to recruit a sufficient number of patients; modification of clinical study protocols; changes in regulatory requirements for clinical studies; the lack of effectiveness during clinical studies; the emergence of unforeseen safety issues; delays, suspension, or termination of the clinical studies due to the ITB responsible for overseeing the study at a particular study site; and government or regulatory delays or “clinical holds” requiring suspension or termination of the studies.

 

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The results from early clinical studies are not necessarily predictive of results obtained in later clinical studies. Accordingly, even if we obtain positive results from early clinical studies, we may not be able to confirm the results in future clinical studies. In addition, clinical studies may not demonstrate sufficient safety and effectiveness to obtain the requisite regulatory approvals for product candidates.

 

Our clinical studies may be conducted in patients with CNS conditions, and in some cases, our product candidates are expected to be used in combination with approved therapies that themselves have significant adverse event profiles. During the course of treatment, these patients could suffer adverse medical events or die for reasons that may or may not be related to our product candidates. We cannot ensure that safety issues will not arise with respect to our product candidates in clinical development. 

 

The failure of clinical studies to demonstrate safety and effectiveness for the desired indications could harm the development of that product candidate and other product candidates. This failure could cause us to abandon a product candidate and could delay development of other product candidates. Any delay in, or termination of, our clinical studies would delay the filing of our NDAs with the FDA and, ultimately, our ability to commercialize our product candidates and generate product revenues. Any change in, or termination of, our clinical studies could materially harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

We are subject to extensive and costly government regulation.

 

Product candidates employing our technology are subject to extensive and rigorous domestic government regulation including regulation by the FDA, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, other divisions of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, the United States Department of Justice, state and local governments, and their respective foreign equivalents. The FDA regulates the research, development, preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies, manufacture, safety, effectiveness, record-keeping, reporting, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale, distribution, import, and export of biopharmaceutical products. The FDA regulates small molecule chemical entities as drugs, subject to an NDA under the FDCA. The FDA applies the same standards for biologics, requiring an IND application, followed by a Biologic License Application, or BLA, prior to licensure. Other products, such as vaccines, are also regulated under the Public Health Service Act. FDA has conflated the standards for approval of NDAs and BLAs so that they require the same types of information on safety, effectiveness, and CMCs. If products employing our technologies are marketed abroad, they will also be subject to extensive regulation by foreign governments, whether or not they have obtained FDA approval for a given product and its uses. Such foreign regulation may be equally or more demanding than corresponding United States regulation.

 

Government regulation substantially increases the cost and risk of researching, developing, manufacturing, and selling our products. The regulatory review and approval process, which includes preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies of each product candidate, is lengthy, expensive, and uncertain. We or our collaborators must obtain and maintain regulatory authorization to conduct clinical studies. We or our collaborators must obtain regulatory approval for each product we intend to market, and the manufacturing facilities used for the products must be inspected and meet legal requirements. Securing regulatory approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical, nonclinical and clinical data and other supporting information for each proposed therapeutic indication in order to establish the product’s safety and efficacy, and in the case of biologics also potency and purity, for each intended use. The development and approval process takes many years, requires substantial resources, and may never lead to the approval of a product.

 

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 Even if we are able to obtain regulatory approval for a particular product, the approval may limit the indicated medical uses for the product, may otherwise limit our ability to promote, sell, and distribute the product, may require that we conduct costly post-marketing surveillance, and/or may require that we conduct ongoing post-marketing studies. Material changes to an approved product, such as, for example, manufacturing changes or revised labeling, may require further regulatory review and approval. Once obtained, any approvals may be withdrawn, including, for example, if there is a later discovery of previously unknown problems with the product, such as a previously unknown safety issue.

 

If we, our collaborators, or our CMOs fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements at any stage during the regulatory process, such noncompliance could result in, among other things delays in the approval of applications or supplements to approved applications; refusal of a regulatory authority, including the FDA, to review pending market approval applications or supplements to approved applications; warning letters; fines; import and/or export restrictions; product recalls or seizures; injunctions; total or partial suspension of production; civil penalties; withdrawals of previously approved marketing applications or licenses; recommendations by the FDA or other regulatory authorities against governmental contracts; and/or criminal prosecutions.

 

We do not have, and may never obtain, the regulatory approvals we need to market our product candidates.

 

Following completion of clinical studies, the results are evaluated and, depending on the outcome, submitted to the FDA in the form of an NDA or BLA in order to obtain FDA approval of the product and authorization to commence commercial marketing. In responding to an NDA, the FDA may require additional testing or information, may require that the product labeling be modified, may impose post-approval study and other commitments or reporting requirements or other restrictions on product distribution, or may deny the application. The FDA has established performance goals for review of NDAs or BLAs: six months for priority applications and ten months for standard applications. However, the FDA is not required to complete its review within these time periods. The timing of final FDA review and action varies greatly but can take years in some cases and may involve the input of an FDA advisory committee of outside experts. Product sales in the United States may commence only when an NDA or BLA is approved.

 

To date, we have not applied for or received the regulatory approvals required for the commercial sale of any of our products in the United States or in any foreign jurisdiction. None of our product candidates have been determined to be safe and effective, and we have not submitted an NDA or BLA to the FDA or an equivalent application to any foreign regulatory authorities for any of our product candidates.

 

It is possible that none of our product candidates will be approved for marketing. Failure to obtain regulatory approvals, or delays in obtaining regulatory approvals, may adversely affect the successful commercialization of any drugs or biologics that we or our partners develop, may impose additional costs on us or our collaborators, may diminish any competitive advantages that we or our partners may attain, and/or may adversely affect our receipt of revenues or royalties.

 

We have never submitted an NDA before, and may be unable to do so for TNX-102 SL or other product candidates we are developing.

 

We initiated a Phase 3 study in FM in the fourth quarter of 2019. As this study is intended to provide efficacy and safety evidence to support marketing approval by the FDA, it is considered a pivotal, confirmatory or registration studies. We initiated a Phase 3 study in civilian and military-related PTSD in the first quarter of 2019 and stopped new enrollment in February 2020 after the IDMC recommended stopping the study for futility after reviewing the IA results. Reception of the futility recommendation by the IDMC suggests this study is unlikely to provide the evidence required to support marketing approval by the FDA.

 

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The conduct of pivotal clinical studies and the submission of a successful NDA is a complicated process. Although members of our management team have extensive industry experience, including in the development and clinical testing of drug candidates and the commercialization of drug, we have conducted only two pivotal clinical studies before (the AFFIRM study in FM patients, the HONOR study in PTSD participants), have limited experience in preparing, submitting and prosecuting regulatory filings, and have not submitted an NDA before. Consequently, we may be unable to successfully and efficiently execute and complete this planned clinical study in a way that leads to NDA submission and approval of TNX-102 SL and other product candidates we are developing. We may require more time and incur greater costs than our competitors and may not succeed in obtaining regulatory approvals of product candidates that we develop. Failure to commence or complete, or delays in, our planned clinical studies would prevent or delay commercialization of TNX-102 SL and other product candidates we are developing. 

Our product candidates may cause serious adverse events, or SAEs, or undesirable side effects which may delay or prevent marketing approval, or, if approval is received, require them to be taken off the market, require them to include safety warnings or otherwise limit their sales.

 

SAEs or undesirable side effects from any of our other product candidates could arise either during clinical development or, if approved, after the approved product has been marketed. The results of future clinical studies may show that our product candidates cause SAEs or undesirable side effects, which could interrupt, delay or halt clinical studies, resulting in delay of, or failure to obtain, marketing approval from the FDA and other regulatory authorities.

 

If any of our other product candidates cause SAEs or undesirable side effects or suffer from quality control issues:

 

 

regulatory authorities may impose a clinical hold or risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, or REMS, which could result in substantial delays, significantly increase the cost of development, and/or adversely impact our ability to continue development of the product;

 

 

regulatory authorities may require the addition of statements, specific warnings, or contraindications to the product label, or restrict the product’s indication to a smaller potential treatment population;

 

  we may be required to change the way the product is administered or conduct additional clinical studies;

 

  we may be required to implement a risk minimization action plan, which could result in substantial cost increases and have a negative impact on our ability to commercialize the product; 

 

  we may be required to limit the participants who can receive the product;

 

  we may be subject to limitations on how we promote the product;

 

  we may, voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate field alerts for product recall, which may result in shortages;

 

  sales of the product may decrease significantly;

 

  regulatory authorities may require us to take our approved product off the market;

 

  we may be subject to litigation or product liability claims; and

 

  our reputation may suffer.

 

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Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the affected product or could substantially increase commercialization costs and expenses, which in turn could delay or prevent us from generating significant revenues from the sale of our products. 

 

If we are unable to file for approval of TNX-102 SL under Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA or if we are required to generate additional data related to safety and efficacy in order to obtain approval under Section 505(b)(2), we may be unable to meet our anticipated development and commercialization timelines.

 

Our current plans for filing NDAs for our most advanced product candidate, TNX-102 SL, include efforts to minimize the data we will be required to generate in order to obtain marketing approval and therefore reduce the development time. We intend to file Section 505(b)(2) NDAs for TNX-102 SL for FM, PTSD, and for other proposed indications, that might, if accepted by the FDA, save time and expense in the development and testing of TNX-102 SL. 

 

TNX-102 SL for FM and PTSD are our most advanced development programs which are in the Phase 3 stages. For the FM program, we held an End-of-Phase 2 meeting with the FDA in February 2013 to discuss the development and NDA submissions of TNX-102 SL for the management of FM. In late 2014, following the results of the Phase 2 BESTFIT study, we corresponded with the FDA to discuss the results and the development of the first Phase 3 study (AFFIRM) and our registration program.  In September 2016, following the results of the AFFIRM study, we temporarily discontinued the FM program to focus on the development of the PTSD program. In March 2019, we resumed the clinical development of the FM program and held a Clinical Guidance Meeting with the FDA to discuss the study design of the currently ongoing Phase 3 study (RELIEF).

 

For the PTSD program, following the results of the Phase 2 AtEase Study, we held an End-of-Phase 2/Pre-Phase 3 meeting with the FDA in August 2016 to discuss the study results and the design of the first Phase 3 study (HONOR). We had our initial Cross-disciplinary Breakthrough Therapy meeting in March 2017 with the FDA to discuss ways to expedite the development and NDA submission of TNX-102 SL after the FDA granted the Breakthrough Therapy designation (BTD) status for TNX-102 SL for the treatment of PTSD in December 2016. Following the interim analysis (IA) of the Phase 3 HONOR Study, we met with the FDA in October 2018 to seek agreement on the design of the currently ongoing Phase 3 study (RECOVERY). In December 2018, the FDA issued an Intent-to-Rescind letter for BTD status for TNX-102 SL for the treatment of PTSD because the IA results of the HONOR study did not meet the criteria for the BTD. In March 2019, the FDA rescinded the BTD, but subsequently withdrew the BTD rescission in April 2019 and granted a meeting in August 2019 to discuss the continuation of BTD. The BTD for TNX-102 SL for PTSD remains in effect and the FDA’s intent-to-rescind BTD for TNX-102 SL for PTSD also remains in effect. FDA agreed to consider the additional data and information presented at the August 2019 meeting. The FDA’s decision whether to maintain BTD for TNX-102 SL for PTSD is pending. The FDA will inform us of the BTD decision but no timeframe was given.

 

Our interactions with the FDA have encouraged our efforts to continue to develop TNX-102 SL for FM and PTSD, however, based on interim analysis results of the first 50% of enrolled participants, an Independent Data Monitoring Committee recommended stopping the Phase 3 RECOVERY trial in PTSD for futility as TNX-102 SL was unlikely to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in the primary endpoint of overall change from baseline in the severity of PTSD symptoms. While we intend to continue studying those participants currently enrolled until completion and then proceed with a full analysis of the unblinded data to determine the next steps in this program, there is no assurance that we will satisfy the FDA’s requirements for approval in this indication. The timeline for filing and review of our NDA for TNX-102 SL for FM and PTSD is based on our plan to submit this NDA under Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA, which would enable us to rely in part on data in the public domain or elsewhere. We have not yet filed an NDA under Section 505(b)(2) for any of our product candidates. Depending on the data that may be required by the FDA for approval, some of the data may be related to products already approved by the FDA. If the data relied upon is related to products already approved by the FDA and covered by third-party patents, we would be required to certify that we do not infringe the listed patents or that such patents are invalid or unenforceable. As a result of the certification, the third-party would have 45 days from notification of our certification to initiate an action against us.  In the event that an action is brought in response to such a certification, the approval of our NDA could be subject to a stay of up to 30 months or more while we defend against such a suit. Approval of our product candidates under Section 505(b)(2) may therefore be delayed until patent exclusivity expires or until we successfully challenge the applicability of those patents to our product candidates. Alternatively, we may elect to generate sufficient Alternatively, we may elect to generate sufficient additional clinical data so that we no longer rely on data which triggers a potential stay of the approval of our product candidates. Even if no exclusivity periods apply to our applications under Section 505(b)(2), the FDA has broad discretion to require us to generate additional data on the safety and efficacy of our product candidates to supplement third-party data on which we may be permitted to rely. In either event, we could be required, before obtaining marketing approval for any of our product candidates, to conduct substantial new research and development activities beyond those we currently plan to engage in order to obtain approval of our product candidates. Such additional new research and development activities would be costly and time consuming.

 

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We may not be able to realize a shortened development timeline for TNX-102 SL for FM or PTSD (or other proposed indications under TNX-102 SL), and the FDA may not approve our NDA based on their review of the submitted data. If cyclobenzaprine-containing products are withdrawn from the market by the FDA for any safety reason, we may not be able to reference such products to support a 505(b)(2) NDA for TNX-102 SL, and we may need to fulfill the more extensive requirements of Section 505(b)(1). If we are required to generate additional data to support approval, we may be unable to meet our anticipated development and commercialization timelines, may be unable to generate the additional data at a reasonable cost, or at all, and may be unable to obtain marketing approval of our lead product candidate.

 

Any fast track designation or grant of priority review status by the FDA may not actually lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process, nor will it assure FDA approval of our product candidates. Additionally, our product candidates may treat indications that do not qualify for priority review vouchers.

 

We have received fast track designation for TNX-102 SL for the treatment of agitation in Alzheimer’s disease and may seek fast track designation for other product candidates or priority review of applications for approval of our product candidates for certain indications. If a drug is intended for the treatment of a serious or life-threatening condition and the drug demonstrates the potential to address unmet medical needs for this condition, the drug sponsor may apply for FDA fast track designation. If a product candidate offers major advances in treatment, the FDA may designate it eligible for priority review. The FDA has broad discretion whether or not to grant these designations, so even if we believe a particular product candidate is eligible for these designations, we cannot assure you that the FDA would decide to grant them. Even if we do receive fast track designation or priority review, we may not experience a faster development process, review or approval compared to conventional FDA procedures. The FDA may withdraw fast track designation if it believes that the designation is no longer supported by data from our clinical development program.

 

Even if approved, our products will be subject to extensive post-approval regulation.

 

Once a product is approved, numerous post-approval requirements apply. Among other things, the holder of an approved NDA is subject to periodic and other FDA monitoring and reporting obligations, including obligations to monitor and report adverse events and instances of the failure of a product to meet the specifications in the NDA. Application holders must submit new or supplemental applications and obtain FDA approval for certain changes to the approved product, product labeling, or manufacturing process. Application holders must also submit advertising and other promotional material to the FDA and report on ongoing clinical studies.

 

Depending on the circumstances, failure to meet these post-approval requirements can result in criminal prosecution, fines, injunctions, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, denial or withdrawal of pre-marketing product approvals, or refusal to allow us to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts. In addition, even if we comply with FDA and other requirements, new information regarding the safety or effectiveness of a product could lead the FDA to modify or withdraw product approval.

 

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Even if we obtain regulatory approval to market our product candidates, our product candidates may not be accepted by the market.

 

Even if the FDA approves one or more of our product candidates, physicians and patients may not accept it or use it. Even if physicians and patients would like to use our products, our products may not gain market acceptance among healthcare payors such as managed care formularies, insurance companies or government programs such as Medicare or Medicaid. Acceptance and use of our products will depend upon a number of factors including: perceptions by members of the health care community, including physicians, about the safety and effectiveness of our drug or device product; cost-effectiveness of our product relative to competing products; availability of reimbursement for our product from government or other healthcare payors; and effectiveness of marketing and distribution efforts by us and our licensees and distributors, if any.

 

The degree of market acceptance of any pharmaceutical product that we develop will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

  cost-effectiveness;
     
  the safety and effectiveness of our products, including any significant potential side effects (including drowsiness and dry mouth), as compared to alternative products or treatment methods;
     
  the timing of market entry as compared to competitive products;
     
  the rate of adoption of our products by doctors and nurses;
     
  product labeling or product insert required by the FDA for each of our products;
     
  reimbursement policies of government and third-party payors;
     
  effectiveness of our sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and the effectiveness of such capabilities of our collaborative partners, if any; and
     
  unfavorable publicity concerning our products or any similar products.

 

Because we expect sales of our current product candidates, if approved, to generate substantially all of our product revenues for the foreseeable future, the failure of these products to find market acceptance would harm our business and could require us to seek additional financing.

 

We may use our financial and human resources to pursue a particular research program or product candidate and fail to capitalize on programs or product candidates that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

 

Because we have limited financial and human resources, we are currently focusing on the development of TNX-1800 to protect against COVID-19, TNX-801 to protect against smallpox and monkeypox, and TNX-102 SL for the management of FM and the treatment of PTSD. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other product candidates or for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on existing and future product candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable products. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product candidate through strategic alliance, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such product candidate, or we may allocate internal resources to a product candidate in a therapeutic area in which it would have been more advantageous to enter into a partnering arrangement.

 

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 RISKS RELATED TO OUR FINANCIAL CONDITION AND CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS; COMPETITION

 

Our independent registered public accounting firm has included an explanatory paragraph relating to our ability to continue as a going concern in its report on our audited financial statements. We may be unable to continue to operate without the threat of liquidation for the foreseeable future.

 

In connection with our management’s assessment, our report from our independent registered public accounting firm for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 includes an explanatory paragraph stating that our recurring losses from operations and net capital deficiency raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. If we are unable to obtain sufficient funding, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected and we may be unable to continue as a going concern. For example, we believe our existing capital resources will be insufficient to fund our operations beyond December 31, 2020. If we are unable to continue as a going concern, we may have to liquidate our assets and may receive less than the value at which those assets are carried on our consolidated financial statements, and investors will likely lose all or a part of their investment. Future reports from our independent registered public accounting firm may also contain statements expressing substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. If we seek additional financing to fund our business activities in the future and there remains substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern, investors or other financing sources may be unwilling to provide additional funding on commercially reasonable terms or at all. 

 

We will need additional capital. If additional capital is not available or is available at unattractive terms, we may be forced to delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate our research and development programs, reduce our commercialization efforts or curtail our operations.

 

In order to develop and bring our product candidates to market, we must commit substantial resources to costly and time-consuming research, preclinical and nonclinical testing, clinical studies and marketing activities. We anticipate that our existing cash and cash equivalents will enable us to maintain our current operations for at least the next 12 months. We anticipate using our cash and cash equivalents to fund further research and development with respect to our lead product candidate. We will, however, need to raise additional funding sooner if our business or operations change in a manner that consumes available resources more rapidly than we anticipate. Our requirements for additional capital will depend on many factors, including:

 

  successful commercialization of our product candidates;
     
  the time and costs involved in obtaining regulatory approval for our product candidates;
     
  costs associated with protecting our intellectual property rights;
     
  development of marketing and sales capabilities;
     
  payments received under future collaborative agreements, if any; and
     
  market acceptance of our products.

 

To the extent we raise additional capital through the sale of equity securities, the issuance of those securities could result in dilution to our shareholders. In addition, if we obtain debt financing, a substantial portion of our operating cash flow may be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on such indebtedness, thus limiting funds available for our business activities. If adequate funds are not available, we may be required to delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate our research and development programs, reduce our commercialization efforts or curtail our operations. In addition, we may be required to obtain funds through arrangements with collaborative partners or others that may require us to relinquish rights to technologies, product candidates or products that we would otherwise seek to develop or commercialize ourselves or license rights to technologies, product candidates or products on terms that are less favorable to us than might otherwise be available.

 

We will require substantial additional funds to support our research and development activities, and the anticipated costs of preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies, regulatory approvals and eventual commercialization. Such additional sources of financing may not be available on favorable terms, if at all. If we do not succeed in raising additional funds on acceptable terms, we may be unable to commence or complete clinical studies or obtain approval of any product candidates from the FDA and other regulatory authorities. In addition, we could be forced to discontinue product development, forego sales and marketing efforts and forego attractive business opportunities. Any additional sources of financing will likely involve the issuance of our equity securities, which will have a dilutive effect on our shareholders.

 

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There is no assurance that we will be successful in raising the additional funds needed to fund our business plan. If we are not able to raise sufficient capital in the near future, our continued operations will be in jeopardy and we may be forced to cease operations and sell or otherwise transfer all or substantially all of our remaining assets.

 

Outbreaks of communicable diseases may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may face risks related to health epidemics or outbreaks of communicable diseases. For example, there is now a global pandemic of COVID-19, a highly transmissible pathogenic coronavirus. The outbreak of such communicable diseases could result in a widespread health crisis that could adversely affect general commercial activity and the economies and financial markets of many countries. An outbreak of communicable diseases, or the perception that such an outbreak could occur, and the measures taken by the governments of countries affected could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. For example, an outbreak could significantly disrupt our business by limiting our ability to travel or ship materials within or outside of an affected country and forcing temporary closure of facilities or service providers that we rely upon. An outbreak could also impact our ability to conduct our ongoing multicenter clinical trials if trial participant attendance at requisite study visits is substantially reduced and if a significant percentage of study participants and study staff are adversely affected by coronavirus or other infections and the resulting disease course. Moreover, government or community shutdowns such as those caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, may impair our ability to analyze and submit the results from our clinical and preclinical trials, leading to further delays in the development and approval of our product candidates.

 

We face intense competition in the markets targeted by our product candidates. Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources than we do, and we expect that all of our product candidates under development will face intense competition from existing or future drugs.

 

We expect that all of our product candidates under development, if approved, will face intense competition from existing and future drugs marketed by large companies. These competitors may successfully market products that compete with our products, successfully identify drug candidates or develop products earlier than we do, or develop products that are more effective, have fewer side effects or cost less than our products.

 

Additionally, if a competitor receives FDA approval before we do for a drug that is similar to one of our product candidates, FDA approval for our product candidate may be precluded or delayed due to periods of non-patent exclusivity and/or the listing with the FDA by the competitor of patents covering its newly-approved drug product. Periods of non-patent exclusivity for new versions of existing drugs such as our current drug product candidate, TNX-102 SL, can extend up to three and one-half years.

 

These competitive factors could require us to conduct substantial new research and development activities to establish new product targets, which would be costly and time consuming. These activities would adversely affect our ability to commercialize products and achieve revenue and profits.

 

Competition and technological change may make our product candidates and technologies less attractive or obsolete.

 

We compete with established pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that are pursuing other forms of treatment for the same or similar indications we are pursuing and that have greater financial and other resources. Other companies may succeed in developing products earlier than us, obtaining FDA approval for products more rapidly, or developing products that are more effective than our product candidates. Research and development by others may render our technology or product candidates obsolete or noncompetitive, or result in treatments or cures superior to any therapy we develop. We face competition from companies that internally develop competing technology or acquire competing technology from universities and other research institutions. As these companies develop their technologies, they may develop competitive positions that may prevent, make futile, or limit our product commercialization efforts, which would result in a decrease in the revenue we would be able to derive from the sale of any products.

 

There can be no assurance that any of our product candidates will be accepted by the marketplace as readily as these or other competing treatments. Furthermore, if our competitors’ products are approved before ours, it could be more difficult for us to obtain approval from the FDA. Even if our products are successfully developed and approved for use by all governing regulatory bodies, there can be no assurance that physicians and patients will accept our product(s) as a treatment of choice.

 

Furthermore, the pharmaceutical research industry is diverse, complex, and rapidly changing. By its nature, the business risks associated therewith are numerous and significant. The effects of competition, intellectual property disputes, market acceptance, and FDA regulations preclude us from forecasting revenues or income with certainty or even confidence.

 

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RISKS RELATED TO OUR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND REGULATORY EXCLUSIVITY  

 

If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights, our ability to pursue the development of our technologies and products would be negatively affected.

 

Our success will depend in part on our ability to obtain patents and maintain adequate protection of our technologies and products. If we do not adequately protect our intellectual property, competitors may be able to use our technologies to produce and market drugs using our technologies and patents in direct competition with us and erode our competitive advantage. Some foreign countries lack rules and methods for defending intellectual property rights and do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the United States. Many companies have had difficulty protecting their proprietary rights in these foreign countries. We may not be able to prevent misappropriation of our proprietary rights and intellectual property rights in these and other countries.

 

We have received, and are currently seeking, patent protection for numerous compounds and methods of treating diseases. However, the patent process is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, and there can be no assurance that we will be successful in protecting our products by obtaining and defending patents related to them. These risks and uncertainties include the following: patents that may be issued or licensed may be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented, or otherwise may not provide us any competitive advantage; our competitors, many of which have substantially greater resources than we and many of which have made significant investments in competing technologies, may seek, or may already have obtained, patents that will limit, interfere with, or eliminate our ability to make, use, and sell our potential products either in the United States or in international markets; there may be significant pressure on the United States government and other international governmental bodies to limit the scope of patent protection both inside and outside the United States for treatments that prove successful as a matter of public policy regarding worldwide health concerns; and countries other than the United States may have less robust patent laws than those upheld by United States courts, allowing foreign competitors the ability to exploit these laws to create, develop, and market competing products using our technologies and patents.

 

Moreover, any patents issued to us may not provide us with meaningful protection, or others may challenge, circumvent or narrow our patents. Third parties may also independently develop products similar to our products, duplicate our unpatented products or design around any patents or propriety technologies on products we develop. Additionally, extensive time is required for development, testing and regulatory review of a potential product. While extensions of patent term due to regulatory delays may be available, it is possible that, before any of our product candidates can be commercialized, any related patent, even with an extension, may expire or remain in force for only a short period following commercialization, thereby reducing any advantages to us of the patent.

 

In addition, the PTO and patent offices in other jurisdictions have often required that patent applications concerning pharmaceutical and/or biotechnology-related inventions be limited or narrowed substantially to cover only the innovations specifically exemplified in the patent application, thereby limiting the scope of protection against competitive challenges. Thus, even if we or our licensors are able to obtain patents, the patents may be substantially narrower than anticipated.

 

Our success depends on our patents and patent applications that may be licensed exclusively to us and other patents and patent applications to which we may obtain assignment or licenses. We may not be aware, however, of all patents, published applications or published literature that may affect our business either by blocking our ability to commercialize our product candidates, by preventing the patentability of our product candidates to us or our licensors, or by covering the same or similar technologies. These patents, patent applications, and published literature may limit the scope of our future patent claims or adversely affect our ability to market our product candidates.

 

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In addition to patents, we rely on a combination of trade secrets, confidentiality, nondisclosure and other contractual provisions, and security measures to protect our confidential and proprietary information. These measures may not adequately protect our trade secrets or other proprietary information. If they do not adequately protect our rights, third parties could use our technology, and we could lose any competitive advantage we may have. In addition, others may independently develop similar proprietary information or techniques or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets, which could impair any competitive advantage we may have.

 

Patent protection and other intellectual property protection is crucial to the success of our business and prospects, and there is a substantial risk that such protections will prove inadequate.

 

We may be involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents, which could be expensive and time consuming.

 

The pharmaceutical industry has been characterized by extensive litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights, and companies have employed intellectual property litigation to gain a competitive advantage. We may become subject to infringement claims or litigation arising out of present and future patents and other proceedings of our competitors. The defense and prosecution of intellectual property suits are costly and time-consuming to pursue, and their outcome is uncertain. Litigation may be necessary to determine the enforceability, scope, and validity of the proprietary rights of others. An adverse determination in litigation to which we may become a party could subject us to significant liabilities, require us to obtain licenses from third parties, or restrict or prevent us from selling our products in certain markets. Although patent and intellectual property disputes might be settled through licensing or similar arrangements, the costs associated with such arrangements may be substantial and could include our paying large fixed payments and ongoing royalties. Furthermore, the necessary licenses may not be available on satisfactory terms or at all.

 

Competitors may infringe our patents, and we may file infringement claims to counter infringement or unauthorized use. Third parties may assert that our patents are invalid and/or unenforceable in these proceedings. Such litigation can be expensive, particularly for a company of our size, and time-consuming. In addition, in an infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours is not valid or is unenforceable, or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover its technology. An adverse determination of any litigation or defense proceedings could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly.

 

Third parties may also assert that our patents are invalid in patent office administrative proceedings. These proceedings include oppositions in the European Patent Office and inter partes review and post-grant review proceedings in the PTO. The success rate of these administrative challenges to patent validity in the United States is higher than it is for validity challenges in litigation.

 

Interference or derivation proceedings brought before the PTO may be necessary to determine priority of invention with respect to innovations disclosed in our patents or patent applications. During these proceedings, it may be determined that we do not have priority of invention for one or more aspects in our patents or patent applications and could result in the invalidation in part or whole of a patent or could put a patent application at risk of not issuing. Even if successful, an interference or derivation proceeding may result in substantial costs and distraction to our management.

 

Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation or interference or derivation proceedings, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If investors perceive these results to be negative, the price of our common stock could be adversely affected.

 

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There are no unresolved communications, allegations, complaints or threats of litigation related to the possibility that our patents are invalid or unenforceable. Any litigation or claims against us, whether or not merited, may result in substantial costs, place a significant strain on our financial resources, divert the attention of management and harm our reputation. An adverse decision in litigation or administrative proceedings could result in inadequate protection for our product candidates and/or reduce the value of any license agreements we have with third parties.

 

If we infringe the rights of third parties we could be prevented from selling products, forced to pay damages, and defend against litigation.

 

If our products, methods, processes and other technologies infringe the proprietary rights of other parties, we could incur substantial costs and we may have to: obtain licenses, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all; abandon an infringing product candidate; redesign our products or processes to avoid infringement; stop using the subject matter claimed in the patents held by others; pay damages; and/or defend litigation or administrative proceedings which may be costly whether we win or lose, and which could result in a substantial diversion of our financial and management resources.

 

There are risks to our intellectual property based on our international business initiatives.

 

We may face risks to our technology and intellectual property as a result of our conducting strategic business discussions outside of the United States, and particularly in jurisdictions that do not have comparable levels of protection of corporate proprietary information and assets such as intellectual property, trademarks, trade secrets, know-how and customer information and records. While these risks are common to many companies, conducting business in certain foreign jurisdictions, housing technology, data and intellectual property abroad, or licensing technology to joint ventures with foreign partners may have more significant exposure. For example, we have shared intellectual properties with entities in China pursuant to confidentiality agreements in connection with discussions on potential strategic collaborations, which may expose us to material risks of theft of our proprietary information and other intellectual property, including technical data, manufacturing processes, data sets or other sensitive information. For example, our technology may be reverse engineered by the parties or other parties, which could result in our patents being infringed or our know-how or trade secrets stolen. The risk can be by direct intrusion wherein technology and intellectual property is stolen or compromised through cyber intrusions or physical theft through corporate espionage, including with the assistance of insiders, or via more indirect routes.

 

GENERAL COMPANY-RELATED RISKS

 

If preclinical and nonclinical testing or clinical studies for our product candidates are unsuccessful or delayed, we will be unable to meet our anticipated development and commercialization timelines.

 

We rely and expect to continue to rely on third parties, including contract research organizations, or CROs, and outside consultants, to conduct, supervise or monitor some or all aspects of preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies involving our product candidates. We have less control over the timing and other aspects of these preclinical and nonclinical testing activities and clinical studies than if we performed the monitoring and supervision entirely on our own. Third parties may not perform their responsibilities for our preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies on our anticipated schedule or, for clinical studies, consistent with a clinical study protocol. Delays in preclinical and nonclinical testing, and clinical studies could significantly increase our product development costs and delay product commercialization. In addition, many of the factors that may cause, or lead to, a delay in the clinical studies may also ultimately lead to denial of regulatory approval of a product candidate.

 

The commencement of clinical studies can be delayed for a variety of reasons, including delays in:

 

  demonstrating sufficient safety and efficacy to obtain regulatory approval to commence a clinical study;
     
  reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective CROs and study sites;
     
  developing a stable formulation of a product candidate;
     
  manufacturing sufficient quantities of a product candidate; and

 

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  obtaining institutional review board, or IRB, approval to conduct a clinical study at a prospective site.

 

Once a clinical study has begun, it may be delayed, suspended or terminated by us or the FDA or other regulatory authorities due to a number of factors, including:

 

  ongoing discussions with the FDA or other regulatory authorities regarding the scope or design of our clinical studies;
     
  failure to conduct clinical studies in accordance with regulatory requirements;
     
  lower than anticipated recruitment or retention rate of patients in clinical studies;
     
  inspection of the clinical study operations or study sites by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold;
     
  lack of adequate funding to continue clinical studies;
     
  negative results of clinical studies;
     
  investigational drug product out-of-specification; or
     
  nonclinical or clinical safety observations, including adverse events and SAEs.

 

If clinical studies are unsuccessful, and we are not able to obtain regulatory approvals for our product candidates under development, we will not be able to commercialize these products, and therefore may not be able to generate sufficient revenues to support our business.

 

We rely on third parties to conduct, supervise and monitor our clinical studies, and if those third parties perform in an unsatisfactory manner, it may harm our business.

 

We rely on CROs and clinical study sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our clinical studies. While we have agreements governing their activities, we will have limited influence over their actual performance. We will control only certain aspects of our CROs’ activities. Nevertheless, we will be responsible for ensuring that our clinical studies are conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific standards and our reliance on the CROs does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities.

 

We and our CROs are required to comply with the FDA’s cGCP for conducting, recording and reporting the results of clinical studies to assure that data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the rights, integrity and confidentiality of clinical study participants are protected. The FDA enforces these cGCPs through periodic inspections of study sponsors, principal investigators and clinical study sites. If we or our CROs fail to comply with applicable cGCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical studies may be deemed unreliable and the FDA may require us to perform additional clinical studies before approving any marketing applications. Upon inspection, the FDA may determine that our clinical studies did not comply with cGCPs. In addition, our clinical studies, including our ongoing Phase 3 RELIEF study, will require a sufficiently large number of fibromyalgia participants to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of TNX-102 SL in FM. Accordingly, if our CROs fail to comply with these regulations or fail to recruit a sufficient number of participants, our clinical studies may be delayed or we may be required to repeat such clinical studies, which would delay the regulatory approval process.

 

Our CROs are not our employees, and we are not able to control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our clinical studies. These CROs may also have relationships with other commercial entities, including our competitors, for whom they may also be conducting clinical studies, or other drug development activities which could harm our competitive position.

 

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If our CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations, fail to meet expected deadlines, or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols or regulatory requirements, or for any other reasons, our clinical studies may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize our product candidates. As a result, our financial results and the commercial prospects for such product candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase, and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed.

 

 We also rely on other third parties to store and distribute drug products for our clinical studies. Any performance failure on the part of our distributors could delay clinical development or marketing approval of our product candidates or commercialization of our products, if approved, producing additional losses and depriving us of potential product revenue.

 

We will need to expand our operations and increase the size of our company, and we may experience difficulties in managing growth.

 

As we advance our product candidates through preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies, and develop new product candidates, we will need to increase our product development, scientific, regulatory and compliance and administrative headcount to manage these programs. In addition, to meet our obligations as a public company, we will need to increase our general and administrative capabilities. Our management, personnel and systems currently in place may not be adequate to support this future growth. Our need to effectively manage our operations, growth and various projects requires that we:

 

  successfully attract and recruit new employees with the expertise and experience we will require;
     
  manage our clinical programs effectively, which we anticipate being conducted at numerous clinical sites;
     
  develop a marketing, distribution and sales infrastructure in addition to a post-marketing surveillance program if we seek to market our products directly; and
     
  continue to improve our operational, manufacturing, quality assurance, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures.

 

If we are unable to successfully manage this growth and increased complexity of operations, our business may be adversely affected.

 

Our executive officers and other key personnel are critical to our business, and our future success depends on our ability to retain them.

 

Our success depends to a significant extent upon the continued services of Dr. Seth Lederman, our President and Chief Executive Officer and Dr. Gregory M. Sullivan, our Chief Medical Officer. Dr. Lederman has overseen Tonix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary, since inception and provides leadership for our growth and operations strategy as well as being an inventor on many of our patents. Dr. Sullivan has served as our Chief Medical Officer since 2014 and directed the Phase 2 AtEase study, Phase 3 HONOR study and is directing the Phase 3 RECOVERY study and Phase 3 RELIEF study. Loss of the services of Drs. Lederman or Sullivan would have a material adverse effect on our growth, revenues, and prospective business. The loss of any of our key personnel, or the inability to attract and retain qualified personnel, may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our research, development or business objectives and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Any employment agreement we enter into will not ensure the retention of the employee who is a party to the agreement. In addition, we have only limited ability to prevent former employees from competing with us. Furthermore, our future success will also depend in part on the continued service of our key scientific and management personnel and our ability to identify, hire, and retain additional personnel. We experience intense competition for qualified personnel and may be unable to attract and retain the personnel necessary for the development of our business. Moreover, competition for personnel with the scientific and technical skills that we seek is extremely high and is likely to remain high. Because of this competition, our compensation costs may increase significantly.

 

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 If we are unable to hire additional qualified personnel, our ability to grow our business may be harmed.

 

Over time we will need to hire additional qualified personnel with expertise in drug development, product registration, clinical, preclinical and nonclinical research, quality compliance, government regulation, formulation and manufacturing, financial matters and sales and marketing. We compete for qualified individuals with numerous biopharmaceutical companies, universities and other research institutions. Competition for such individuals is intense, and we cannot be certain that our search for such personnel will be successful. Attracting and retaining qualified personnel will be critical to our success.

 

We rely on third parties to manufacture the compounds used in our studies, and we intend to rely on them for the manufacture of any approved products for commercial sale. If these third parties do not manufacture our product candidates in sufficient quantities and at an acceptable cost, clinical development and commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed, prevented or impaired.

 

We have no manufacturing facilities, and we have no experience in the clinical or commercial-scale manufacture of drugs or in designing drug manufacturing processes. We intend to rely on CMOs to manufacture some or all of our product candidates in clinical studies and our products that reach commercialization. Completion of our clinical studies and commercialization of our product candidates requires the manufacture of a sufficient supply of our product candidates. We have contracted with outside sources to manufacture our development compounds, including TNX-102 SL. If, for any reason, we become unable to rely on our current sources for the manufacture of our product candidates, either for clinical studies or, at some future date, for commercial quantities, then we would need to identify and contract with additional or replacement third-party manufacturers to manufacture compounds for nonclinical, preclinical, clinical, and commercial purposes. Although we are in discussions with other manufacturers we have identified as potential alternative CMOs of TNX-102 SL, we may not be successful in negotiating acceptable terms with any of them.

 

We believe that there are a variety of manufacturers that we may be able to retain to produce these products. However, once we retain a manufacturing source, if our manufacturers do not perform in a satisfactory manner, we may not be able to develop or commercialize potential products as planned. Certain specialized manufacturers are expected to provide us with modified and unmodified pharmaceutical compounds, including finished products, for use in our preclinical and nonclinical testing and clinical studies. Some of these materials are available from only one supplier or vendor. Any interruption in or termination of service by such sole source suppliers could result in a delay or interruption in manufacturing until we locate an alternative source of supply. Any delay or interruption in manufacturing operations (or failure to locate a suitable replacement for such suppliers) could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, or results of operations. We do not have any short-term or long-term manufacturing agreements with many of these manufacturers. If we fail to contract for manufacturing on acceptable terms or if third-party manufacturers do not perform as we expect, our development programs could be materially adversely affected. This may result in delays in filing for and receiving FDA approval for one or more of our products. Any such delays could cause our prospects to suffer significantly.

 

Failure by our third-party manufacturers to comply with the regulatory guidelines set forth by the FDA with respect to our product candidates could delay or prevent the completion of clinical studies, the approval of any product candidates or the commercialization of our products.

 

Such third-party manufacturers must be inspected by FDA for cGMP compliance before they can produce commercial product. We may be in competition with other companies for access to these manufacturers’ facilities and may be subject to delays in manufacture if the manufacturers give other clients higher priority than they give to us. If we are unable to secure and maintain third-party manufacturing capacity, the development and sales of our products and our financial performance may be materially affected. 

 

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 Manufacturers are obligated to operate in accordance with FDA-mandated requirements. A failure of any of our third-party manufacturers to establish and follow cGMP requirements and to document their adherence to such practices may lead to significant delays in the availability of material for clinical studies, may delay or prevent filing or approval of marketing applications for our products, and may cause delays or interruptions in the availability of our products for commercial distribution following FDA approval. This could result in higher costs to us or deprive us of potential product revenues.

 

Drug manufacturers are subject to ongoing periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA, the Drug Enforcement Administration, or DEA, and corresponding state and foreign agencies to ensure strict compliance with cGMP requirements and other requirements under Federal drug laws, other government regulations and corresponding foreign standards. If we or our third-party manufacturers fail to comply with applicable regulations, sanctions could be imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, failure by the government to grant marketing approval of drugs, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, seizures or recalls of product, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions.

 

Corporate and academic collaborators may take actions to delay, prevent, or undermine the success of our products.

 

Our operating and financial strategy for the development, clinical testing, manufacture, and commercialization of drug candidates is heavily dependent on our entering into collaborations with corporations, academic institutions, licensors, licensees, and other parties. Our current strategy assumes that we will successfully establish these collaborations, or similar relationships; however, there can be no assurance that we will be successful establishing such collaborations. Some of our existing collaborations are, and future collaborations may be, terminable at the sole discretion of the collaborator. Replacement collaborators might not be available on attractive terms, or at all. The activities of any collaborator will not be within our control and may not be within our power to influence. There can be no assurance that any collaborator will perform its obligations to our satisfaction or at all, that we will derive any revenue or profits from such collaborations, or that any collaborator will not compete with us. If any collaboration is not pursued, we may require substantially greater capital to undertake development and marketing of our proposed products and may not be able to develop and market such products effectively, if at all. In addition, a lack of development and marketing collaborations may lead to significant delays in introducing proposed products into certain markets and/or reduced sales of proposed products in such markets.

 

Data provided by collaborators and others upon which we rely that has not been independently verified could turn out to be false, misleading, or incomplete. 

 

We rely on third-party vendors, scientists, and collaborators to provide us with significant data and other information related to our projects, clinical studies, and our business. If such third parties provide inaccurate, misleading, or incomplete data, our business, prospects, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. 

 

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 Our product candidates may face competition sooner than expected.

 

We intend to seek data exclusivity or market exclusivity for our product candidates provided under the FDCA and similar laws in other countries. We believe that TNX-801 could qualify for 12 years of data exclusivity under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, or BPCIA, which was enacted as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Under the BPCIA, an application for a biosimilar product or BLA cannot be submitted to the FDA until four years, or if approved by the FDA, until 12 years, after the original brand product identified as the reference product is approved under a BLA. The BPCIA provides an abbreviated pathway for the approval of biosimilar and interchangeable biological products. The new abbreviated regulatory pathway establishes legal authority for the FDA to review and approve biosimilar biologics, including the possible designation of a biosimilar as “interchangeable” based on its similarity to an existing brand product. The new law is complex and is only beginning to be interpreted and implemented by the FDA. While it is uncertain when any such processes may be fully adopted by the FDA, any such processes could have a material adverse effect on the future commercial prospects for any of our product candidates that are biologics. There is also a risk that President Trump’s administration could repeal or amend the BPCIA to shorten this exclusivity period, potentially creating the opportunity for biosimilar competition sooner than anticipated after the expiration of our patent protection. Although there is no current discussion of repeal or modification of the BPCIA, the future remains uncertain. Moreover, the extent to which a biosimilar, once approved, will be substituted for any reference product in a way that is similar to traditional generic substitution for non-biological products is not yet clear, and will depend on a number of marketplace and regulatory factors that are still developing.

 

Our product candidates that are not, or are not considered, biologics that would qualify for exclusivity under the BPCIA may be eligible for market exclusivity as drugs under the FDCA. The FDCA provides a five-year period of non-patent marketing exclusivity within the U.S. to the first applicant to gain approval of an NDA for an NCE. A drug is an NCE if the FDA has not previously approved any other new drug containing the same active moiety, which is the molecule or ion responsible for the action of the drug substance. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not accept for review an abbreviated new drug application, or ANDA, or a 505(b)(2) NDA, submitted by another company for another version of such drug where the applicant does not own or have a legal right of reference to all the data required for approval. However, an application may be submitted after four years if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or non-infringement. The FDCA also provides three years of marketing exclusivity for an NDA, 505(b)(2) NDA or supplement to an existing NDA if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application, for example, for new indications, dosages, or strengths of an existing drug. This three-year exclusivity covers only the conditions associated with the new clinical investigations and does not prohibit the FDA from approving ANDAs for drugs containing the original active agent.

 

Even if, as we expect, our product candidates are considered to be reference products eligible for 12 years of exclusivity under the BPCIA or five years of exclusivity under the FDCA, another company could market competing products if the FDA approves a full BLA or full NDA for such product containing the sponsor’s own preclinical data and data from adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to demonstrate the safety, purity and potency of the products. Moreover, an amendment or repeal of the BPCIA could result in a shorter exclusivity period for our product candidates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

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If we fail to establish marketing, sales and distribution capabilities, or fail to enter into arrangements with third parties, we will not be able to create a market for our product candidates.

 

Our strategy with our product candidates is to control, directly or through contracted third parties, all or most aspects of the product development process, including marketing, sales and distribution. Currently, we do not have any sales, marketing or distribution capabilities. In order to generate sales of any product candidates that receive regulatory approval, we must either acquire or develop an internal marketing and sales force with technical expertise and with supporting distribution capabilities or make arrangements with third parties to perform these services for us. The acquisition or development of a sales and distribution infrastructure would require substantial resources, which may divert the attention of our management and key personnel and defer our product development efforts.

 

To the extent that we enter into marketing and sales arrangements with other companies, our revenues will depend on the efforts of others. These efforts may not be successful. If we fail to develop sales, marketing and distribution channels, or enter into arrangements with third parties, we will experience delays in product sales and incur increased costs.

 

Sales of pharmaceutical products largely depend on the reimbursement of patients’ medical expenses by government health care programs and private health insurers. Without the financial support of the government or third-party payors, the market for our products will be limited. These third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price and examining the cost effectiveness of medical products and services. Recent proposals to change the health care system in the United States have included measures that would limit or eliminate payments for medical products and services or subject the pricing of medical treatment products to government control. Significant uncertainty exists as to the reimbursement status of newly approved health care products. Third-party payors may not reimburse sales of our products or enable our collaborators to sell them at profitable prices.

 

Our business strategy might involve out-licensing product candidates to or collaborating with larger firms with experience in marketing and selling pharmaceutical products. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully establish marketing, sales, or distribution relationships; that such relationships, if established, will be successful; or that we will be successful in gaining market acceptance for our products. To the extent that we enter into any marketing, sales, or distribution arrangements with third parties, our product revenues will be lower than if we marketed and sold our products directly, and any revenues we receive will depend upon the efforts of such third-parties. If we are unable to establish such third-party sales and marketing relationships, or choose not to do so, we will have to establish and rely on our own in-house capabilities.

 

We, as a company, have no experience in marketing or selling pharmaceutical products and currently have no sales, marketing, or distribution infrastructure. To market any of our products directly, we would need to develop a marketing, sales, and distribution force that both has technical expertise and the ability to support a distribution capability. The establishment of a marketing, sales, and distribution capability would significantly increase our costs, possibly requiring substantial additional capital. In addition, there is intense competition for proficient sales and marketing personnel, and we may not be able to attract individuals who have the qualifications necessary to market, sell, and distribute our products. There can be no assurance that we will be able to establish internal marketing, sales, or distribution capabilities. If we are unable to, or choose not to establish these capabilities, or if the capabilities we establish are not sufficient to meet our needs, we will be required to establish collaborative marketing, sales, or distribution relationships with third parties.

 

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Our relationships with customers, physicians, and third-party payors will be subject, directly or indirectly, to federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, false claims laws, health information privacy and security laws, and other healthcare laws and regulations. If we are unable to comply, or have not fully complied, with such laws, we could face substantial penalties.

 

Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors in the United States and elsewhere will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our current and future arrangements with healthcare professionals, principal investigators, consultants, customers and third-party payors may subject us to various federal and state fraud and abuse laws and other health care laws, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the federal civil and criminal false claims laws and the law commonly referred to as the Physician Payments Sunshine Act and regulations. These laws will impact, among other things, our clinical research, proposed sales, marketing and educational programs. In addition, we may be subject to patient privacy laws by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct or may conduct our business. The laws that will affect our operations include, but are not limited to:

 

  the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons or entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe or rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, in return for the purchase, recommendation, leasing or furnishing of an item or service reimbursable under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs;
     
  federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including, without limitation, the False Claims Act, and civil monetary penalty laws which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment or approval from Medicare, Medicaid or other government payors that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government;
     
  the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which created new federal criminal statutes that prohibit a person from knowingly and willfully executing a scheme or making false or fraudulent statements to defraud any healthcare benefit program, regardless of the payor (e.g., public or private);
     
  HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, and its implementing regulations, and as amended again by the final HIPAA omnibus rule, Modifications to the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Enforcement, and Breach Notification Rules Under HITECH and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act; Other Modifications to HIPAA, published in January 2013, which imposes certain requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information without appropriate authorization by entities subject to the rule, such as health plans, health care clearinghouses and health care providers, and their respective business associates;
     
  federal transparency laws, including the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act, which is part of PPACA, that require certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to report annually to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, information related to: (i) payments or other “transfers of value’’ made to physicians and teaching hospitals; and (ii) ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members;
     
  state and foreign law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, state laws that require manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures, and state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government or to adopt compliance programs as prescribed by state laws and regulations, or that otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers; and
     
  state and foreign laws that govern the privacy and security of health information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

 

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Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws.

 

It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion of drugs from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, additional reporting requirements and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations.

 

The risk of our being found in violation of these laws is increased by the fact that many of them have not been fully interpreted by the regulatory authorities or the courts, and their provisions are open to a variety of interpretations. Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. The shifting compliance environment and the need to build and maintain robust and expandable systems to comply with multiple jurisdictions with different compliance and/or reporting requirements increases the possibility that a healthcare company may run afoul of one or more of the requirements.

 

Coverage and adequate reimbursement may not be available for our current or any future drug candidates, which could make it difficult for us to sell profitably, if approved.

 

Market acceptance and sales of any drug candidates that we commercialize, if approved, will depend in part on the extent to which reimbursement for these drugs and related treatments will be available from third-party payors, including government health administration authorities, managed care organizations and other private health insurers. Third-party payors decide which therapies they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own coverage and reimbursement policies. However, decisions regarding the extent of coverage and amount of reimbursement to be provided for any drug candidates that we develop will be made on a payor-by-payor basis. One payor’s determination to provide coverage for a drug does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage, and adequate reimbursement, for the drug. Additionally, a third-party payor’s decision to provide coverage for a therapy does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be approved. Each payor determines whether or not it will provide coverage for a therapy, what amount it will pay the manufacturer for the therapy, and on what tier of its formulary it will be placed. The position on a payor’s list of covered drugs, or formulary, generally determines the co-payment that a patient will need to make to obtain the therapy and can strongly influence the adoption of such therapy by patients and physicians. Patients who are prescribed treatments for their conditions and providers prescribing such services generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the associated healthcare costs. Patients are unlikely to use our drugs unless coverage is provided and reimbursement is adequate to cover a significant portion of the cost of our drugs.

 

A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. We cannot be sure that coverage and reimbursement will be available for any drug that we commercialize and, if reimbursement is available, what the level of reimbursement will be. Inadequate coverage and reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any drug for which we obtain marketing approval. If coverage and adequate reimbursement are not available, or are available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our current and any future drug candidates that we develop.

 

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 Healthcare legislative reform measures may have a negative impact on our business and results of operations.

 

In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been, and we expect there to continue to be, legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of drug candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities, and affect our ability to profitably sell any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval.

 

Among policy makers and payors in the United States and elsewhere, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and/or expanding access. In the United States, the pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and has been significantly affected by major legislative initiatives. In March 2010, the PPACA was passed, which substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both the government and private insurers, and significantly impacts the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. The PPACA, among other things: (i) addresses a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected; (ii) increases the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and extends the rebate program to individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations; (iii) establishes annual fees and taxes on manufacturers of certain branded prescription drugs; (iv) expands the availability of lower pricing under the 340B drug pricing program by adding new entities to the program; and (v) establishes a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to offer 50% point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D. Some of the provisions of the PPACA have yet to be fully implemented, while certain provisions have been subject to judicial and Congressional challenges. In January 2017, Congress voted to adopt a budget resolution for fiscal year 2017, or the Budget Resolution, that authorizes the implementation of legislation that would repeal portions of the PPACA. The Budget Resolution is not a law, however, it is widely viewed as the first step toward the passage of legislation that would repeal certain aspects of the PPACA. Further, on January 20, 2017, President Trump signed an Executive Order directing federal agencies with authorities and responsibilities under the PPACA to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of any provision of the PPACA that would impose a fiscal or regulatory burden on states, individuals, healthcare providers, health insurers, or manufacturers of pharmaceuticals or medical devices. The PPACA remains subject to legislative efforts to repeal, modify or delay the implementation of the law. Recent efforts to repeal, modify or delay implementation of the ACA have resulted in some level of success. If the PPACA is repealed or further modified, or if implementation of certain aspects of the PPACA are delayed, such repeal, modification or delay may materially adversely impact our business, strategies, prospects, operating results or financial condition. We are unable to predict the full impact of any repeal, modification or delay in the implementation of the PPACA on us at this time. Due to the substantial regulatory changes that will need to be implemented by CMS and others, and the numerous processes required to implement these reforms, we cannot predict which healthcare initiatives will be implemented at the federal or state level, the timing of any such reforms, or the effect such reforms or any other future legislation or regulation will have on our business.

 

Additional changes that may affect our business include the expansion of new programs such as Medicare payment for performance initiatives for physicians under the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, or MACRA, which will be fully implemented in 2019. At this time, it is unclear how the introduction of the Medicare quality payment program will impact overall physician reimbursement. Also, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently over the manner in which drug manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which have resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed bills designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products.

 

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 We expect that these and other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any approved drug. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our drugs.

 

We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in reduced demand for our drug candidates or additional pricing pressures.

 

If we obtain approval to commercialize any approved products outside of the United States, a variety of risks associated with international operations could materially adversely affect our business.

 

If TNX-102 SL or any of our other product candidates are approved for commercialization outside of the United States, we intend to enter into agreements with third parties to market them on a worldwide basis or in more limited geographical regions. We expect that we will be subject to additional risks related to entering into international business relationships, including:

 

  different regulatory requirements for drug approvals;
     
  reduced protection for intellectual property rights, including trade secret and patent rights;
     
  unexpected changes in tariffs, trade barriers and regulatory requirements;
     
  economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular foreign economies and markets;
     
  compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad;
     
  foreign taxes, including withholding of payroll taxes;
     
  foreign currency fluctuations, which could result in increased operating expenses and reduced revenues, and other obligations incident to doing business in another country;
     
  workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the United States;
     
  production shortages resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad;
     
  business interruptions resulting from geopolitical actions, including war and terrorism, or natural disasters including earthquakes, hurricanes, floods and fires; and
     
  difficulty in importing and exporting clinical study materials and study samples.

 

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We face the risk of product liability claims and may not be able to obtain insurance.

  

 Our business exposes us to the risk of product liability claims that are inherent in the development of drugs. If the use of one or more of our or our collaborators’ drugs harms people, we may be subject to costly and damaging product liability claims brought against us by clinical study participants, consumers, health care providers, pharmaceutical companies or others selling our products. Our inability to obtain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercialization of pharmaceutical products we develop, alone or with collaborators. While we currently carry clinical study insurance and product liability insurance, we cannot predict all of the possible harms or side effects that may result and, therefore, the amount of insurance coverage we hold now or in the future may not be adequate to cover all liabilities we might incur. We intend to expand our insurance coverage to include the sale of commercial products if we obtain marketing approval for our drug candidates in development, but we may be unable to obtain commercially reasonable product liability insurance for any products approved for marketing. If we are unable to obtain insurance at an acceptable cost or otherwise protect against potential product liability claims, we will be exposed to significant liabilities, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial position. If we are sued for any injury allegedly caused by our or our collaborators’ products, our liability could exceed our total assets and our ability to pay the liability. A product liability claim or series of claims brought against us would decrease our cash and could cause our stock price to fall.

 

We use hazardous chemicals in our business. Potential claims relating to improper handling, storage or disposal of these chemicals could affect us and be time consuming and costly.

 

Our research and development processes and/or those of our third party contractors may involve the controlled use of hazardous materials and chemicals. These hazardous chemicals are reagents and solvents typically found in a chemistry laboratory. Our operations also produce hazardous waste products. Federal, state and local laws and regulations govern the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of hazardous materials. While we attempt to comply with all environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to the outsourcing of the disposal of all hazardous chemicals and waste products, we cannot eliminate the risk of contamination from or discharge of hazardous materials and any resultant injury. In the event of such an accident, we could be held liable for any resulting damages and any liability could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Compliance with environmental laws and regulations may be expensive. Current or future environmental regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts. We might have to pay civil damages in the event of an improper or unauthorized release of, or exposure of individuals to, hazardous materials. We are not insured against these environmental risks.

 

If we enter into collaborations with third parties, they might also work with hazardous materials in connection with our collaborations. We may agree to indemnify our collaborators in some circumstances against damages and other liabilities arising out of development activities or products produced in connection with these collaborations.

 

In addition, the federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of hazardous or radioactive materials and waste products may require us to incur substantial compliance costs that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our insurance policies are expensive and protect us only from some business risks, which will leave us exposed to significant uninsured liabilities.

 

 We carry insurance for most categories of risk that our business may encounter, however, we may not have adequate levels of coverage. We currently maintain general liability, clinical study, property, workers’ compensation, products liability and directors’ and officers’ insurance, along with an umbrella policy, which collectively costs approximately $1,200,000 per annum. We cannot provide any assurances that we will be able to maintain existing insurance at current or adequate levels of coverage. Any significant uninsured liability may require us to pay substantial amounts, which would adversely affect our cash position and results of operations.

 

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If we retain collaborative partners and our partners do not satisfy their obligations, we will be unable to develop our partnered product candidates.

 

In the event we enter into any collaborative agreements, we may not have day-to-day control over the activities of our collaborative partners with respect to any of these product candidates. Any collaborative partner may not fulfill its obligations under these agreements. If a collaborative partner fails to fulfill its obligations under an agreement with us, we may be unable to assume the development of the products covered by that agreement or enter into alternative arrangements with a third party. In addition, we may encounter delays in the commercialization of the product candidate that is the subject of the agreement. Accordingly, our ability to receive any revenue from the product candidates covered by these agreements will be dependent on the efforts of our collaborative partner. We could also become involved in disputes with a collaborative partner, which could lead to delays in or termination of our development and commercialization programs and time-consuming and expensive litigation or arbitration. In addition, any such dispute could diminish our collaborators’ commitment to us and reduce the resources they devote to developing and commercializing our products. Conflicts or disputes with our collaborators, and competition from them, could harm our relationships with our other collaborators, restrict our ability to enter future collaboration agreements and delay the research, development or commercialization of our product candidates. If any collaborative partner terminates or breaches its agreement, or otherwise fails to complete its obligations in a timely manner, our chances of successfully developing or commercializing these product candidates would be materially and adversely affected. We may not be able to enter into collaborative agreements with partners on terms favorable to us, or at all. Our inability to enter into collaborative arrangements with collaborative partners, or our failure to maintain such arrangements, would limit the number of product candidates that we could develop and ultimately, decrease our sources of any future revenues.

 

We may be unsuccessful in obtaining a priority review voucher for material threat medical countermeasures.

 

In 2016, the 21st Century Cures Act, or the Act, was signed into law to support ongoing biomedical innovation. One part of the Act, Section 3086, is aimed at “Encouraging Treatments for Agents that Present a National Security Threat.” The Act created a new priority review voucher program for approved “material threat medical countermeasures.” The Act defines such countermeasures as drug or biologic products, including vaccines, intended to treat biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear agents that present a national security threat or to treat harm from a condition that may be caused by administering a drug or biological product against such an agent. The Department of Homeland Security has identified 13 such threats, including anthrax, smallpox, Ebola/Marburg, tularemia, botulinum toxin, and pandemic influenza, which includes the SARS coronavirus 2 known as SARS-CoV-2. A priority review voucher can be applied to any other product; it shortens the FDA review timeline for a new application from 10 to 12 months to 6 months. The recipient of a priority review voucher may transfer it.

 

We intend to seek a priority review voucher if and when a TNX-801 Biologics License Application is approved as a material threat medical countermeasure. However, the structure of voucher programs limits the number of medical countermeasures eligible for a priority review voucher. Further, the medical countermeasure must qualify for priority review in order to be eligible and may not include any commercially approved indication. Moreover, the Priority Review Voucher program provision of the 21st Century Cures Act is set to expire in 2023. If TNX-801 does not receive FDA approval by 2023, we may not be able to capitalize on the incentives contained in the 21st Century Cures Act unless the provision allowing for the Priority Review Voucher Program is extended until such time as TNX-801 is approved.

 

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There may not be market interest in TNX-801.

 

The government is the only market for most medical countermeasures. This is because unlike other drugs and vaccines, these products are not sold to doctors, hospitals, or pharmacies. The BioShield Special Reserve Fund, or SRF, has been the sole medical countermeasures market for the last decade. The SRF is now appropriated annually and has not kept pace with the need for purchasing products ready for stockpiling. In fiscal year 2020, $735 M was appropriated to SRF. As such, even if TNX-801 were to receive FDA licensure, the commercial success of TNX-801 remains uncertain.

 

If technology developed for the purposes of developing new medicines or vaccines can be applied to the creation or development of biological weapons, then our technology may be considered “dual use” technology and be subject to limitations on public disclosure or export.

 

Our research and development of synthetic poxviruses is dedicated not only to creating tools that better protect public health but also to safeguarding any information with broad, dual-use potential that could be inappropriately applied. “Dual use research” is research conducted for legitimate purposes that generates knowledge, information, technologies, and/or products that can be reasonably anticipated to provide knowledge, information, products, or technologies that could be directly misapplied to pose a significant threat to public health, agricultural crops, or national security. Because variola, the agent that causes smallpox, is a pox virus, the technology we created could be considered dual use and could be subject to export control, for example under the Wassenaar Arrangement. Further, if federal authorities determine that our research is subject to institutional oversight, we will need to implement a risk-management plan developed in collaboration with the institutional review entity. Failure to comply with the plan may result in suspension, limitation, or termination of federal funding or loss of future federal funding opportunities for any of our research.

 

We face risks in connection with existing and future collaborations with respect to the development, manufacture, and commercialization of our product candidates.

 

We face a number of risks in connection with our current collaborations, including the University of Alberta. Our collaboration agreements are subject to termination under various circumstances. Our collaborators may change the focus of their development and commercialization efforts or may have insufficient resources to effectively assist in the development of our products. Any future collaboration agreements may have the effect of limiting the areas of research and development that we may pursue, either alone or in collaboration with third parties. Further, disagreements with collaborators, including disagreements over proprietary rights, contract interpretation, or the preferred course of development, might cause delays, might result in litigation or arbitration, or might result in termination of the research, development or commercialization of our products. Any such disagreements would divert management attention and resources and be time-consuming and costly.

 

We face risks in connection with the testing, production and storage of our vaccine product candidates.

 

Developing our TNX-1800 and TNX-801 vaccine candidates each require testing of challenges with monkeypox or SARS-CoV-2 viruses under controlled experimental conditions. The testing of TNX-1800 and TNX-801 may carry risk of infection and harm to individuals.

 

In addition, our TNX-1800 and TNX-801 vaccine candidates are both live forms of the horsepox. We have initiated vaccine-manufacturing activities to support further nonclinical testing of TNX-801. The production and storage of the synthesized horsepox virus stock and, once initiated, TNX-1800 virus stock, may carry risk of infection and harm to individuals. Any such infection could expose us to product and general liability claims, and may carry risk of infection and harm to individuals.

 

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 RISKS RELATED TO OUR STOCK

 

Sales of additional shares of our common stock could cause the price of our common stock to decline.

 

Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or the availability of such shares for sale, by us or others, including the issuance of common stock upon exercise of outstanding options and warrants, could adversely affect the price of our common stock. We and our directors and officers may sell shares into the market, which could adversely affect the market price of shares of our common stock.

 

An active trading market for our common stock may not be sustained.

 

Although our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Market, the market for our shares has demonstrated varying levels of trading activity. Furthermore, the current level of trading may not be sustained in the future. The lack of an active market for our common stock may impair investors’ ability to sell their shares at the time they wish to sell them or at a price that they consider reasonable, may reduce the fair market value of their shares and may impair our ability to raise capital to continue to fund operations by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire additional intellectual property assets by using our shares as consideration.

 

The market price for our common stock may be volatile, and your investment in our common stock could decline in value.

 

The stock market in general has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. The market prices of the securities of biotechnology and specialty pharmaceutical companies, particularly companies like ours without product revenues and earnings, have been highly volatile and may continue to be highly volatile in the future. This volatility has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. The following factors, in addition to other risk factors described in this section, may have a significant impact on the market price of our common stock:

 

  announcements of technological innovations or new products by us or our competitors;
     
  announcement of FDA approval, disapproval or delay of approval of our product candidates or other product-related actions;
     
  developments involving our discovery efforts and clinical studies;
     
  developments or disputes concerning patents or proprietary rights, including announcements of infringement, interference or other litigation against us or our potential licensees; 
     
  developments involving our efforts to commercialize our products, including developments impacting the timing of commercialization;
     
  announcements concerning our competitors, or the biotechnology, pharmaceutical or drug delivery industry in general;
     
  public concerns as to the safety or efficacy of our product candidates or our competitors’ products;
     
  changes in government regulation of the pharmaceutical or medical industry;