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EX-23.1 - EX-23.1 - Alexza Pharmaceuticals Inc.f58240exv23w1.htm
EX-32.1 - EX-32.1 - Alexza Pharmaceuticals Inc.f58240exv32w1.htm
EX-21.1 - EX-21.1 - Alexza Pharmaceuticals Inc.f58240exv21w1.htm
EX-31.2 - EX-31.2 - Alexza Pharmaceuticals Inc.f58240exv31w2.htm
EX-31.1 - EX-31.1 - Alexza Pharmaceuticals Inc.f58240exv31w1.htm
EX-10.45 - EX-10.45 - Alexza Pharmaceuticals Inc.f58240exv10w45.htm
EX-10.47 - EX-10.47 - Alexza Pharmaceuticals Inc.f58240exv10w47.htm
EX-10.46 - EX-10.46 - Alexza Pharmaceuticals Inc.f58240exv10w46.htm
Table of Contents

 
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
 
 
Form 10-K
 
     
þ
  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010
o
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the transition period from          to          
 
Commission File Number: 000-51820
Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
     
Delaware   77-0567768
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
2091 Stierlin Court
Mountain View, California 94043
(Address of Principal Executive Offices including Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
(650) 944-7000
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12 (b) of the Act:
 
     
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
 
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share   Nasdaq Global Market
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12 (g) of the Act:
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes o     No þ
 
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes o     No þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes þ     No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (of for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes o     No o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of Form 10-K or any amendments to this Form 10-K.  þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
             
Large accelerated filer o
  Accelerated filer þ   Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes o     No þ
 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was $109,428,888 based on the closing sale price of the Registrant’s common stock on The NASDAQ Global Market on June 30, 2010. Shares of the Registrant’s common stock beneficially owned by each executive officer and director of the Registrant and by each person known by the Registrant to beneficially own 10% or more of its outstanding common stock have been excluded, in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes. The number of outstanding shares of the Registrant’s common stock as of March 11, 2011 was 59,934,397.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2011 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed within 120 days after the end of the Registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2010 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated therein.
 


 

 
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
                 
PART I
  Item 1.     Business     3  
  Item 1A.     Risk Factors     26  
  Item 1B     Unresolved Staff Comments     44  
  Item 2.     Properties     44  
  Item 3.     Legal Proceedings     44  
  Item 4.     Reserved     45  
 
PART II
  Item 5.     Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities     45  
  Item 5A.     Quarterly Stock Price Information and Registered Shareholders     45  
  Item 5B.     Use of Proceeds from the Sale of Registered Securities     47  
  Item 5C.     Treasury Stock     47  
  Item 6.     Selected Financial Data     48  
  Item 7.     Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations     49  
  Item 7A.     Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risks     60  
  Item 8.     Financial Statements and Supplementary Data     61  
  Item 9.     Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure     104  
  Item 9A.     Controls and Procedures     104  
  Item 9B.     Other Information     106  
 
PART III
  Item 10.     Directors and Executive Officers of the Registrant     106  
  Item 11.     Executive Compensation     106  
  Item 12.     Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters     106  
  Item 13.     Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence     107  
  Item 14.     Principal Accountant Fees and Services     107  
 
PART IV
  Item 15.     Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules     107  
Signatures     111  
Exhibits Index     113  
 EX-10.45
 EX-10.46
 EX-10.47
 EX-21.1
 EX-23.1
 EX-31.1
 EX-31.2
 EX-32.1


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The names “Alexza” and “Staccato” are trademarks of Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. We have registered the trademarks “Alexza Pharmaceuticals,” “Alexza” and “Staccato” with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. All other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are the property of their respective owners.
 
PART I.

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
Some of the statements under “Business,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this Annual Report constitute forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the following words: “may,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” “continue,” “ongoing” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. Examples of these statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding the following: the prospects of us receiving approval to market AZ-004, our anticipated timing and prospects for the resubmission of our New Drug Application for AZ-004, the implications of interim or final results of our clinical trials, the progress and timing of our research programs, including clinical testing, the extent to which our issued and pending patents may protect our products and technology, the potential of our product candidates to lead to the development of safe or effective therapies, our ability to enter into collaborations, our future operating expenses, our future losses, our future expenditures, and the sufficiency of our cash resources. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. While we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this Annual Report, we caution you that these statements are based on a combination of facts and factors currently known by us and our projections of the future, about which we cannot be certain.
 
In addition, you should refer to the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report for a discussion of other important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this Annual Report will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all.
 
We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You are advised, however, to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and our website.
 
Item 1.   Business
 
We are a pharmaceutical company focused on the research, development, and commercialization of novel proprietary products for the acute treatment of central nervous system, or CNS, conditions. All of our product candidates are based on our proprietary technology, the Staccato system. The Staccato system vaporizes an excipient-free drug to form a condensation aerosol that, when inhaled, allows for rapid systemic drug delivery. Because of the particle size of the aerosol, the drug is quickly absorbed through the deep lung into the bloodstream, providing speed of therapeutic onset that is comparable to intravenous, or IV, administration but with greater ease, patient comfort and convenience.
 
Since our inception, we have screened more than 400 drug compounds, identifying approximately 200 drug compounds that demonstrate initial vaporization feasibility for delivery with our technology. We believe that a number of these drug compounds, when delivered by the Staccato system, would have a desirable therapeutic profile for the treatment of various acute and intermittent conditions. We are initially focusing on developing proprietary products by combining our Staccato system with small molecule drugs that have been in use for many years and are well-characterized to create Staccato-based aerosolized forms of these drugs. Since 2004, we have


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filed 6 investigational New Drug Applications, or INDs, and dosed more than 2,400 subjects and patients in clinical trials.
 
In January 2009, we reduced the development of our product candidates other than AZ-004 (Staccato loxapine), our lead product candidate, in order to concentrate our efforts and resources on the clinical, regulatory, manufacturing and commercial development of AZ-004. In December 2009, we submitted our New Drug Application, or NDA, for AZ-004. In early 2010, we conducted a thorough review of our product pipeline, evaluating current and potential new Staccato-based product candidates. This review yielded three categories of Staccato-based product candidates: (1) product candidates where we believe we can add value through internal development, (2) product candidates where we have developed the product idea, but where a development partner is required, and (3) product candidates based on new ideas, primarily focused on new chemical entities, where the Staccato technology can facilitate better or more effective delivery. In July 2010, we announced that, in addition to AZ-004, AZ-007 (Staccato zaleplon) and Staccato nicotine would remain in active development. Active development on the remainder of our development pipeline is suspended. We are continuing to seek partners to support development and commercialization of our product candidates. We believe that our financial position as of December 31, 2010 will be sufficient to fund our operations, at our current cost levels, into the third quarter of 2011. We are unable to assert that our financial position is sufficient to fund operations beyond that date, and as a result, there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. We may not be able to raise sufficient capital on acceptable terms, or at all, to continue development of AZ-004 or our other programs or to continue operations and we may not be able to execute any strategic transaction.
 
Our product candidates in active development are:
 
  •  AZ-004 (Staccato loxapine).  We are developing AZ-004 for the rapid treatment of agitation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. In December 2009, we submitted an NDA for AZ-004. The NDA was accepted for filing by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, in February 2010. In October 2010, we received a Complete Response Letter, or CRL, from the FDA regarding our NDA for AZ-004, submitted as Adasuvetm Staccato® (loxapine) inhalation aerosol, 5 mg and 10 mg. A CRL is issued by the FDA indicating that the NDA review cycle is complete and the application is not ready for approval in its present form. In December 2010, we completed an End-of-Review meeting with the FDA to discuss the issues outlined in the AZ-004 CRL. In January 2011, we received the official FDA minutes of the meeting, and we anticipate resubmitting the AZ-004 NDA in July 2011. We plan to seek commercial partners for the worldwide development and commercialization of AZ-004.
 
In the CRL, the FDA stated that its primary clinical safety concern was related to data from the three Phase 1 pulmonary safety studies with AZ-004. This concern was primarily based on observed, dose-related post-dose decreases in forced expiratory volume in one second, or FEV1, a standard measure of lung function, in healthy subjects and in subjects with COPD and asthma. The FDA also noted that decreases in FEV1 were recorded in subjects who were administered device-only, placebo versions of AZ-004. In the information package submitted to the FDA in response to the CRL and in preparation for the End-of-Review meeting, we presented evidence that the placebo device is safe, including a blinded expert review of the flow-volume loops data from the healthy subject study as further evidence that there appears to be no consistent pattern suggestive of airway obstruction in these subjects. We also provided an analysis showing that there is no meaningful temporal relationship between placebo administration and decreases in FEV1. We believe this evidence and analysis confirm that the changes seen were likely background events in the population studied, where the repeated and extensive pulmonary function testing may have contributed to some of the observations. Additionally, we showed that the aerosol characterization does not indicate a basis for concern. We agreed to reiterate these arguments in our NDA resubmission.
 
In the information package, we also believe we showed that the pulmonary safety program in subjects with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, had identified patients who may be susceptible to bronchospasm, the nature of this adverse event, and how it can be managed. We stated we believe the risk in these patients could be mitigated through labeling and a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS, program. At the End-of-Review meeting, the FDA stated that it would be reasonable to propose a REMS program for the use of Staccato loxapine, and requested that as part of our


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resubmission, we provide a detailed REMS proposal including labeling, a medication guide and a communication plan, to manage the potential risks. In the resubmission, we must also show how to identify patients at risk of developing pulmonary side effects, as well as a way to decide who should and should not be treated with Staccato loxapine when they present for treatment. The FDA also informed us that it would likely present the NDA to an advisory committee.
 
The CRL also raised issues relating to the suitability of our stability studies and certain other Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls, or CMC, concerns, including items relating to the FDA’s pre-approval manufacturing inspection. Because AZ-004 incorporates a novel delivery system, the CRL included input from the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health, or the CDRH. In the CRL, the CDRH requested a human factors study and related analysis to validate that the product can be used effectively in the proposed clinical setting. We expect to finalize the protocol with the FDA and complete this study in the coming months. We are not currently required to conduct any additional efficacy or safety clinical trials for AZ-004. The CDRH also requested further bench testing of the product under an additional “worst-case” manufacturing scenario. We have completed this additional “worst-case” bench testing of the product, submitted the data to the FDA and believe that this issue has been adequately addressed.
 
In February 2010, we entered into a collaboration and license agreement, or license agreement, and a manufacture and supply agreement, collectively, the collaboration, with Biovail Laboratories International SRL, or Biovail, for AZ-004 for the treatment of psychiatric and/or neurological indications and the symptoms associated with these indications, including the initial indication of treating agitation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. On September 27, 2010, Biovail and Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, or Valeant, completed a merger. On October 18, 2010, Biovail notified us of its intention to terminate the collaboration. Upon the termination, we reacquired the U.S. and Canadian rights to AZ-004 and have worldwide rights. Neither Alexza nor Biovail incurred any early termination penalties in connection with the termination of the collaboration.
 
  •  AZ-007 (Staccato zaleplon).  We have completed Phase 1 testing for AZ-007. This product candidate is being developed for the treatment of insomnia in patients who have difficulty falling asleep, including patients who awake in the middle of the night and have difficulty falling back asleep. In the Phase 1 study, AZ-007 delivered an IV-like pharmacokinetic profile with a median time to peak drug concentration of 1.6 minutes. Pharmacodynamics, measured as sedation assessed on a 100 mm visual-analog scale, showed onset of effect as early as 2 minutes after dosing. We do not intend to spend any external development resources on AZ-007 in the first half of 2011, but are continuing internal work on the technical product development of AZ-007.
 
  •  Staccato nicotine is designed to help smokers quit by addressing both the chemical and behavioral components of nicotine addiction by delivering nicotine replacement via inhalation. On August 25, 2010, we entered into a license and development agreement, or the Cypress Agreement, with Cypress Bioscience, Inc., or Cypress, for Staccato nicotine. According to the terms of the Cypress Agreement, Cypress paid us a non-refundable upfront payment of $5 million to acquire the worldwide license for the Staccato nicotine technology. In addition, following the completion of certain preclinical and clinical milestones relating to the Staccato nicotine technology, if Cypress elects to continue the development of Staccato nicotine, Cypress is obligated to pay to us an additional technology transfer payment of $1 million. We have a carried interest of 10%, subject to adjustment in certain circumstances, in the net proceeds of any sale or license by Cypress of the Staccato nicotine assets and the carried interest will be subject to put and call rights in certain circumstances. Under the Cypress Agreement, Cypress has responsibility for preclinical, clinical and regulatory aspects of the development of Staccato nicotine, along with the commercialization of the product. Cypress will pay us a total of $3.9 million for our efforts to execute a defined development plan for Cypress culminating with the delivery of clinical trial materials for a Phase 1 study with Staccato nicotine. We have received $2.9 million of this amount as of January 2011. In January 2011, Cypress was acquired by Ramius Value and Opportunity Advisors LLC, Royalty Pharma, US Partner, LP, Royalty Pharma US Partners 2008, LP and RP Investment Corp., or collectively, Royalty Pharma. We do not know what, if any, impact this will have on the partnership.


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Our product candidates not in active development are:
 
  •  AZ-104 (Staccato loxapine, low-dose).  AZ-104, a lower-dose version of AZ-004, is being studied for the treatment of patients suffering from acute migraine headaches. AZ-104 has completed a Phase 1 clinical trial in healthy subjects and two Phase 2 clinical trials in patients with migraine headache.
 
  •  AZ-002 (Staccato alprazolam).  AZ-002 has completed a Phase 1 clinical trial in healthy subjects and a Phase 2a proof-of-concept clinical trial in panic disorder patients for the treatment of panic attacks, an indication we are not planning to pursue. However, given the safety profile, the successful and reproducible delivery of alprazolam, and the IV-like pharmacological effect demonstrated to date, we are assessing AZ-002 for other possible indications and renewed clinical development.
 
  •  AZ-003 (Staccato fentanyl).  We have completed and announced positive results from a Phase 1 clinical trial of AZ-003 in opioid-naïve healthy subjects. This product candidate is intended for the treatment of patients with acute pain, including patients with breakthrough cancer pain and postoperative patients with acute pain episodes.
 
Other than those licensed to Cypress, we currently retain all rights to our product candidates and the Staccato system. We intend to capitalize on our internal resources to develop certain of our product candidates and identify routes to utilize external resources to develop and commercialize other product candidates.
 
Market Opportunity for Acute and Intermittent Conditions
 
Acute and intermittent medical conditions are characterized by a rapid onset of symptoms that are temporary and severe, and that occur at irregular intervals, unlike the symptoms of chronic medical conditions that continue at a relatively constant level over time. Approved drugs for the treatment of many acute and intermittent conditions, such as antipsychotics to treat agitation, triptans to treat migraine headaches and benzodiazepines to treat anxiety, are typically delivered either in tablets or by injections. Traditional inhalation technologies are also being developed to treat these conditions. These delivery methods have the following advantages and disadvantages:
 
  •  Oral Tablets.  Oral tablets or capsules are convenient and cost effective, but they generally do not provide rapid onset of action. Oral tablets may require at least one to four hours to achieve peak plasma levels. Also, some drugs, if administered as a tablet or capsule, do not achieve adequate or consistent bioavailability due to the degradation of the drug by the stomach or liver or inability to be absorbed into the bloodstream.
 
  •  Injections.  IV or intramuscular, or IM, injections provide a more rapid onset of action than oral tablets and can sometimes be used to titrate potent drugs with very rapid changes in effect. Titration refers to the ability of a patient or care giver to administer an initial dose of medication and then determine if the medication is effective; if the medication is effective no further dosing is required. However, if the medication is not yet effective, another dose can be administered repeating this process until the medication has had an adequate effect. However, with a few exceptions, injections generally are administered by trained medical personnel in a medical care setting. Other forms of injections result in an onset of action that is generally substantially slower than IV injection, although often faster than oral administration. All forms of injections are invasive, can be painful to some patients and are often expensive. In addition, many drugs are not water soluble and can be difficult to formulate in an injectable form.
 
  •  Traditional Inhalation.  Traditional dry powder and aerosolized inhalation delivery systems have been designed and used primarily for local delivery of drugs to the airways, not to the deep lung for rapid systemic drug delivery. Certain recent variants of these systems, however, can provide systemic delivery of drugs, either for the purpose of rapid onset of action or to enable noninvasive delivery of drugs that are not orally bioavailable. Nevertheless, many of these systems have difficulty in generating appropriate drug particle sizes or consistent emitted doses for deep lung delivery. To achieve appropriate drug particle sizes and consistent emitted doses, most traditional inhalation systems require the use of excipients and additives such as detergents, stabilizers and solvents, which may potentially cause toxicity or allergic reactions. Many traditional inhalation devices require patient coordination to deliver the correct drug dose, leading to potentially wide variations in the drug delivered to a patient.


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As a result of these limitations, we believe there is a significant unmet medical and patient need for products for the treatment of acute and intermittent conditions that can be delivered in precise amounts, provide rapid therapeutic onset, and are noninvasive and easy to use.
 
Our Solution: Staccato System
 
Our Staccato system rapidly vaporizes an excipient-free drug compound to form a proprietary condensation aerosol that is inhaled and rapidly achieves systemic blood circulation via deep lung absorption. The Staccato system consistently creates aerosol particles averaging one to three and one-half microns in size, which is the most appropriate size for deep lung inhalation and absorption into the bloodstream.
 
We believe our Staccato system matches delivery characteristics and product attributes to patient needs for acute and intermittent conditions, with the following advantages:
 
  •  Rapid Onset.  The aerosol produced with the Staccato system is designed to be rapidly absorbed through the deep lung with a speed of therapeutic onset comparable to an IV injection, generally achieving peak plasma levels of drug in two to five minutes.
 
  •  Ease of Use.  The Staccato system is breath actuated, and a patient simply inhales to administer the drug dose. Unlike injections, the Staccato system is noninvasive and does not require caregiver assistance. The aerosol produced with the Staccato system is relatively insensitive to patient inhalation rates. Unlike many other inhalation technologies, the patient does not need to learn a special breathing pattern. In addition, the Staccato device is small and easily portable.
 
  •  Consistent Particle Size and Dose.  The Staccato system uses rapid heating of the drug film to create consistent and appropriate particle sizes for deep lung inhalation and absorption into the bloodstream. The Staccato system also produces a consistent high emitted dose, regardless of the patient’s breathing pattern.
 
  •  Broad Applicability.  We have screened over 400 drugs, and approximately 200 have exhibited initial vaporization feasibility using our Staccato system. The Staccato system can deliver both water soluble and water insoluble drugs and eliminates the need for excipient and additives such as detergents, stabilizers and solvents, avoiding the side effects that may be associated with the excipient or additives.
 
  •  Design Flexibility.  The Staccato system can incorporate multiple features, including lockout to potentially enhance safety, the convenience of patient titration, and a variety of dose administration regimens.
 
Drug Candidates Based on the Staccato System
 
We combine small molecule drugs with our Staccato system to create proprietary product candidates. We believe that the drugs we are currently using are no longer eligible for patent protection as chemical entities or have their patent protection expiring in the next several years. These drugs have been widely used, and we believe their biological activity and safety are well understood and characterized. We have received composition of matter patent protection on the Staccato aerosolized forms of these drugs. We also intend to collaborate with pharmaceutical companies to develop new chemical entities, including compounds that might otherwise not be suitable for development because of limitations of traditional delivery methods.
 
Staccato System
 
Our product candidates employing Staccato system consist of three core components: (1) a heat source that includes an inert metal substrate; (2) a thin film of an excipient-free drug compound, also known as an active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, coated on the substrate; and (3) an airway through which the patient inhales. The center panel of the illustration below depicts these core components prior to patient inhalation.
 
The right panel of the illustration below depicts the Staccato system during patient inhalation: (1) the heated substrate has reached peak temperature in less than one half second after the start of patient inhalation; (2) the thin drug film has been vaporized; and (3) the drug vapor has subsequently cooled and condensed into excipient-free drug aerosol particles that are being drawn into the patient’s lungs. The entire Staccato system actuation occurs in less than one second.


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(ALEXZA PROPRIETARY TECHNOLOGY)
 
Four of our product candidates, AZ-004, AZ-007, AZ-104, and AZ-002, use the same disposable, single-dose delivery device. The single dose delivery device consists of a metal substrate that is chemically heated through a battery-initiated reaction of energetic materials. In the current design, the heat package can be coated with up to 10 milligrams of API. The device is portable and easy to carry, with dimensions of approximately three inches in length, two inches in width, and one inch in thickness. The device weighs approximately one ounce. A diagram of the single dose delivery device is shown below:
 
(ALEXZA PROPRIETARY TECHNOLOGY)
 
AZ-003 and Staccato nicotine use a multiple dose delivery device consisting of a reusable controller and a disposable dose cartridge. We have designed the multiple dose delivery device to meet the specific needs of each product candidate. The AZ-003 dose cartridge currently contains 25 separate metal substrates, each coated with the API, which rapidly heat upon application of electric current from the controller. In the current design, 25 micrograms of drug compound are coated on each metal substrate. The device is portable and easy to carry, with dimensions of approximately five inches in length, two and one-half inches in width and one inch in thickness. The controller weighs approximately four ounces, and the dose cartridge weighs approximately one ounce. The Staccato nicotine dose cartridge design and reusable controller design are still in development.
 
We continue to undertake research and development efforts to improve commercial manufacturability of our single dose device and to develop future generations of the Staccato technology.


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Our Pipeline
 
                 
                Alexza
                Commercial
Product Candidate
  API   Target Indication   Development Status   Rights
 
AZ-004
  Loxapine   Agitation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder   NDA submitted December 2009, CRL received October 2010. End of Review meeting held December 2010   Worldwide
AZ-007
  Zaleplon   Insomnia   Phase 1 completed   Worldwide
                 
Staccato
               
Nicotine
  Nicotine   Smoking cessation   Pre-Phase 1   Licensed to Cypress Bioscience, Inc.
AZ-104
  Loxapine (low-dose)   Migraine headache   Phase 2 (currently inactive)   Worldwide
AZ-002
  Alprazolam   Panic attacks and other CNS conditions   Phase 2 (currently inactive)   Worldwide
AZ-003
  Fentanyl   Acute pain   Phase 1 completed (currently inactive)   Worldwide
 
AGITATION PROGRAM: AZ-004 (Staccato loxapine)
 
We are developing AZ-004 (Staccato loxapine) for the rapid treatment of agitation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Episodes of agitation afflict many people suffering from major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, which affects approximately 2.4 million adults in the United States, and bipolar disorder, which affects approximately 5.7 million adults in the United States. More than 90% of these patients will experience agitation in their lifetimes.
 
Agitation generally escalates over time with patients initially feeling uncomfortable, tense and restless. As the agitation intensifies, their behavior appears more noticeable to others as they become threatening and potentially violent, especially if the agitation is not treated. While patients seek treatment at different points along this agitation continuum, those with the most severe symptoms generally require treatment with injectable drugs in emergency medical settings, and currently are thought to represent the agitation market. Alexza, however, believes the therapeutic market for agitation is broader than only this limited population of patients in severe crisis — many more are in need of treatment for an agitation episode.
 
Market Opportunity
 
Our primary market research indicates that approximately 50% of treated acute agitation episodes are treated in emergency settings. Another approximately 35% of the treated agitation episodes suffered by schizophrenic and bipolar disorder patients are treated in an inpatient setting (hospital and long-term residential settings), and approximately 15% are treated in a physician’s office. Our market research studies with schizophrenia patient caregivers and bipolar disorder patients indicate these patients currently experience an average of 11 to 12 episodes of agitation each year.
 
Agitation episodes treated with medication are currently treated about 55% of the time with oral antipsychotics and about 45% of the time with IM injections. Oral medications work relatively slowly, but are easy to administer, painless and are less threatening to patients. IM injections have a faster onset of action and a higher predictability of drug effect, but because they are invasive and can be frightening to patients, IM injections are usually the treatment option of last resort. Currently, no non-invasive therapies are available that work faster than 30 minutes to help agitated patients in need of treatment.


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AZ-004 is an anti-agitation therapeutic that combines Alexza’s proprietary Staccato system with loxapine, a drug belonging to the class of compounds known generally as antipsychotics. Loxapine is currently approved in oral and injectable (IM only) formulations in the United States for the management of the manifestations of schizophrenia. The Staccato system used for AZ-004 is a hand-held, chemically-heated, single-dose inhaler that delivers a pure drug aerosol to the highly vascularized tissues of the deep lung.
 
As an easy-to-use, patient-controlled, and highly reliable therapeutic that provides rapid relief (onset of effect was 10 minutes in two Phase 3 trials) we believe AZ-004 meets the three key treatment attributes for acute agitation specified in the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Expert Consensus Guidelines for the Treatment of Behavioral Emergencies: rapid speed of onset, reliability of medication delivery and patient preference.
 
We believe that AZ-004, if approved has the potential to change the current treatment practices for rapidly treating agitation, as the only product available to meet both patient desires for comfort and control, and the clinician goals of rapid and reliable control of an agitation episode.
 
Development Status
 
The AZ-004 NDA we submitted to the FDA in December 2009 contained efficacy and safety data from more than 1,600 patients and subjects who have been studied in thirteen different clinical trials.
 
In October 2010, the FDA issued a CRL indicating that the NDA review cycle is complete and that the NDA is not ready for approval in its present form. In December 2010, we met with the FDA to discuss the CRL and we anticipate resubmitting the NDA in July 2011 and expect a six-month FDA review.
 
In the CRL, the FDA stated that its primary clinical safety concern was related to data from the three Phase 1 pulmonary safety studies with AZ-004. This concern was primarily based on observed, dose-related post-dose decreases in forced expiratory volume in one second, or FEV1, a standard measure of lung function, in healthy subjects and in subjects with COPD and asthma. The FDA also noted that decreases in FEV1 were recorded in subjects who were administered device-only, placebo versions of AZ-004. In the information package submitted to the FDA in response to the CRL and in preparation for the End-of-Review meeting, we presented evidence we believe demonstrates that the placebo device is safe, including a blinded expert review of the flow-volume loops data from the healthy subject study as further evidence that there appears to be no consistent pattern suggestive of airway obstruction in these subjects. We also provided an analysis showing that we believe demonstrates there is no meaningful temporal relationship between placebo administration and decreases in FEV1. We believe this evidence and analysis confirm that the changes seen were likely background events in the population studied, where the repeated and extensive pulmonary function testing may have contributed to some of the observations. Additionally, we believe we showed that the aerosol characterization does not indicate a basis for concern. We agreed to reiterate these arguments in our NDA resubmission.
 
In the information package, we also believe we showed that the pulmonary safety program in subjects with asthma and COPD had identified patients who may be susceptible to bronchospasm, the nature of this adverse event and how it can be managed. We believe the risk in these patients could be mitigated through labeling and a REMS program. At the End-of-Review meeting, the FDA stated that it would be reasonable to propose a REMS program for the use of Staccato loxapine, and requested that as part of our resubmission, we provide a detailed REMS proposal including labeling, a medication guide and a communication plan, to manage the potential risks. In the resubmission we must also show how to identify patients at risk of developing pulmonary side effects, as well as a way to decide who should and should not be treated with Staccato loxapine when they present for treatment. The FDA also informed us that it would likely present the NDA to an advisory committee.
 
The CRL also raised issues relating to the suitability of our stability studies and certain other CMC concerns, including items relating to the pre-approval manufacturing inspection completed in August 2010. Because AZ-004 incorporates a novel delivery system, the CRL also included input from the CDRH. In the CRL, the CDRH requested a human factors study and related analysis to validate that the product can be used effectively in the proposed clinical setting. We expect to finalize the protocol with the FDA and complete this study in the coming months. We are not currently required to conduct any additional efficacy or safety clinical trials for AZ-004. The CDRH also requested further bench testing of the product under an additional “worst-case” manufacturing scenario.


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We have completed this additional “worst-case” bench testing of the product, submitted the data to the FDA and believe that this issue has been adequately addressed.
 
INSOMNIA PROGRAM: AZ-007 (Staccato zaleplon)
 
We are developing AZ-007 for the treatment of insomnia in patients who have difficulty falling asleep, including those patients with middle of the night awakening who have difficulty falling back asleep. Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder, and we believe that it affects at least 15% to 20% of the United States population, with some estimates of up to 50% of Americans reporting difficulty getting a good night’s sleep at least a few nights a week. Insomnia can be due to a variety of causes, including depression, grief or stress, menopause, age, shift work, or environmental disruption. Whatever the cause of insomnia, it can take its toll on both the afflicted and the non-afflicted. Sleep disturbances have a major negative impact on public health and economic productivity. Costs for direct healthcare associated with insomnia are estimated to be approximately $14 billion to $15 billion each year.
 
Market Opportunity
 
Insomnia is a prevalent disorder that drives almost $5 billion in worldwide sales of prescription medications each year. In a large survey conducted by the National Sleep Foundation in 2009, results showed that 64% of the respondents experienced a minimum of one symptom of insomnia at least a few nights a week, with 41% reporting this occurring every night or almost every night and 31% using some sort of sleep aid at least a few nights per week, 18% of whom use a medication sleep aid. Of those, respondents complained primarily of waking up feeling unrefreshed (45%), being wake a lot during the night (46%), having difficulty falling asleep (29%), and waking up too early and not being able to get back to sleep (30%). Also, sleepy Americans are creating a major public safety problem — drowsy driving. More than one-half of adults (54%) reported that they have driven at least once while drowsy in the past year, with almost a third (28%) reporting that they do so at least once per month, and 28% have nodded off or fallen asleep while driving. Of those who have driven drowsy, 38% use a sleep aid at least a few nights per week.
 
Although benzodiazepines have been the gold standard in treatment for sleep disorders for decades, issues with drug misuse and dependency are common and concerning. Other current treatments for insomnia include non-benzodiazepine GABA-A receptor agonists, which include Ambien, both immediate release and controlled-release tablets, Sonata, and Lunesta, which have less abuse potential and fewer side effects than classical benzodiazepines and can be used for longer term treatment. Patients and physicians surveyed suggest that current oral forms of these leading insomnia medications can take from 30-60 minutes to work, while promotions for insomnia medications cite 20-30 minutes. Compounds with a longer half-life keep patients asleep longer. Those compounds that are dosed in the middle of the night are also those that have residual side effects that can cause a “hangover” feeling the next day.
 
We believe the opportunity in insomnia is achieving a balance in treating patients so they can fall asleep quickly, whether at bedtime or in the middle of the night, while enabling them to function well the next day without a groggy feeling that can impact driving, employment or leisure activities. We believe there is a potentially significant clinical need for rapid and predictable onset of sleep in patients with insomnia, coupled with a predictable duration of sleep and rapid, clear awakening that can be satisfied with AZ-007.
 
Development Status
 
Clinical Studies
 
In April 2008, we announced positive results from a Phase 1 clinical trial of AZ-007. The AZ-007 Phase 1 clinical trial enrolled 40 healthy volunteers at a single U.S. clinical center. The purpose of this trial was to assess the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic parameters of a single dose of AZ-007. Using a double blind, randomized, dose-escalation trial design, 4 doses of zaleplon (ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 mg) were compared to placebo.
 
AZ-007 delivered an IV-like pharmacokinetic profile with a median time to peak venous concentration of 1.6 minutes. Zaleplon exposure was dose proportional across the 4 doses studied, as calculated by power analysis.


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Pharmacodynamics, measured as sedation assessed on a 100 mm visual-analog scale, showed onset of effect as early as 2 minutes after dosing with AZ-007.
 
The most common side effects, reported by at least 10% of the patients in any treatment group, were dizziness and somnolence. These side effects were generally mild to moderate in severity. These data indicated a rapid onset of effect, apparently directly related to the IV-like pharmacokinetics, and showed that AZ-007 was generally safe and well tolerated in this population of healthy volunteers.
 
In 2010, we initiated internal work to move AZ-007 to the current commercial production device, or CPD, and it is anticipated that the next clinical trial with AZ-007 would be initiated with the CPD format if our resources allow. We do not intend to spend any external development resources on AZ-007 in the first half of 2011, but are continuing internal work on the technical product development of AZ-007. However, due to the FDA not approving AZ-004 for commercial marketing in October 2010, we are slowing the clinical development of AZ-007.
 
Preclinical Studies
 
Zaleplon, the active pharmaceutical ingredient in AZ-007, has been approved for marketing in oral form. There are publicly available safety pharmacology, systemic toxicology, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicology data we will be able to use for our regulatory filings. Therefore, our preclinical development testing has been primarily focused on assessing the local tolerability of inhaled zaleplon. Our two preclinical inhalation toxicology studies with zaleplon have indicated that it was generally well tolerated.
 
SMOKING CESSATION PROGRAM: Staccato nicotine
 
Staccato nicotine is designed to help smokers quit by addressing both the chemical and behavioral components of nicotine addiction by combining nicotine replacement via inhalation with a user-friendly drug delivery device. The Staccato technology may be capable of mimicking the pharmacokinetics of smoking cigarettes through the delivery of optimally-sized nicotine particles to the deep lung. Staccato nicotine may also satisfy some of the psychological aspects of smoking, such as hand-to-mouth movement and oral inhalation, and could allow smokers to self-administer and possibly titrate the dose to treat cravings. Importantly, the electronics embedded within the Staccato delivery system could allow for the programmed, over-time reduction in the overall daily dose of nicotine, and ultimately may lead to better management of nicotine cravings and eventual sustained smoking cessation.
 
On August 25, 2010, we licensed the worldwide rights for the Staccato nicotine technology to Cypress. Under the Cypress Agreement, Cypress has responsibility for preclinical, clinical and regulatory aspects of the development of Staccato nicotine, along with the commercialization of the product.
 
MIGRAINE HEADACHE PROGRAM: AZ-104 (Staccato loxapine, low-dose)
 
We plan to develop AZ-104 (Staccato loxapine, low-dose) for the treatment of acute migraine headaches. Although there are numerous products available for the treatment of migraines, including simple analgesics such as aspirin and acetaminophen, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen, the prescription market is dominated by a class of orally administered medications commonly known as triptans. AZ-104 is not currently in active development.
 
Market Opportunity
 
According to the National Headache Foundation, approximately 13 million people in the United States have been diagnosed with migraine headaches that occur often, usually one to four times per month and are treated with prescription medications some of which can be addicting. According to a survey conducted by the National Headache Foundation in 2007, 82% of migraine respondents have taken more than one prescription medication for their migraines, and the average number of medications a patient has taken for migraines is four, which we believe speaks to the need for more medication options that work for patients.
 
Of the estimated 29.5 million migraine sufferers, including diagnosed and undiagnosed sufferers, there are at least two groups of potential patients for whom we believe AZ-104 could be effective and safe in comparison to triptans. Many migraine sufferers who do take triptans have an insufficient therapeutic response to these


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medications. In addition, according to the warning labels on triptans, patients with hypertension or high cholesterol, or who smoke cigarettes, are contraindicated for and should not take these medications due to potential cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health risks.
 
The API of AZ-104 is loxapine, a generic drug belonging to the class of drugs known as antipsychotics. Loxapine is currently approved in oral and injectable (IM only) formulations in the United States for the management of the manifestations of schizophrenia.
 
Development Status
 
Clinical Trials
 
We reported initial results of the AZ-104 Phase 2b trial in September 2009. This was an outpatient, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, single administration, placebo-controlled study. The study was designed to evaluate the treatment of a single migraine attack of moderate to severe intensity in each of approximately 360 migraine patients, with or without aura. Two doses of AZ-104 (1.25 mg and 2.5 mg) and placebo were evaluated in the clinical trial. The study enrolled a total of 366 patients: 125 patients in the placebo dose group, 121 patients in the 1.25 mg dose group, and 120 patients in the 2.5 mg dose group. Both AZ-104 dose groups trended towards statistical significance, but the study did not meet its primary endpoint, which was defined as pain-relief at the 2-hour time point, compared to placebo. There were no serious adverse events in the clinical trial, and AZ-104 was generally safe and well tolerated in this patient population.
 
Patients rated their headache pain using the IHS 4-point rating scale. The primary efficacy endpoint was headache pain relief, which is headache pain rated as mild or none, at 2 hours post-dose. Secondary efficacy endpoints for the clinical trial included various additional measurements of pain relief, as well as effects on nausea, vomiting, phonophobia and photophobia. Statistical significance for all results was defined as p < 0.05 , as compared to placebo, and all analyses were made on an intent-to-treat basis. Safety evaluations were also made throughout the clinical trial period.
 
AZ-104 was numerically superior to placebo in pain-relief at 2-hours post-dose, but these differences were not statistically significant. Pain relief was observed in 56% of patients receiving the 2.5 mg dose (p=0.11) and 54% of patients receiving the 1.25 mg dose (p=0.12), as compared to 45% of patients receiving placebo.
 
Another commonly used measure of efficacy in migraine studies is the percentage of patients who are pain-free at 2 hours post-dose. Again, AZ-104 was numerically superior to placebo in this measure, but the differences were not statistically significant. Pain-free responders were 31% of the patients receiving the 2.5 mg dose and 27% of the patients receiving the 1.25 mg dose, as compared to 23% of the patients receiving placebo.
 
Preclinical Studies
 
Loxapine has been approved for marketing in oral and injectable forms. There are publicly available safety pharmacology, systemic toxicology, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicology data we will be able to use for our regulatory filings. Therefore, our preclinical development testing is primarily focused on assessing the local tolerability of inhaled loxapine. Our two preclinical inhalation toxicology studies with loxapine have indicated that it was generally well tolerated.
 
ACUTE PAIN PROGRAM: AZ-003 (Staccato fentanyl)
 
We are developing AZ-003 (Staccato fentanyl) for the treatment of patients with acute pain, including patients with breakthrough cancer pain and postoperative patients with acute pain episodes. Based on our analysis of industry data and clinical literature, we believe over 25 million postoperative patients experience inadequate pain relief, despite receiving some form of pain management and, according to a three month study on cancer pain by Portenoy and Hagen (1990) and a cross-sectional study on cancer pain by Caraceni (2004), approximately 65% of patients diagnosed with cancer pain experience breakthrough cancer pain. A patient controlled analgesia, or PCA, IV pump is often used directly after surgery so the patient can achieve quick pain relief as needed. The PCA pump approach generally works well, but typically requires patients to remain in the hospital with an IV line in place. Physicians generally treat cancer pain using a combination of a chronic, long-acting drug and an acute or rapid


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acting drug for breakthrough pain. Treating a breakthrough pain episode with an oral medication is difficult due to the slow onset of therapeutic effect. However, patients usually also find more invasive, injectable treatments undesirable. Based on preclinical testing and the results of our Phase 1 clinical trial, we believe the pharmacokinetics, or PK, of fentanyl delivered using a Staccato system will be similar to the PK of IV fentanyl administration. We believe many patients would benefit from a noninvasive but fast acting therapy that allows them to titrate the amount of pain medication to the amount of pain relief required.
 
The API of AZ-003 is fentanyl, a generic drug belonging to the class of drugs known as opioid analgesics. Fentanyl is currently approved in three different formulations in the United States for the management of various types of pain: injectable, transmucosal, which deliver drugs through the mucous membranes of the mouth or nose, and transdermal, which deliver drug through the skin. Since the Staccato system can incorporate lockout and multiple dose features, we believe that AZ-003 will facilitate patient titration to the minimum effective drug dose in a safe, convenient, easy to use and simple delivery system. In addition, we believe the incorporation of patient lockout features may be a significant safety advantage and has the potential to prevent diversion, or use by individuals who have not been prescribed the drug. AZ-003 is not currently in active development.
 
Development Status
 
Clinical Studies
 
We completed the initial analysis of the top-line results of our Phase 1 clinical trial with AZ-003 in December 2006. The primary aims of the Phase 1 clinical trial were to evaluate the arterial PK and absolute bioavailability for AZ-003 by comparing the AZ-003 profile to that of IV fentanyl, and to examine the pharmacodynamics, tolerability and safety of AZ-003 in opioid-naive healthy subjects. The trial enrolled 50 subjects and was conducted at a single clinical center in two stages. Stage 1 of the protocol was an open-label, crossover comparison of a 25mcg dose of AZ-003 by a single inhalation and the same dose of fentanyl administered intravenously over five seconds. Stage 2 of the protocol was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalation of AZ-003 evaluating cumulative doses of 50mcg, 100mcg, 150 mcg and 300 mcg of fentanyl. A 25 mcg individual dose of fentanyl was inhaled once in Stage 1, or 2, 4 or 6 times at 4 minute intervals for the first four different cohorts in Stage 2. A fifth cohort in Stage 2 received a 150 mcg dosing sequence starting at time zero and then a second 150 mcg dosing sequence starting at 60 minutes after the first dose, for a cumulative dose of 300 mcg. In addition to comprehensive PK sample collection, pharmacodynamic data were generated using pupillometry, a surrogate measure used to assess the functional activity of opioids.
 
The AZ-003 PK was substantially equivalent to the IV fentanyl PK, with similar peak plasma concentration time to maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve concentration, or AUC. These data suggest very high absolute bioavailability of the inhaled dose. Mean peak arterial plasma concentrations were observed within 30 seconds for both administration routes. In Stage 2 of the clinical trial, ascending doses of AZ- 003 controlled by the Staccato device, exhibited dose-proportionality of fentanyl throughout the dosing range from 50 mcg to 300 mcg, following an AUC analysis. There were no serious adverse events attributable to AZ-003, and the results from the clinical study showed that AZ-003 was generally safe and well tolerated at all doses.
 
In October 2007, clinical data from the AZ-003 Phase 1 clinical trial were presented in four different presentations at the American Society of Anesthesiologists 2007 Annual Meeting, in San Francisco, California. The four presentations were entitled, “Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Fentanyl Delivered by Intravenous and Inhaled Thermal Aerosol Routes”, “Pharmacokinetic Profile of Multiple Doses of Fentanyl Delivered by Inhaled Thermal Aerosol Route”, “Pharmacodynamic Response to Fentanyl Delivered by Intravenous and Inhaled Thermal Aerosol Routes” and “Pharmacodynamic Response to Multiple Doses of Fentanyl Delivered by Inhaled Thermal Aerosol Route”. This clinical trial demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic profile of AZ-003 in a single breath offers a speed of onset and consistency equivalent to fentanyl administered intravenously over 5 seconds. This clinical trial also demonstrated that the pharmacodynamic profile of AZ-003 in a single breath was comparable to that of fentanyl administered by IV administration.


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Preclinical Studies
 
Fentanyl is approved for marketing in injectable, transdermal and transmucosal forms. We are able to use publicly available safety pharmacology, systemic toxicology and reproductive toxicology data for our regulatory filings. Therefore, our preclinical development testing was primarily focused on assessing the local tolerability of inhaled fentanyl. Our two preclinical toxicology tests in two animal species with fentanyl have indicated that it was generally well tolerated.
 
AZ-002 (Staccato alprazolam)
 
We were developing AZ-002 (Staccato alprazolam) for the acute treatment of panic attacks associated with panic disorder, a condition characterized by the frequent, unpredictable occurrence of panic attacks. The API of AZ-002 is alprazolam, a generic drug belonging to the class of drugs known as benzodiazepines. Alprazolam is currently approved in oral formulations in the United States for use in the management of anxiety disorder, for the short term relief of symptoms of anxiety, for anxiety associated with depression, and for the treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, or abnormal fear of being in public places. We will continue to explore additional CNS indications for AZ-002 given its safety profile, the successful and reproducible delivery of alprazolam, and the IV-like pharmacological effect demonstrated. AZ-002 is not currently in active development.
 
Development Status
 
Clinical Trials
 
In June 2008, we released the preliminary results from our Phase 2a proof-of-concept clinical trial with AZ-002 in patients with panic disorder. The study did not meet its two primary endpoints, which were the effect of AZ-002 on the incidence of a doxapram-induced panic attack and the effect of AZ-002 on the duration of a doxapram-induced panic attack, both as compared with placebo. There were no serious adverse events in the clinical trial, and AZ-002 was safe and well tolerated in the study patient population.
 
The AZ-002 Phase 2a clinical trial was an in-clinic, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept evaluation of patients with panic disorder. After an open-label pilot phase, 40 patients were enrolled at 3 U.S. clinical centers, with 20 patients receiving 1 mg AZ-002 and 20 patients receiving Staccato placebo. The primary aim of the clinical trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of a single dose of AZ-002 in treating a pharmacologically-induced panic attack. Two primary endpoints were prospectively defined for the study, one to assess the effect of treatment on the occurrence of a doxapram-induced panic attack of sufficient intensity and a second to assess the effect of treatment on the duration of the doxapram-induced panic attack. Data for these two endpoints were based on the Acute Panic Inventory, a commonly used 22-item self-report questionnaire designed to measure panic-like response to biological challenges or other stressful situations. After receiving training and baseline assessments, all patients in the double-blind phase of the study received a Staccato device, randomized to either 1 mg AZ-002 or placebo, and an IV administration of doxapram, a respiratory stimulant used to induce a simulated panic attack.
 
Preclinical Studies
 
Alprazolam has been approved for marketing in oral tablet form. There are publicly available safety pharmacology, systemic toxicology, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicology data that we will be able to use for our regulatory filings. Therefore, our preclinical development plan is primarily focused on assessing the local tolerability of inhaled alprazolam. To date, our two preclinical inhalation toxicology studies with inhaled alprazolam have indicated that it is generally well tolerated.
 
Our Strategy
 
Key elements of our strategy include:
 
  •  Focus on Acute and Intermittent Conditions.  We focus our development and commercialization efforts on product candidates based on our Staccato system that are intended to address important unmet medical and


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  patient needs in the treatment of acute and intermittent conditions in which rapid onset, ease of use, noninvasive administration and, in some cases, patient titration of dosage are required.
 
  •  Establish Strategic Partnerships.  We intend to strategically partner with pharmaceutical and other companies to provide development funding or to address markets that may require a larger sales force or greater marketing resources than we are able to provide, or specific expertise to maximize the value of some product candidates. We also intend to seek international distribution partners for our product candidates. We may also enter into strategic partnerships with other pharmaceutical companies to combine our Staccato system with their proprietary compounds.
 
  •  Retain and Control Product Manufacturing.  We own all manufacturing rights to our product candidates, other than Staccato nicotine. We intend to internally complete the final manufacture and assembly of our product candidates and any future products, potentially enabling greater intellectual property protection and economic return from our future products. We also believe controlling the final manufacture and assembly reduces the risk of supply interruptions and allows more cost effective manufacturing.
 
Licensing Collaborations
 
Cypress Bioscience, Inc.
 
In August 2010 we entered into the Cypress Agreement with Cypress for Staccato nicotine. According to the terms of the Cypress Agreement, Cypress paid us a non-refundable upfront payment of $5 million to acquire the worldwide license for the Staccato nicotine technology.
 
Following the completion of certain preclinical and clinical milestones relating to the Staccato nicotine technology, if Cypress elects to continue the development of Staccato nicotine, Cypress will be obligated to pay us an additional technology transfer payment of $1 million. We have a carried interest of 10%, subject to adjustment in certain circumstances, in the net proceeds of any sale or license by Cypress of the Staccato nicotine assets, and the carried interest is subject to put and call rights in certain circumstances.
 
Cypress has the responsibility for preclinical, clinical and regulatory aspects of the development of Staccato nicotine, along with the commercialization of the product. Cypress will pay us a total of $3.9 million in research and development funding for our efforts to execute a defined development plan for Cypress culminating with the delivery of clinical trial materials for a Phase 1 study with Staccato nicotine. Through January 2011, we have received $2.9 million of the research and development funding. In January 2011, Cypress was acquired by Royalty Pharma. We do not know what, if any, impact this will have on the partnership.
 
Additionally, we entered into an agreement with Cypress to sublease approximately 2,500 square feet of our premises and to provide certain administrative, facility and information technology support for a period of 12 months for $11,000 per month. Beginning in September 2011, the space will be leased on a month-to-month basis.
 
Biovail Laboratories International SRL
 
In February 2010, we entered into a collaboration with Biovail, for AZ-004 for the treatment of psychiatric and/or neurological indications and the symptoms associated with these indications, including the initial indication for the rapid treatment of agitation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. Under the terms of the License Agreement, Biovail paid us a non-refundable upfront fee of $40 million. On September 28, 2010, Biovail and Valeant completed a merger. On October 18, 2010, Biovail notified us of its intention to terminate the collaboration. Upon termination, we reacquired the U.S. and Canadian rights to our AZ-004 product candidate licensed to Biovail pursuant to the collaboration. Neither we nor Biovail incurred any early termination penalties in connection with the termination of the collaboration.


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Research and Development
 
Research and development expenditures made to advance our product candidates and general research efforts during the last three years ended December 31, 2010, were as follows (in thousands):
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
 
Product candidate expenses
  $ 26,059     $ 31,896     $ 48,681  
General research
    7,469       7,882       12,884  
                         
Total research and development
  $ 33,528     $ 39,778     $ 61,565  
                         
 
Manufacturing
 
We manufacture our product candidates with components supplied by qualified vendors. We believe that manufacturing our product candidates will potentially enable greater intellectual property protection and economies of scale and decrease the risk of supply interruptions.
 
After inspection and qualification, we assemble the components of our product candidates and coat the exterior of the metal substrate with a thin film of API. We then place the plastic airway around the assembly and package a completed device in a pharmaceutical-grade foil pouch. The controller for our multiple dose delivery design includes the battery power source for heating the individual metal substrates, a microprocessor that directs the electric current to the appropriate metal substrate at the appropriate time, and an icon-based liquid crystal display that shows pertinent information to the user, for example, the number of doses remaining in the dose cartridge and the controller status. We may need to develop modified versions of our devices for future product candidates.
 
We believe we have developed quality assurance and quality control systems applicable to the design, manufacture, packaging, labeling and storage of our product candidates in compliance with applicable regulations. These systems include extensive requirements with respect to quality management, quality planning and organization, product design, manufacturing facilities, equipment, purchase and handling of components, production and process controls, packaging and labeling controls, device evaluation, distribution and record keeping.
 
We outsource the production of the components of our product candidates, including the printed circuit boards, the molded plastic airways and the heat packages used in the single dose version of our Staccato system device. We currently use single source suppliers for these components, as well as for the API used in each of our product candidates. We do not carry a significant inventory of these components, and establishing additional or replacement suppliers for any of these components may not be accomplished quickly, or at all, and could cause significant additional expense. Any supply interruption from our vendors would limit our ability to manufacture our product candidates and could delay clinical trials for, and regulatory approval of, our product candidates.
 
In 2007, we completed the construction on a current good manufacturing practices, or cGMP, compliant pilot manufacturing facility located in Mountain View, California. In November 2007, we received a pharmaceutical manufacturing license from the California State Food and Drug Branch for this facility. We believe this pilot manufacturing facility will have sufficient capacity to manufacture materials for toxicology studies and clinical trial materials for future clinical trials. We also believe that this facility will be sufficient to manufacture early commercial-scale batches of our products. In January 2011, we renewed our pharmaceutical manufacturing license from the California State Food and Drug Branch for our Mountain View facility. This new license is valid until January 31, 2013.
 
In August 2010, we were subject to our first FDA Pre-Approval Inspection, or PAI. As a result of this inspection we received an FDA Form 483, which outlined ten observations. We submitted responses to these observations to the FDA within the specified response timeframe. On December 13, 2010, the FDA issued an Establishment Inspection Report that outlined the findings of the PAI. We believe we have taken appropriate corrective action for all observations outlined in the Form 483.


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Autoliv ASP, Inc.
 
In November 2007, we entered into a manufacturing and supply agreement, or the manufacture agreement, with Autoliv relating to the commercial supply of chemical heat packages that can be incorporated into our single dose Staccato device. Autoliv had developed these chemical heat packages for us pursuant to a development agreement executed in October 2005.
 
Autoliv has agreed to manufacture, assemble and test the chemical heat packages solely for us in conformance with our specifications. We will pay Autoliv a specified purchase price, which varies based on annual quantities ordered by us, per chemical heat package delivered. The manufacture agreement provides that during the term of the manufacture agreement, Autoliv will be our exclusive supplier of chemical heat packages. In addition, the manufacture agreement grants Autoliv the right to negotiate for the right to supply commercially any second generation chemical heat package, or a second generation product, and provides that we will pay Autoliv certain royalty payments if we manufacture second generation products ourselves or if we obtain second generation products from a third party manufacturer. Upon the expiration or termination of the manufacture agreement we will also be required, on an ongoing basis, to pay Autoliv certain royalty payments related to the manufacture of the chemical heat packages by us or third party manufacturers.
 
In June 2010 and February 2011, we entered into agreements to amend the terms of the manufacture agreement, or the amendments. Under the terms of the first of the amendments, we paid Autoliv $4 million and issued Autoliv a $4 million unsecured promissory note in return for a production line for the commercial manufacture of chemical heat packages. Each production line is comprised of two identical and self sustaining “cells”, and the first such cell was completed, installed and qualified in connection with such amendment. Under the terms of the second of the amendments, the original $4 million note was cancelled and a new unsecured promissory note was issued with a reduced principal amount of $2.8 million, or the second note, and production on the second cell ceased. The second note is payable in 48 equal monthly installments of approximately $67,900 and we have paid the first two such installments. In the event that we request completion of the second cell of the first production line for the commercial manufacture of chemical heat packages, Autoliv will complete, install and fully qualify such second cell for a cost to us of $1.2 million and Autoliv will transfer ownership of such cell to us upon the payment in full of such $1.2 million and the second note.
 
The provisions of the amendments supersede (a) our obligation set forth in the manufacture agreement to reimburse Autoliv for certain expenses related to the equipment and tooling used in production and testing of the chemical heat packages in an amount of up to $12 million upon the earliest of December 31, 2011, 60 days after the termination of the manufacture agreement or 60 days after approval by the FDA of an NDA filed by us, and (b) the obligation of Autoliv to transfer possession of such equipment and tooling.
 
At our request, Autoliv will manufacture up to two additional production lines for the commercial manufacture of chemical heat packages at a cost not to exceed $2.4 million for each additional line. Pursuant to the amendments, the parties also agreed to revise the specified purchase price of chemical heat packages supplied by Autoliv, which varies based on annual quantities that we order.
 
The initial term of the manufacture agreement expires on December 31, 2012, at which time the manufacture agreement will automatically renew for successive five-year renewal terms unless we or Autoliv notify the other party no less than 36 months prior to the end of the initial term or the then-current renewal term that such party wishes to terminate the manufacture agreement.
 
Product Commercialization
 
We plan to enter into strategic partnerships with another company or companies to commercialize AZ-004 (and other product candidates) in all geographic territories.
 
Government Regulation
 
The testing, manufacturing, labeling, advertising, promotion, distribution, export and marketing of our product candidates are subject to extensive regulation by governmental authorities in the United States and other countries. Our product candidates include drug compounds incorporated into our delivery device and are considered


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“combination products” in the United States. We have agreed with the FDA that our product candidates will be reviewed by the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. The FDA, under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, regulates pharmaceutical products in the United States. The steps required before a drug may be approved for marketing in the United States generally include:
 
  •  preclinical laboratory studies and animal tests;
 
  •  the submission to the FDA of an IND for human clinical testing, which must become effective before human clinical trials commence;
 
  •  adequate and well controlled human clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of the product;
 
  •  the submission to the FDA of an NDA;
 
  •  satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection of the manufacturing facilities at which the product is made to assess compliance with cGMP. In addition, the FDA may inspect clinical trial sites that generated the data in support of the NDA; and
 
  •  FDA review and approval of the NDA.
 
The testing and approval process requires substantial time, effort and financial resources, and the receipt and timing of any approval is uncertain. Preclinical studies include laboratory evaluations of the product candidate, as well as animal studies to assess the potential safety and efficacy of the product candidate. The results of the preclinical studies, together with manufacturing information and analytical data, are submitted to the FDA as part of the IND, which must become effective before clinical trials may be commenced. The IND will become effective automatically 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA raises concerns or questions about the conduct of the trials as outlined in the IND prior to that time. In that case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before clinical trials can proceed.
 
Clinical trials involve the administration of the product candidates to healthy volunteers or patients under the supervision of a qualified principal investigator. Further, each clinical trial must be reviewed and approved by an independent institutional review board, or IRB, at or servicing each institution at which the clinical trial will be conducted. The IRB will consider, among other things, ethical factors, the safety of human subjects and the possible liability of the institution.
 
Clinical trials typically are conducted in three sequential phases prior to approval, but the phases may overlap. A fourth, or post-approval, phase may include additional clinical studies. These phases generally include the following:
 
  •  Phase 1.  Phase 1 clinical trials involve the initial introduction of the drug into human subjects, frequently healthy volunteers. These studies are designed to determine the metabolism and pharmacologic actions of the drug in humans, the adverse effects associated with increasing doses and, if possible, to gain early evidence of effectiveness. In Phase 1 clinical trials, the drug is usually tested for safety, including adverse effects, dosage tolerance, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and pharmacodynamics.
 
  •  Phase 2.  Phase 2 clinical trials usually involve studies in a limited patient population to (1) evaluate the efficacy of the drug for specific, targeted indications; (2) determine dosage tolerance and optimal dosage; and (3) identify possible adverse effects and safety risks. Although there are no statutory or regulatory definitions for Phase 2a and Phase 2b, Phase 2a is commonly used to describe a Phase 2 clinical trial designed to evaluate efficacy, adverse effects and safety risks and Phase 2b is commonly used to describe a subsequent Phase 2 clinical trial that also evaluates dosage tolerance and optimal dosage.
 
  •  Phase 3.  If a compound is found to be potentially effective and to have an acceptable safety profile in Phase 2 clinical trials, the clinical trial program will be expanded to further demonstrate clinical efficacy, optimal dosage and safety within an expanded patient population at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites. Phase 3 clinical trials usually include several hundred to several thousand patients.
 
  •  Phase 4.  Phase 4 clinical trials are studies required of, or agreed to by, a sponsor that are conducted after the FDA has approved a product for marketing. These studies are used to gain additional information from


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  the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication and to verify a clinical benefit in the case of drugs approved under accelerated approval regulations. If the FDA approves a product while a company has ongoing clinical trials that were not necessary for approval, a company may be able to use the data from these clinical trials to meet all or part of any Phase 4 clinical trial requirement. These clinical trials are often referred to as Phase 3/4 post-approval clinical trials. Failure to promptly conduct Phase 4 clinical trials could result in withdrawal of approval for products approved under accelerated approval regulations.
 
In the case of products for the treatment of severe or life threatening diseases, the initial clinical trials are sometimes conducted in patients rather than in healthy volunteers. Since these patients are already afflicted with the target disease, it is possible that such clinical trials may provide evidence of efficacy traditionally obtained in Phase 2 clinical trials. These trials are referred to frequently as Phase 1/2 clinical trials. The FDA may suspend clinical trials at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk.
 
The results of preclinical studies and clinical trials, together with detailed information on the manufacture and composition of the product, are submitted to the FDA in the form of an NDA requesting approval to market the product. Generally, regulatory approval of a new drug by the FDA may follow one of three routes. The most traditional of these routes is the submission of a full NDA under Section 505(b)(1) of the FDCA. A second route, which is possible where an applicant chooses to rely in part on the FDA’s conclusion about the safety and effectiveness of previously approved drugs is to submit a more limited NDA described in Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA. The final route is the submission of an Abbreviated New Drug Application for products that are shown to be therapeutically equivalent to previously approved drug products as permitted under Section 505(j) of the FDCA. We do not expect any of our product candidates to be submitted under Section 505(j). Both Section 505(b)(1) and Section 505(b)(2) applications are required by the FDA to contain full reports of investigations of safety and effectiveness. However, in contrast to a traditional NDA submitted pursuant to Section 505(b)(1) in which the applicant submits all of the data demonstrating safety and effectiveness, we believe an application submitted pursuant to Section 505(b)(2) can rely upon findings by the FDA that the reference drug is safe and effective. As a consequence, the preclinical and clinical development programs leading to the submission of an NDA under Section 505(b)(2) may be less expensive to carry out and may be concluded in a shorter period of time than programs required for a Section 505(b)(1) application. In its review of any NDA submissions, however, the FDA has broad discretion to require an applicant to generate additional data related to safety and efficacy, and it is impossible to predict the number or nature of the studies that may be required before the FDA will grant approval. Notwithstanding the approval of many products by the FDA pursuant to Section 505(b)(2), over the last few years certain brand-name pharmaceutical companies and others have objected to the FDA’s interpretation of Section 505(b)(2). If the FDA changes its interpretation of Section 505(b)(2), this could delay or even prevent the FDA from approving any Section 505(b)(2) NDA that we submit.
 
To the extent that a Section 505(b)(2) applicant is relying on the FDA’s findings for an already-approved reference product, the applicant is required to certify to the FDA concerning any patents listed for the reference product in the FDA’s Orange Book publication. A certification that the new product will not infringe the reference product’s Orange Book-listed patents or that such patents are invalid is called a paragraph IV certification, and could be challenged in court by the patent owner or holder of the application of the reference product. This could delay the approval of any Section 505(b)(2) application we submit. In addition, any period of marketing exclusivity applicable to the reference product might delay approval of any Section 505(b)(2) application we submit. Any Section 505(b)(1) or Section 505(b)(2) application we submit for a drug product containing a previously approved API might be eligible for three years of marketing exclusivity, provided new clinical investigations that were conducted or sponsored by us are essential to the FDA’s approval of the application. Five years of marketing exclusivity is granted if the FDA approves an NDA for a new chemical entity. In addition, we can list in the FDA’s Orange Book publication any of our patents claiming the drug product, drug substance or that cover an approved method-of-use. In order for a generic applicant to rely on the FDA’s approval of any NDA we submit, such generic applicant must certify to any Orange Book listed patents and might be subject to any marketing exclusivity covering our approved drug product.
 
In our initial AZ-004 NDA submission we followed and in future submissions for AZ-004 and our other product candidates we intend to follow the development pathway permitted under the FDCA that we believe will


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maximize the commercial opportunities for these product candidates. We are currently pursuing the Section 505(b)(2) application route for our product candidates. As such, we have and intend to continue to engage in discussions with the FDA to determine which, if any, portions of our development program can be modified, based on previous FDA findings of a drug’s safety and effectiveness.
 
Before approving an NDA, the FDA will inspect the facilities at which the product is manufactured, whether ours or our third party manufacturers’, and will not approve the product unless the manufacturing facility complies with cGMP or, where applicable, the Quality System Regulation, or QSR. The FDA reviews all NDA’s submitted before it accepts them for filing and may request additional information rather than accept an NDA for filing. Once the NDA submission has been accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth review of the NDA. Under the goals and policies agreed to by the FDA under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, the FDA has 10 months in which to complete its initial review of a standard NDA and respond to the applicant, and six months for a priority NDA. The FDA does not always meet the PDUFA goal dates for standard and priority NDAs. The review process is often significantly extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification. The FDA may delay approval of an NDA if applicable regulatory criteria are not satisfied, require additional testing or information and/or require post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor safety or efficacy of a product. FDA approval of any NDA submitted by us will be at a time the FDA chooses. Also, if regulatory approval of a product is granted, such approval may entail limitations on the indicated uses for which such product may be marketed. Once approved, the FDA may withdraw the product approval if compliance with pre-and post-marketing regulatory requirements and conditions of approvals are not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the marketplace. In addition, the FDA may require post-marketing studies, referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials, to monitor the effect of approved products and may limit further marketing of the product based on the results of these post-marketing studies.
 
If we obtain regulatory approval for a product, that approval will be limited to those diseases and conditions for which the product is effective, as demonstrated through clinical trials and as specified in the approved labeling. Even if that regulatory approval is obtained, a marketed product, its manufacturer and its manufacturing facilities are subject to continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA and, in our case, the State of California. Discovery of previously unknown problems with a medicine, device, manufacturer or facility may result in restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of an approved product, including costly recalls or withdrawal of the product from the market. The FDA has broad post-market regulatory and enforcement powers, including the ability to suspend or delay issuance of approvals, seize or recall products, withdraw approvals, enjoin violations and institute criminal prosecution.
 
In addition to regulation by the FDA and certain state regulatory agencies, the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, or DEA, imposes various registration, recordkeeping and reporting requirements, procurement and manufacturing quotas, labeling and packaging requirements, security controls and a restriction on prescription refills on certain pharmaceutical products under the Controlled Substances Act, or CSA. A principal factor in determining the particular requirements, if any, applicable to a product is its actual or potential abuse profile. The DEA regulates drug substances as Schedule I, II, III, IV or V substances, with Schedule I and II substances considered to present the highest risk of substance abuse and Schedule V substances the lowest risk. Alprazolam, the API in AZ-002, is regulated as a Schedule IV substance, fentanyl, the API in AZ-003, is regulated as a Schedule II substance, and zaleplon, the API in AZ-007, is regulated as a Schedule IV substance. Each of these product candidates is subject to DEA regulations relating to manufacturing, storage, distribution and physician prescription procedures, and the DEA may regulate the amount of the scheduled substance available for clinical trials and commercial distribution. As a Schedule II substance, fentanyl is subject to additional controls, including quotas on the amount of product that can be manufactured and limitations on prescription refills. We have received necessary registrations from the DEA for the manufacture of AZ-002, AZ-003 and AZ-007. The DEA periodically inspects facilities for compliance with its rules and regulations. Failure to comply with current and future regulations of the DEA could lead to a variety of sanctions, including revocation, or denial of renewal, of DEA registrations, injunctions, or civil or criminal penalties, and could harm our business and financial condition.
 
The single dose design of our Staccato system uses what we refer to as “energetic materials” to generate the rapid heating necessary for vaporizing the drug while avoiding degradation. Manufacture of products containing these types of materials is controlled by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, or ATF, under 18


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United States Code Chapter 40. Technically, the energetic materials used in our Staccato system are classified as “low explosives,” and we have been granted a license/permit by the ATF for the manufacture of such low explosives.
 
Additionally, due to inclusion of the energetic materials in our Staccato system, shipments of the single dose design of our Staccato system are regulated by the Department of Transportation, or DOT, under Section 173.56, Title 49 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations. The single dose version of our Staccato device has been granted “Not Regulated as an Explosive” status by the DOT.
 
We have received funding for one or more research projects from a funding agency of the United States government, and inventions conceived or first actually reduced to practice during the performance of the research project are subject to the rights and limitations of certain federal statutes and various implementing regulations known generally and collectively as the “Bayh-Dole Requirements.” As a funding recipient, we are subject to certain invention reporting requirements, and certain limitations are placed on assignment of the invention rights. In addition, the federal government retains a non-exclusive, irrevocable, paid-up license to practice the invention and, in exceptional cases, the federal government may seek to take title to the invention.
 
We also will be subject to a variety of foreign regulations governing clinical trials and the marketing of any future products. Outside the United States, our ability to market a product depends upon receiving a marketing authorization from the appropriate regulatory authorities. The requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement vary widely from country to country. In any country, however, we will only be permitted to commercialize our products if the appropriate regulatory authority is satisfied that we have presented adequate evidence of safety, quality and efficacy. Whether or not FDA approval has been obtained, approval of a product by the comparable regulatory authorities of foreign countries must be obtained prior to the commencement of marketing of the product in those countries. The time needed to secure approval may be longer or shorter than that required for FDA approval. The regulatory approval and oversight process in other countries includes all of the risks associated with the FDA process described above.
 
Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement
 
In both domestic and foreign markets, our ability to commercialize successfully and attract strategic partners for our product candidates depends in significant part on the availability of adequate coverage and reimbursement from third-party payors, including, in the United States, governmental payors such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs, managed care organizations, and private health insurers. Third-party payors are increasingly challenging prices charged for medical products and services and examining their cost effectiveness, in addition to their safety and efficacy. We may need to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies in order to demonstrate the cost effectiveness of any future products. Even with studies, our product candidates may be considered less safe, less effective or less cost effective than existing products, and third-party payors therefore may not provide coverage and reimbursement for our product candidates, in whole or in part.
 
Political, economic and regulatory influences are subjecting the healthcare industry in the United States to fundamental changes. There have been, and we expect there will continue to be, a number of legislative and regulatory proposals and enactments to change the healthcare system in ways that could significantly affect our business, such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 signed into law in March 2010. We anticipate that Congress, state legislatures and the private sector will continue to consider and may adopt healthcare policies intended to curb rising healthcare costs. These cost containment measures include:
 
  •  controls on government funded reimbursement for medical products and services;
 
  •  controls on healthcare providers;
 
  •  challenges to the pricing of medical products and services or limits or prohibitions on reimbursement for specific products and therapies through other means;
 
  •  reform of drug importation laws; and
 
  •  expansion of use of managed care systems in which healthcare providers contract to provide comprehensive healthcare for a fixed cost per person.


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We are unable to predict what additional legislation, regulations or policies, if any, relating to the healthcare industry or third-party coverage and reimbursement may be enacted in the future or what effect such legislation, regulations or policies would have on our business. Any cost containment measures, including those listed above, or other healthcare system reforms that are adopted could have a material adverse effect on our ability to operate profitably.
 
Patents and Proprietary Rights
 
We actively seek to patent the technologies, inventions and improvements we consider important to the development of our business. In addition, we rely on trade secrets and contractual arrangements to protect our proprietary information. Some areas for which we seek patent protection include:
 
  •  the Staccato system and its components;
 
  •  methods of using the Staccato system;
 
  •  the aerosolized form of drug compounds produced by the Staccato system; and
 
  •  methods of making and using the drug containing aerosols, including methods of administering the aerosols to a patient.
 
As of February 1, 2011, we held 232 issued and allowed U.S. and international patents. Most of our patents are directed to compositions for delivery of an aerosol comprising drugs other than our primary product candidates described below, and cover the process for producing those aerosols using the Staccato system. As of February 1, 2011, we held 23 additional pending patent applications in the United States. As of February 1, 2011, we also held 39 pending corresponding foreign patent applications that will permit us to pursue additional patents outside of the United States. The claims in these various patents and patent applications are directed to various aspects of our drug delivery devices and their components, methods of using our devices, drug containing aerosol compositions and methods of making and using such compositions.
 
AZ-004/AZ-104 (Staccato loxapine)
 
One of our issued U.S. patents covers compositions for delivery of a condensation aerosol comprising loxapine and covers the process for producing such condensation aerosol using the Staccato system technology. This patent will not expire until 2022. Counterparts to this patent are pending in a number of foreign jurisdictions, including Europe. We also have three other U.S. patents directed to condensation aerosol compositions for delivery of loxapine, kits containing devices for forming such compositions and methods of administering such compositions.
 
AZ-007 (Staccato zaleplon)
 
One of our issued U.S. patents covers compositions for delivery of a condensation aerosol comprising zaleplon and covers the process for producing such condensation aerosol using the Staccato system technology. This patent will not expire until 2022. Counterparts to this patent are pending in a number of foreign jurisdictions, including Europe. We also have three other U.S. patents directed to condensation aerosol compositions for delivery of zaleplon, kits containing devices for forming such compositions, and methods of administering such compositions.
 
AZ-002 (Staccato alprazolam)
 
One of our issued U.S. patents covers compositions for delivery of a condensation aerosol comprising alprazolam and covers the process for producing such condensation aerosol using the Staccato system technology. This patent will not expire until 2022. Counterparts to this patent are pending in a number of foreign jurisdictions, including Europe. We also have three other U.S. patents directed to condensation aerosol compositions for delivery of alprazolam, kits containing devices for forming such compositions, and methods of administering such compositions.


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AZ-003 (Staccato fentanyl)
 
One of our issued U.S. patents covers compositions for delivery of a condensation aerosol comprising fentanyl and covers the process for producing such condensation aerosol using the Staccato system technology. This patent will not expire until 2022. Counterparts to this patent are pending in a number of foreign jurisdictions, including Europe. We also have three other U.S. patents directed to condensation aerosol compositions for delivery of fentanyl, kits containing devices for forming such compositions, and methods of administering such compositions.
 
Staccato nicotine
 
Two of our U.S. issued patents cover the apparatus and methods for producing condensation aerosol. One of these patents will not expire until 2026. Two of our U.S. patent applications cover compositions for delivery of a condensation aerosol comprising nicotine and nicotine formulations. One of our U.S. patent applications covers a method of treating nicotine craving by administering a condensation aerosol comprising nicotine.
 
Competition
 
The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries are intensely competitive. Many pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, public and private universities, government agencies and research organizations are actively engaged in research and development of products targeting the same markets as our product candidates. Many of these organizations have substantially greater financial, research, drug development, manufacturing and marketing resources than we have. Large pharmaceutical companies in particular have extensive experience in clinical testing and obtaining regulatory approvals for drugs. Our ability to compete successfully will depend largely on our ability to:
 
  •  develop products that are superior to other products in the market;
 
  •  attract and retain qualified scientific, product development, manufacturing, and commercial personnel;
 
  •  obtain patent and/or other proprietary protection covering our future products and technologies;
 
  •  obtain required regulatory approvals; and
 
  •  successfully collaborate with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies in the development and commercialization of new products.
 
We expect any future products we develop to compete on the basis of, among other things, product efficacy and safety, time to market, price, extent of adverse side effects experienced and convenience of treatment procedures. One or more of our competitors may develop products based upon the principles underlying our proprietary technologies earlier than we do, obtain approvals for such products from the FDA more rapidly than we do or develop alternative products or therapies that are safer, more effective and/or more cost effective than any future products developed by us. In addition, our ability to compete may be affected if insurers and other third-party payors encourage the use of generic products through other routes of administration.
 
Any future products developed by us would compete with a number of alternative drugs and therapies, including the following:
 
  •  AZ-004 would compete with the injectable form of loxapine and other antipsychotic drugs;
 
  •  AZ-007 would compete with non-benzodiazepine GABA-A receptor agonists;
 
  •  AZ-104 would compete with available triptan drugs and IV prochlorperazine;
 
  •  AZ-003 would compete with injectable and other forms of fentanyl and various generic oxycodone, hydrocodone and morphine products; and
 
  •  AZ-002 would compete with the oral tablet form of alprazolam and other benzodiazepines.
 
Many of these existing drugs have substantial current sales and long histories of effective and safe use. As patent protection expires for these drugs, we will also compete with their generic versions. In addition to currently


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marketed drugs and their generic versions, we believe there are a number of drug candidates in clinical trials that, if approved in the future, would compete with any future products we may develop.
 
Employees
 
As of February 15, 2011, we had 97 full time employees, 16 of whom held Ph.D. or M.D. degrees and 70 of whom were engaged in full time research and development activities. None of our employees are represented by a labor union, and we consider our employee relations to be good.
 
Corporate Information
 
We were incorporated in the state of Delaware on December 19, 2000 as FaxMed, Inc. In June 2001, we changed our name to Alexza Corporation and in December 2001 we became Alexza Molecular Delivery Corporation. In July 2005, we changed our name to Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
 
Available Information
 
Our website address is www.alexza.com; however, information found on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report. We file electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, our Annual Report, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. We make available free of charge on or through our website copies of these reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding our filings at www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any of our materials filed with the SEC at the SEC’s Public References Room at 100 F Street, NW, Washington, DC 20549. Information regarding the operation of the Public Reference Room can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.


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Item 1A.   Risk Factors
 
RISK FACTORS
 
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report, before deciding whether to invest in shares of our common stock. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations. The occurrence of any of the following risks could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations. In such case, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
 
Risks Relating to Our Business
 
Our management and our independent registered public accounting firm, in their report on our financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2010, have concluded that due to our need for additional capital, and the uncertainties surrounding our ability to raise such funding, substantial doubt exists as to our ability to continue as a going concern.
 
Our audited financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010, were prepared on a going concern basis in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles. The going concern basis of presentation assumes that we will continue in operation for the next twelve months and will be able to realize our assets and discharge our liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business and do not include any adjustments to reflect the possible future effects on the recoverability and classification of assets or the amounts and classification of liabilities that may result from our inability to continue as a going concern. Our management and our independent registered public accounting firm have concluded that due to our need for additional capital, and the uncertainties surrounding our ability to raise such funding, substantial doubt exists as to our ability to continue as a going concern. We may be forced to reduce our operating expenses, raise additional funds, principally through the additional sales of our securities or debt financings, or enter into a corporate partnership to meet our working capital needs. However, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain sufficient additional funds when needed or that such funds, if available, will be obtainable on terms satisfactory to us. If we are unable to raise sufficient additional capital or complete a strategic transaction, we may be unable to continue to fund our operations, develop our product candidates or realize value from our assets and discharge our liabilities in the normal course of business. These uncertainties raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. If we become unable to continue as a going concern, we may have to liquidate our assets, and might realize significantly less than the values at which they are carried on our financial statements, and stockholders may lose all or part of their investment in our common stock.
 
We have a history of net losses. We expect to continue to incur substantial and increasing net losses for the foreseeable future, and we may never achieve or maintain profitability.
 
We are not profitable and have incurred significant net losses in each year since our inception, including net losses of $1.5 million, $56.1 million and $77.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively, and $311.2 million for the period from December 19, 2000 (inception) to December 31, 2010. As of December 31, 2010, we had a deficit accumulated during development stage of $266.1 million and stockholders’ equity of $12.3 million. We expect to continue to incur substantial net losses and negative cash flow for the foreseeable future. These losses and negative cash flows have had, and will continue to have, an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital.
 
Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with pharmaceutical product development and commercialization, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of future expenses or when, or if, we will be able to achieve or maintain profitability. Currently, we have no products approved for commercial sale, and to date we have not generated any product revenue. We have financed our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities, capital lease and equipment financing, debt financing, collaboration and licensing agreements, and government grants. The size of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of growth or contraction of our expenses and the level and rate of growth, if any, of our revenues. Revenues from strategic partnerships are


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uncertain because we may not enter into any additional strategic partnerships. If we are unable to develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates or if sales revenue from any product candidate that receives marketing approval is insufficient, we will not achieve profitability. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability.
 
We are a development stage company. Our success depends substantially on our lead product candidates. If we do not develop commercially successful products, we may be forced to cease operations.
 
You must evaluate us in light of the uncertainties and complexities affecting a development stage pharmaceutical company. We have not completed clinical development for any of our product candidates. In October 2010, we received a CRL from the FDA regarding our NDA for our AZ-004 product candidate. A CRL is issued by the FDA indicating that the NDA review cycle is complete and the application is not ready for approval in its present form. In December 2010, we completed an End-of-Review meeting with the FDA to discuss the issues outlined in the AZ-004 CRL. In January 2011, we received the official FDA minutes of the meeting, and we anticipate resubmitting the AZ-004 NDA in July 2011. We may be unsuccessful in resolving the concerns raised in the CRL, and we may never receive marketing approval for AZ-004 or any of our product candidates as a result of the issues raised in the CRL. Each of our other product candidates is at an earlier stage of development and may be affected by concerns expressed in the CRL. Each of our product candidates will be unsuccessful if it:
 
  •  does not demonstrate acceptable safety and efficacy in preclinical studies and clinical trials or otherwise does not meet applicable regulatory standards for approval;
 
  •  does not offer therapeutic or other improvements over existing or future drugs used to treat the same or similar conditions;
 
  •  is not capable of being produced in commercial quantities at an acceptable cost, or at all; or
 
  •  is not accepted by patients, the medical community or third party payors.
 
Our ability to generate product revenue in the future is dependent on the successful development and commercialization of our product candidates. We have not proven our ability to develop and commercialize products. Problems frequently encountered in connection with the development and utilization of new and unproven technologies and the competitive environment in which we operate might limit our ability to develop commercially successful products. We do not expect any of our current product candidates to be commercially available before 2012, if at all. If we are unable to make our product candidates commercially available, we will not generate product revenues, and we will not be successful.
 
We will need substantial additional capital in the future. If additional capital is not available, we will have to delay, reduce or cease operations.
 
We will need to raise additional capital to fund our operations, to develop our product candidates and to develop our manufacturing capabilities. Our future capital requirements will be substantial and will depend on many factors including:
 
  •  our response to the CRL, including the NDA we expect to resubmit in July 2011, and interactions with the FDA regarding the issues raised in the CRL;
 
  •  the scope, rate of progress, results and costs of our preclinical studies, clinical trials and other research and development activities, and our manufacturing development and commercial manufacturing activities;
 
  •  the cost, timing and outcomes of regulatory proceedings;
 
  •  the cost and timing of developing manufacturing capacity;
 
  •  the cost and timing of developing sales and marketing capabilities prior to receipt of any regulatory approval of our product candidates;
 
  •  revenues received from any existing or future products;
 
  •  payments received under our collaboration with Cypress and any future strategic partnerships;


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  •  the filing, prosecution and enforcement of patent claims; and
 
  •  the costs associated with commercializing our product candidates, if they receive regulatory approval.
 
We believe that with current cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities along with interest earned thereon, the proceeds from option exercises and purchases of common stock pursuant to our 2005 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP, we will be able to maintain our current operations, at our current cost levels, into the third quarter of 2011. Further, due to the FDA not approving AZ-004 for commercial marketing in October 2010, we are slowing the clinical development of AZ-007. Changing circumstances may cause us to consume capital significantly faster or slower than we currently anticipate, or to alter our operations. We have based these estimates on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could exhaust our available financial resources sooner than we currently expect. The key assumptions underlying these estimates include:
 
  •  expenditures related to continued preclinical and clinical development of our product candidates during this period within budgeted levels;
 
  •  no unexpected costs related to the development of our manufacturing capability;
 
  •  no unexpected costs related to the resubmission of our AZ-004 NDA: and
 
  •  no growth in the number of our employees during this period.
 
We may never be able to generate a sufficient amount of product revenue to cover our expenses. Until we do, we expect to finance our future cash needs through public or private equity offerings, debt financings, strategic partnerships or licensing arrangements, as well as interest income earned on cash and marketable securities balances and proceeds from stock option exercises and purchases under our ESPP. Any financing transaction may contain unfavorable terms. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, our stockholders’ equity will be diluted. If we raise additional funds through strategic partnerships, we may be required to relinquish rights to our product candidates or technologies, or to grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us.
 
The process for obtaining approval of an NDA is time consuming, subject to unanticipated delays and costs, and requires the commitment of substantial resources. We received a CRL for our NDA in October 2010.
 
In October 2010, we received a complete response letter, or CRL, from the FDA regarding our NDA. A CRL is issued by the FDA indicating that the NDA review cycle is complete and the application is not ready for approval in its present form. The CRL conveyed the FDA’s comments regarding certain issues with our NDA, including data from the three Phase 1 pulmonary safety studies with AZ-004, suitability of stability studies and certain other CMC concerns, including matters related to the FDA’s inspection of our manufacturing facilities. In December 2010, we met with the FDA to address the concerns raised in the CRL and have received official FDA minutes from the meeting. We expect to resubmit our NDA in July 2011 to address the FDA’s concerns outlined in the CRL. We may be unsuccessful in resolving these issues and we may never receive marketing approval for AZ-004 or any of our product candidates as a result of the issues raised in the CRL.
 
The FDA will conduct an in-depth review of our resubmission to determine whether to approve AZ-004 for commercial marketing for the indications we have proposed. If the FDA is not satisfied with the information we provide, the FDA may refuse to approve our NDA or may require us to perform additional studies or provide other information in order to secure approval. The FDA may delay, limit or refuse to approve our resubmitted NDA if we do not sufficiently address the issues raised in the CRL.
 
If the FDA determines that the clinical trials of AZ-004 that were submitted in support of our NDA were not conducted in full compliance with the applicable protocols for these studies, as well as with applicable regulations and standards, or if the FDA does not agree with our interpretation of the results of such studies, the FDA may reject the data that resulted from such studies. The rejection of data from clinical trials required to support our NDA for AZ-004 could negatively impact our ability to obtain marketing authorization for this product candidate and would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.


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In addition, our resubmitted NDA may not be approved, or approval may be delayed, as a result of changes in FDA policies for drug approval during the review period. For example, although many products have been approved by the FDA in recent years under Section 505(b)(2) under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, objections have been raised to the FDA’s interpretation of Section 505(b)(2). If challenges to the FDA’s interpretation of Section 505(b)(2) are successful, the FDA may be required to change its interpretation, which could delay or prevent the approval of an NDA. Any significant delay in the review or approval of our resubmitted NDA would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
 
Unstable market conditions may have serious adverse consequences on our business.
 
The recent economic downturn and market instability has made the business climate more volatile and more costly. Our general business strategy may be adversely affected by unpredictable and unstable market conditions. If the current equity and credit markets deteriorate further, or do not improve, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult, more costly, and more dilutive. While we believe that with current cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities along with interest earned thereon, the proceeds from option exercises and purchases of common stock pursuant to our ESPP, we will be able to maintain our current operations, at our current cost levels, into the third quarter of 2011, we may obtain additional financing on less than attractive rates or on terms that are excessively dilutive to existing stockholders. Failure to secure any necessary financing in a timely manner and on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and stock price and could require us to delay or abandon clinical development plans or alter our operations. There is a risk that one or more of our current component manufacturers and partners may encounter difficulties during challenging economic times, which would directly affect our ability to attain our operating goals on schedule and on budget.
 
Unless our preclinical studies demonstrate the safety of our product candidates, we will not be able to commercialize our product candidates.
 
To obtain regulatory approval to market and sell any of our product candidates, we must satisfy the FDA and other regulatory authorities abroad, through extensive preclinical studies, that our product candidates are safe. Our Staccato system creates condensation aerosol from drug compounds, and there currently are no approved products that use a similar method of drug delivery. Companies developing other inhalation products have not defined or successfully completed the types of preclinical studies we believe will be required for submission to regulatory authorities as we seek approval to conduct our clinical trials. We may not have conducted or may not conduct in the future the types of preclinical testing ultimately required by regulatory authorities, or future preclinical tests may indicate that our product candidates are not safe for use in humans. Preclinical testing is expensive, can take many years and have an uncertain outcome. In addition, success in initial preclinical testing does not ensure that later preclinical testing will be successful.
 
We may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, the preclinical testing process, which could delay or prevent our ability to develop or commercialize our product candidates, including:
 
  •  our preclinical testing may produce inconclusive or negative safety results, which may require us to conduct additional preclinical testing or to abandon product candidates that we believed to be promising;
 
  •  our product candidates may have unfavorable pharmacology, toxicology or carcinogenicity; and
 
  •  our product candidates may cause undesirable side effects.
 
Any such events would increase our costs and could delay or prevent our ability to commercialize our product candidates, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Failure or delay in commencing or completing clinical trials for our product candidates could harm our business.
 
We have not completed all the clinical trials necessary to support an application with the FDA for approval to market any of our product candidates other than what we believe to be adequate clinical trials to support the


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marketing approval for AZ-004 in the United States. Future clinical trials may be delayed or terminated as a result of many factors, including:
 
  •  insufficient financial resources to fund such trials;
 
  •  delays or failure in reaching agreement on acceptable clinical trial contracts or clinical trial protocols with prospective sites;
 
  •  regulators or institutional review boards may not authorize us to commence a clinical trial;
 
  •  regulators or institutional review boards may suspend or terminate clinical research for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements or concerns about patient safety;
 
  •  we may suspend or terminate our clinical trials if we believe that they expose the participating patients to unacceptable health risks;
 
  •  we may experience slower than expected patient enrollment or lack of a sufficient number of patients that meet the enrollment criteria for our clinical trials;
 
  •  patients may not complete clinical trials due to safety issues, side effects, dissatisfaction with the product candidate, or other reasons;
 
  •  we may have difficulty in maintaining contact with patients after treatment, preventing us from collecting the data required by our study protocol;
 
  •  product candidates may demonstrate a lack of efficacy during clinical trials;
 
  •  we may experience governmental or regulatory delays, failure to obtain regulatory approval or changes in regulatory requirements, policy and guidelines; and
 
  •  we may experience delays in our ability to manufacture clinical trial materials in a timely manner as a result of ongoing process and design enhancements to our Staccato system.
 
Any delay in commencing or completing clinical trials for our product candidates would delay commercialization of our product candidates and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. It is possible that none of our product candidates will successfully complete clinical trials or receive regulatory approval, which would severely harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
If our product candidates do not meet safety and efficacy endpoints in clinical trials, they will not receive regulatory approval, and we will be unable to market them.
 
We have not yet received regulatory approval from the FDA or any foreign regulatory authority to market any of our product candidates. The clinical development and regulatory approval process is extremely expensive and takes many years. The timing of any approval cannot be accurately predicted. If we fail to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, we will be unable to market and sell them and therefore we may never be profitable. In October 2010 the FDA issued a CRL regarding our NDA for AZ-004. In December 2010, we met with the FDA to address the concerns raised in the CRL and have received official FDA minutes from the meeting. We expect to resubmit our NDA in July 2011 to address the FDA’s concerns outlined in the CRL. We may be unsuccessful in resolving these issues, and we may never receive marketing approval for AZ-004 or any of our product candidates as a result of the issues raised in the CRL.
 
As part of the regulatory process, we must conduct clinical trials for each product candidate to demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the FDA and other regulatory authorities abroad. The number and design of clinical trials that will be required varies depending on the product candidate, the condition being evaluated, the trial results and regulations applicable to any particular product candidate. In June 2008, we announced that our Phase 2a proof-of-concept clinical trial of AZ-002 (Staccato alprazolam) did not meet either of its two primary endpoints. In September 2009, we announced that our Phase 2b clinical trial of AZ-104 (Staccato loxapine, low-dose) for the treatment of migraine did not meet its primary endpoint.


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Prior clinical trial program designs and results are not necessarily predictive of future clinical trial designs or results. Initial results may not be confirmed upon full analysis of the detailed results of a trial. Product candidates in later stage clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy despite having progressed through initial clinical trials with acceptable endpoints. In the CRL, the FDA raised concerns regarding the safety of AZ-004 based on data from three Phase 1 pulmonary safety studies. If we do not resolve these concerns to the satisfaction of the FDA, AZ-004 will not be approved for marketing.
 
If our product candidates fail to show a clinically significant benefit compared to placebo, they will not be approved for marketing.
 
The design of our clinical trials is based on many assumptions about the expected effect of our product candidates, and if those assumptions prove incorrect, the clinical trials may not produce statistically significant results. Our Staccato system is not similar to other approved drug delivery methods, and there is no precedent for the application of detailed regulatory requirements to our product candidates. We cannot assure you that the design of, or data collected from, the clinical trials of our product candidates will be sufficient to support the FDA and foreign regulatory approvals.
 
Regulatory authorities may not approve our product candidates even if they meet safety and efficacy endpoints in clinical trials.
 
The FDA and other foreign regulatory agencies can delay, limit or deny marketing approval for many reasons, including:
 
  •  a product candidate may not be considered safe or effective;
 
  •  the manufacturing processes or facilities we have selected may not meet the applicable requirements; and
 
  •  changes in their approval policies or adoption of new regulations may require additional work on our part.
 
Part of the FDA approval process includes FDA inspections on manufacturing facilities to ensure adherence to applicable regulations. The FDA may delay, limit or deny marketing approval of our other product candidates as a result of such inspections. In August 2010 the FDA inspected our manufacturing facilities at our Mountain View headquarters. The CRL we received in October 2010 regarding our NDA for AZ-004 raised issues regarding our manufacturing processes that must be resolved before we will be allowed to market AZ-004.
 
Any delay in, or failure to receive or maintain, approval for any of our product candidates could prevent us from ever generating meaningful revenues or achieving profitability. The CRL we received in October 2010 conveyed the FDA’s comments regarding certain issues with our NDA, including Phase 1 pulmonary safety studies with AZ-004, stability studies and matters related to the inspection of our manufacturing faculties. We may never receive marketing approval for AZ-004 or any of our product candidates as a result of the issues raised in the CRL.
 
Our product candidates may not be approved even if they achieve their endpoints in clinical trials. Regulatory agencies, including the FDA, or their advisors may disagree with our trial design and our interpretations of data from preclinical studies and clinical trials. Regulatory agencies may change requirements for approval even after a clinical trial design has been approved. For example, AZ-004 and Alexza’s other product candidates combine drug and device components in a manner that the FDA considers to render them combination products under FDA regulations. The FDA exercises significant discretion over the regulation of combination products, including the discretion to require separate marketing applications for the drug and device components in a combination product. To date, Alexza’s products are being regulated as drug products under the new drug application process administered by the FDA. The FDA could in the future require additional regulation of Alexza’s products under the medical device provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
 
Regulatory agencies also may approve a product candidate for fewer or more limited indications than requested or may grant approval subject to the performance of post-marketing studies. In addition, regulatory agencies may not approve the labeling claims that are necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of our product candidates.


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Our product candidates will remain subject to ongoing regulatory review even if they receive marketing approval. If we fail to comply with continuing regulations, we could lose these approvals, and the sale of any future products could be suspended.
 
Even if we receive regulatory approval to market a particular product candidate, the FDA or a foreign regulatory authority could condition approval on conducting additional costly post-approval studies or trials or could limit the scope of our approved labeling or could impose burdensome post-approval obligations, such as those required under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS. If required, a REMS may include various elements, such as distribution of a medication guide or a patient package insert, implementation of a communication plan to educate healthcare providers of the drug’s risks, and imposition of limitations on who may prescribe or dispense the drug or other measures that the FDA deems necessary to assure the safe use of the drug. Moreover, the product may later cause adverse effects that limit or prevent its widespread use, force us to withdraw it from the market, cause the FDA to impose additional REMS obligations or impede or delay our ability to obtain regulatory approvals in additional countries. In addition, we will continue to be subject to FDA review and periodic inspections to ensure adherence to applicable regulations. After receiving marketing approval, the FDA imposes extensive regulatory requirements on the manufacturing, labeling, packaging, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising, promotion and record keeping related to the product.
 
If we fail to comply with the regulatory requirements of the FDA and other applicable U.S. and foreign regulatory authorities or previously unknown problems with any future products, suppliers or manufacturing processes are discovered, we could be subject to administrative or judicially imposed sanctions, including:
 
  •  restrictions on the products, suppliers or manufacturing processes;
 
  •  warning letters or untitled letters;
 
  •  civil or criminal penalties or fines;
 
  •  injunctions;
 
  •  product seizures, detentions or import bans;
 
  •  voluntary or mandatory product recalls and publicity requirements;
 
  •  suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals;
 
  •  total or partial suspension of production; and
 
  •  refusal to approve pending applications for marketing approval of new drugs or supplements to approved applications.
 
If we do not produce our devices cost effectively, we will never be profitable.
 
Our Staccato system based product candidates contain electronic and other components in addition to the active pharmaceutical ingredients. As a result of the cost of developing and producing these components, the cost to produce our product candidates, and any approved products, will likely be higher per dose than the cost to produce intravenous or oral tablet products. This increased cost of goods may prevent us from ever selling any products at a profit. In addition, we are developing single dose and multiple dose versions of our Staccato system. Developing multiple versions of our Staccato system may reduce or eliminate our ability to achieve manufacturing economies of scale. Developing multiple versions of our Staccato system reduces our ability to focus development resources on each version, potentially reducing our ability to effectively develop any particular version. We expect to continue to modify each of our product candidates throughout their clinical development to improve their performance, dependability, manufacturability and quality. Some of these modifications may require additional regulatory review and approval, which may delay or prevent us from conducting clinical trials. The development and production of our technology entail a number of technical challenges, including achieving adequate dependability, that may be expensive or time consuming to solve. Any delay in or failure to develop and manufacture any future products in a cost effective way could prevent us from generating any meaningful revenues and prevent us from becoming profitable.


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We rely on third parties to conduct our preclinical studies and our clinical trials. If these third parties do not perform as contractually required or expected, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, or we may be delayed in doing so.
 
We do not have the ability to conduct preclinical studies or clinical trials independently for our product candidates. We must rely on third parties, such as contract research organizations, medical institutions, academic institutions, clinical investigators and contract laboratories, to conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials. We are responsible for confirming that our preclinical studies are conducted in accordance with applicable regulations and that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with its general investigational plan and protocol. The FDA requires us to comply with regulations and standards, commonly referred to as good laboratory practices for conducting and recording the results of our preclinical studies and good clinical practices for conducting, monitoring, recording and reporting the results of clinical trials, to assure that data and reported results are accurate and that the clinical trial participants are adequately protected. Our reliance on third parties does not relieve us of these responsibilities. If the third parties conducting our clinical trials do not perform their contractual duties or obligations, do not meet expected deadlines, fail to comply with the FDA’s good clinical practice regulations, do not adhere to our clinical trial protocols or otherwise fail to generate reliable clinical data, we may need to enter into new arrangements with alternative third parties and our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated or may need to be repeated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize the product candidate being tested in such trials.
 
Problems with the third parties that manufacture the active pharmaceutical ingredients in our product candidates may delay our clinical trials or subject us to liability.
 
We do not currently own or operate manufacturing facilities for clinical or commercial production of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, used in any of our product candidates. We have no experience in drug manufacturing, and we lack the resources and the capability to manufacture any of the APIs used in our product candidates, on either a clinical or commercial scale. As a result, we rely on third parties to supply the API used in each of our product candidates. We expect to continue to depend on third parties to supply the API for our product candidates and any additional product candidates we develop in the foreseeable future.
 
An API manufacturer must meet high precision and quality standards for that API to meet regulatory specifications and comply with regulatory requirements. A contract manufacturer is subject to ongoing periodic unannounced inspection by the FDA and corresponding state and foreign authorities to ensure strict compliance with current good manufacturing practice, or cGMP, and other applicable government regulations and corresponding foreign standards. Additionally, a contract manufacturer must pass a pre-approval inspection by the FDA to ensure strict compliance with cGMP prior to the FDA’s approval of any product candidate for marketing. A contract manufacturer’s failure to conform with cGMP could result in the FDA’s refusal to approve or a delay in the FDA’s approval of a product candidate for marketing. We are ultimately responsible for confirming that the APIs used in our product candidates are manufactured in accordance with applicable regulations.
 
Our third party suppliers may not carry out their contractual obligations or meet our deadlines. In addition, the API they supply to us may not meet our specifications and quality policies and procedures. If we need to find alternative suppliers of the API used in any of our product candidates, we may not be able to contract for such supplies on acceptable terms, if at all. Any such failure to supply or delay caused by such contract manufacturers would have an adverse effect on our ability to continue clinical development of our product candidates or commercialize any future products.
 
If our third party drug suppliers fail to achieve and maintain high manufacturing standards in compliance with cGMP regulations, we could be subject to certain product liability claims in the event such failure to comply resulted in defective products that caused injury or harm.
 
If we experience problems with the manufacturers of components of our product candidates, our development programs may be delayed or we may be subject to liability.
 
We outsource the manufacturing of the components of our Staccato system, including the printed circuit boards, the plastic airways, and the chemical heat packages to be used in our commercial single dose device. We


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have no experience in the manufacturing of components, other than our chemical heat packages, and we currently lack the resources and the capability to manufacture them, on either a clinical or commercial scale. As a result, we rely on third parties to supply these components. We expect to continue to depend on third parties to supply these components for our current product candidates and any devices based on the Staccato system we develop in the foreseeable future.
 
The third-party suppliers of the components of our Staccato system must meet high precision and quality standards for our finished devices to comply with regulatory requirements. A contract manufacturer is subject to ongoing periodic unannounced inspection by the FDA and corresponding state and foreign authorities to ensure that our finished devices remain in strict compliance with the QSR, which sets forth the FDA’s current good manufacturing practice requirements for medical devices, and other applicable government regulations and corresponding foreign standards. We are ultimately responsible for confirming that the components used in the Staccato system are manufactured in accordance with specifications, standards and procedures necessary to ensure that our finished devices comply with the QSR or other applicable regulations.
 
Our third party suppliers may not comply with their contractual obligations or meet our deadlines, or the components they supply to us may not meet our specifications and quality policies and procedures. If we need to find alternative suppliers of the components used in the Staccato system, we may not be able to contract for such components on acceptable terms, if at all. Any such failure to supply or delay caused by such contract manufacturers would have an adverse affect on our ability to continue clinical development of our product candidates or commercialize any future products.
 
In addition, the heat packages used in the single dose version of our Staccato system are manufactured using certain energetic, or highly combustible, materials that are used to generate the rapid heating necessary for vaporizing the drug compound while avoiding degradation. Manufacture of products containing energetic materials is regulated by the U.S. government. We have entered into a manufacture agreement with Autoliv for the manufacture of the heat packages in the commercial design of our single dose version of our Staccato system. If Autoliv fails to manufacture the heat packages to the necessary specifications, or does not carry out its contractual obligations to supply our heat packages to us, or if the FDA requires different manufacturing or quality standards than those set forth in our manufacture agreement, our clinical trials or commercialization efforts may be delayed, suspended or terminated while we seek additional suitable manufacturers of our heat packages, which may prevent us from commercializing our product candidates that utilize the single dose version of the Staccato system.
 
If we do not establish additional strategic partnerships, we will have to undertake development and commercialization efforts on our own, which would be costly and delay our ability to commercialize any future products.
 
A key element of our business strategy is our intent to selectively partner with pharmaceutical, biotechnology and other companies to obtain assistance for the development and potential commercialization of our product candidates. In December 2006, we entered into such a development relationship with Symphony Allegro, Inc., or Allegro, and in December 2007 we entered into a strategic relationship with Endo Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Endo, for the development of AZ-003, or the Endo license agreement. In January 2009, we mutually agreed with Endo to terminate the Endo license agreement. In June 2009, we amended the terms of our option agreement with Allegro, resulting in our acquisition of Allegro and the termination of the agreement in August 2009. In February 2010, we entered into a collaboration with Biovail for the commercialization of AZ-004 in the United States and Canada. In October 2010, Biovail gave us notice that it was terminating the collaboration and the collaboration terminated in January 2011. In August 2010, we entered into a license and development agreement with Cypress for Staccato nicotine. We intend to enter into additional strategic partnerships with third parties to develop and commercialize our product candidates. Other than Cypress, we do not currently have any strategic partnerships for any of our product candidates. We face significant competition in seeking appropriate strategic partners, and these strategic partnerships can be intricate and time consuming to negotiate and document. We may not be able to negotiate additional strategic partnerships on acceptable terms, or at all. We are unable to predict when, if ever, we will enter into any additional strategic partnerships because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with establishing strategic partnerships. If we are unable to negotiate additional strategic partnerships for our product candidates we may be forced to curtail the development of a particular candidate, reduce or delay its development


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program or one or more of our other development programs, delay its potential commercialization, reduce the scope of our sales or marketing activities or undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. In addition, we will bear all the risk related to the development of that product candidate. If we elect to increase our expenditures to fund development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If we do not have sufficient funds, we will not be able to bring our product candidates to market and generate product revenue.
 
If we enter into additional strategic partnerships, we may be required to relinquish important rights to and control over the development of our product candidates or otherwise be subject to terms unfavorable to us.
 
Our relationship with Cypress is, and any other strategic partnerships or collaborations with pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies we may establish will be, subject to a number of risks including:
 
  •  business combinations or significant changes in a strategic partner’s business strategy may adversely affect a strategic partner’s willingness or ability to complete its obligations under any arrangement;
 
  •  we may not be able to control the amount and timing of resources that our strategic partners devote to the development or commercialization of product candidates;
 
  •  strategic partners may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding, terminate a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new version of a product candidate for clinical testing;
 
  •  strategic partners may not pursue further development and commercialization of products resulting from the strategic partnering arrangement or may elect to discontinue research and development programs;
 
  •  strategic partners may not commit adequate resources to the marketing and distribution of any future products, limiting our potential revenues from these products;
 
  •  disputes may arise between us and our strategic partners that result in the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our product candidates or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management’s attention and consumes resources;
 
  •  strategic partners may experience financial difficulties;
 
  •  strategic partners may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information in a manner that could jeopardize or invalidate our proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation;
 
  •  strategic partners could independently move forward with a competing product candidate developed either independently or in collaboration with others, including our competitors; and
 
  •  strategic partners could terminate the arrangement or allow it to expire, which would delay the development and may increase the cost of developing our product candidates.
 
If we fail to gain market acceptance among physicians, patients, third-party payors and the medical community, we will not become profitable.
 
The Staccato system is a fundamentally new method of drug delivery. Any future product based on our Staccato system may not gain market acceptance among physicians, patients, third-party payors and the medical community. If these products do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance, we will not generate sufficient product revenues to become profitable. The degree of market acceptance of any of our product candidates, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including:
 
  •  demonstration of efficacy and safety in clinical trials;
 
  •  the existence, prevalence and severity of any side effects;
 
  •  potential or perceived advantages or disadvantages compared to alternative treatments;


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  •  perceptions about the relationship or similarity between our product candidates and the parent drug compound upon which each product candidate is based;
 
  •  the timing of market entry relative to competitive treatments;
 
  •  the ability to offer any future products for sale at competitive prices;
 
  •  relative convenience, product dependability and ease of administration;
 
  •  the strength of marketing and distribution support;
 
  •  the sufficiency of coverage and reimbursement of our product candidates by governmental and other third-party payors; and
 
  •  the product labeling, including the package insert, and the marketing restrictions required by the FDA or regulatory authorities in other countries.
 
Our product candidates that we may develop may require expensive carcinogenicity tests.
 
We combine small molecule drugs with our Staccato system to create proprietary product candidates. Some of these drugs may not have previously undergone carcinogenicity testing that is now generally required for marketing approval. We may be required to perform carcinogenicity testing with product candidates incorporating drugs that have not undergone carcinogenicity testing or may be required to do additional carcinogenicity testing for drugs that have undergone such testing. Any carcinogenicity testing we are required to complete will increase the costs to develop a particular product candidate and may delay or halt the development of such product candidate.
 
If some or all of our patents expire, are invalidated or are unenforceable, or if some or all of our patent applications do not yield issued patents or yield patents with narrow claims, competitors may develop competing products using our or similar intellectual property and our business will suffer.
 
Our success will depend in part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent and trade secret protection for our technologies and product candidates both in the United States and other countries. We do not know whether any patents will issue from any of our pending or future patent applications. In addition, a third party may successfully circumvent our patents. Our rights under any issued patents may not provide us with sufficient protection against competitive products or otherwise cover commercially valuable products or processes.
 
The degree of protection for our proprietary technologies and product candidates is uncertain because legal means afford only limited protection and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep our competitive advantage. For example:
 
  •  we might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by each of our pending patent applications and issued patents;
 
  •  we might not have been the first to file patent applications for these inventions;
 
  •  others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies;
 
  •  the claims of our issued patents may be narrower than as filed and not sufficiently broad to prevent third parties from circumventing them;
 
  •  it is possible that none of our pending patent applications will result in issued patents;
 
  •  we may not develop additional proprietary technologies or drug candidates that are patentable;
 
  •  our patent applications or patents may be subject to interference, opposition or similar administrative proceedings;
 
  •  any patents issued to us or our potential strategic partners may not provide a basis for commercially viable products or may be challenged by third parties in the course of litigation or administrative proceedings such as reexaminations or interferences; and
 
  •  the patents of others may have an adverse effect on our ability to do business.


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Even if valid and enforceable patents cover our product candidates and technologies, the patents will provide protection only for a limited amount of time.
 
Our potential strategic partners’ ability to obtain patents is uncertain because, to date, some legal principles remain unresolved, there has not been a consistent policy regarding the breadth or interpretation of claims allowed in patents in the United States, and the specific content of patents and patent applications that are necessary to support and interpret patent claims is highly uncertain due to the complex nature of the relevant legal, scientific and factual issues. Furthermore, the policies governing pharmaceutical and medical device patents outside the United States may be even more uncertain. Changes in either patent laws or interpretations of patent laws in the United States and other countries may diminish the value of our intellectual property or narrow the scope of our patent protection.
 
Our current patents or any future patents that may be issued regarding our product candidates or methods of using them, can be challenged by our competitors who can argue that our patents are invalid and/or unenforceable. Third parties may challenge our rights to, or the scope or validity of, our patents. Patents also may not protect our product candidates if competitors devise ways of making these or similar product candidates without legally infringing our patents. The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and the FDA regulations and policies provide incentives to manufacturers to challenge patent validity or create modified, non-infringing versions of a drug or device in order to facilitate the approval of generic substitutes. These same types of incentives encourage manufacturers to submit new drug applications that rely on literature and clinical data not prepared for or by the drug sponsor.
 
We also rely on trade secrets to protect our technology, especially where we do not believe that patent protection is appropriate or obtainable. However, trade secrets are difficult to protect. The employees, consultants, contractors, outside scientific collaborators and other advisors of our company and our strategic partners may unintentionally or willfully disclose our confidential information to competitors. Enforcing a claim that a third party illegally obtained and is using our trade secrets is expensive and time consuming and the outcome is unpredictable. Failure to protect or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.
 
Our research and development collaborators may have rights to publish data and other information in which we have rights. In addition, we sometimes engage individuals or entities to conduct research that may be relevant to our business. The ability of these individuals or entities to publish or otherwise publicly disclose data and other information generated during the course of their research is subject to certain contractual limitations. These contractual provisions may be insufficient or inadequate to protect our trade secrets and may impair our patent rights. If we do not apply for patent protection prior to such publication or if we cannot otherwise maintain the confidentiality of our technology and other confidential information, then our ability to receive patent protection or protect our proprietary information may be jeopardized.
 
Litigation or other proceedings or third party claims of intellectual property infringement could require us to spend time and money and could shut down some of our operations.
 
Our commercial success depends in part on not infringing patents and proprietary rights of third parties. Others have filed, and in the future are likely to file, patent applications covering products that are similar to our product candidates, as well as methods of making or using similar or identical products. If these patent applications result in issued patents and we wish to use the claimed technology, we would need to obtain a license from the third party. We may not be able to obtain these licenses at a reasonable cost, if at all.
 
In addition, administrative proceedings, such as interferences and reexaminations before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, could limit the scope of our patent rights. We may incur substantial costs and diversion of management and technical personnel as a result of our involvement in such proceedings. In particular, our patents and patent applications may be subject to interferences in which the priority of invention may be awarded to a third party. We do not know whether our patents and patent applications would be entitled to priority over patents or patent applications held by such a third party. Our issued patents may also be subject to reexamination proceedings. We do not know whether our patents would survive reexamination in light of new questions of patentability that may be raised following their issuance.


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Third parties may assert that we are employing their proprietary technology or their proprietary products without authorization. In addition, third parties may already have or may obtain patents in the future and claim that use of our technologies or our products infringes these patents. We could incur substantial costs and diversion of management and technical personnel in defending our self against any of these claims. Furthermore, parties making claims against us may be able to obtain injunctive or other equitable relief, which could effectively block our ability to further develop, commercialize and sell any future products and could result in the award of substantial damages against us. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may be required to pay damages and obtain one or more licenses from third parties. We may not be able to obtain these licenses at a reasonable cost, if at all. In that event, we could encounter delays in product introductions while we attempt to develop alternative methods or products. In the event we cannot develop alternative methods or products, we may be effectively blocked from developing, commercializing or selling any future products. Defense of any lawsuit or failure to obtain any of these licenses would be expensive and could prevent us from commercializing any future products.
 
We review from time to time publicly available information concerning the technological development efforts of other companies in our industry. If we determine that these efforts violate our intellectual property or other rights, we intend to take appropriate action, which could include litigation. Any action we take could result in substantial costs and diversion of management and technical personnel in enforcing our patents or other intellectual property rights against others. Furthermore, the outcome of any action we take to protect our rights may not be resolved in our favor.
 
Competition in the pharmaceutical industry is intense. If our competitors are able to develop and market products that are more effective, safer or less costly than any future products that we may develop, our commercial opportunity will be reduced or eliminated.
 
We face competition from established as well as emerging pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, government agencies and private and public research institutions. Our commercial opportunity will be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer side effects or are less expensive than any future products that we may develop and commercialize. In addition, significant delays in the development of our product candidates could allow our competitors to bring products to market before us and impair our ability to commercialize our product candidates.
 
We anticipate that, if approved, AZ-004 would compete with the available forms of loxapine and other available antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of agitation, such as intramuscular formulations, oral tablets and oral solutions.
 
We anticipate that, if approved, AZ-007 would compete with non-benzodiazepine GABA-A receptor agonists. We are also aware of more than 10 approved generic versions of zolpidem oral tablets, as well as at least one insomnia product that is under review by the FDA. Also, we are aware that a company has received a complete response letter from the FDA with respect to a version of zolpidem intended to treat middle of the night awakening. Additionally, we are aware of four products in Phase 3 development for the treatment of insomnia.
 
We anticipate that, if approved, AZ-104 would compete with currently marketed triptan drugs and with other migraine headache treatments. In addition, we are aware of at least 15 product candidates in development for the treatment of migraines, one of which is an inhaled formulation.
 
We anticipate that, if approved, AZ-003 would compete with some of the available forms of fentanyl, including injectable fentanyl, oral transmucosal fentanyl formulations and ionophoretic transdermal delivery of fentanyl. We are also aware of three fentanyl products under review by regulatory agencies either in the United States or abroad, and at least 14 products in Phase 3 clinical trial development for acute pain, four of which are fentanyl products. There are two inhaled forms of fentanyl products that are in at least Phase 2 development. In addition, if approved, AZ-003 would compete with various generic opioid drugs, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone and morphine, or combination products including one or more of such drugs.
 
We anticipate that, if approved, AZ-002 would compete with the oral tablet form of alprazolam and possibly IV and oral forms of other benzodiazepines.


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Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved products than we do. Established pharmaceutical companies may invest heavily to discover quickly and develop novel compounds or drug delivery technology that could make our product candidates obsolete. Smaller or early stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through strategic partnerships with large and established companies. In addition, these third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies and technology licenses complementary to our programs or advantageous to our business. Accordingly, our competitors may succeed in obtaining patent protection, receiving FDA approval or discovering, developing and commercializing products before we do. If we are not able to compete effectively against our current and future competitors, our business will not grow and our financial condition will suffer.
 
If we are unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities or enter into additional agreements with third parties to market and sell our product candidates, we may be unable to generate significant product revenue.
 
We do not have an internal sales organization and we have no experience in the sales and distribution of pharmaceutical products. There are risks involved with establishing our own sales capabilities and increasing our marketing capabilities, as well as entering into arrangements with third parties to perform these services. Developing an internal sales force is expensive and time consuming and could delay any product launch. On the other hand, if we enter into arrangements with third parties to perform sales, marketing and distribution services, our product revenues or the profitability of these product revenues are likely to be lower than if we market and sell any products that we develop ourselves.
 
We may establish our own specialty sales force and/or engage additional pharmaceutical or other healthcare companies with an existing sales and marketing organization and distribution systems to sell, market and distribute any future products. We are currently seeking partners for the worldwide development and commercialization of AZ-004. We also intend to seek international distribution partners for our product candidates. We may not be able to establish a specialty sales force or establish sales and distribution relationships on acceptable terms. Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize any future products without strategic partners or licensees include:
 
  •  our inability to recruit and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;
 
  •  the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to or persuade adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe any future products;
 
  •  the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines; and
 
  •  unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent sales and marketing organization.
 
Because the establishment of sales and marketing capabilities depends on the progress towards commercialization of our product candidates and because of the numerous risks and uncertainties involved with establishing our own sales and marketing capabilities, we are unable to predict when, if ever, we will establish our own sales and marketing capabilities. If we are not able to partner with additional third parties and are unsuccessful in recruiting sales and marketing personnel or in building a sales and marketing infrastructure, we will have difficulty commercializing our product candidates, which would adversely affect our business and financial condition.
 
If we lose our key personnel or are unable to attract and retain additional personnel, we may be unable to develop or commercialize our product candidates.
 
We are highly dependent on our President and Chief Executive Officer, Thomas B. King, the loss of whose services might adversely impact the achievement of our objectives. In addition, recruiting and retaining qualified clinical, scientific and engineering personnel to manage clinical trials of our product candidates and to perform future research and development work will be critical to our success. There is currently a shortage of skilled executives in our industry, which is likely to continue. As a result, competition for skilled personnel is intense and


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the turnover rate can be high. Although we believe we will be successful in attracting and retaining qualified personnel, competition for experienced management and clinical, scientific and engineering personnel from numerous companies and academic and other research institutions may limit our ability to do so on acceptable terms. In addition, we do not have employment agreements with any of our employees, and they could leave our employment at will. We have change of control agreements with our executive officers and vice presidents that provide for certain benefits upon termination or a change in role or responsibility in connection with a change of control of our company. We do not maintain life insurance policies on any employees. Failure to attract and retain personnel would prevent us from developing and commercializing our product candidates.
 
If plaintiffs bring product liability lawsuits against us, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be required to limit commercialization of the product candidates that we may develop.
 
We face an inherent risk of product liability as a result of the clinical testing of our product candidates in clinical trials and will face an even greater risk if we commercialize any products. We may be held liable if any product we develop causes injury or is found otherwise unsuitable during product testing, manufacturing, marketing or sale. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in decreased demand for any product candidates or products that we may develop, injury to our reputation, withdrawal of clinical trials, costs to defend litigation, substantial monetary awards to clinical trial participants or patients, loss of revenue and the inability to commercialize any products that we develop. We have product liability insurance that covers our clinical trials up to a $10 million aggregate annual limit. We intend to expand product liability insurance coverage to include the sale of commercial products if we obtain marketing approval for AZ-004 or any other products that we may develop. However, this insurance may be prohibitively expensive, or may not fully cover our potential liabilities. Inability to obtain sufficient insurance coverage at an acceptable cost or otherwise to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or delay the commercialization of our product candidates. If we are sued for any injury caused by any future products, our liability could exceed our total assets.
 
Healthcare law and policy changes, based on recently enacted legislation, may have an adverse effect on us.
 
Healthcare costs have risen significantly over the past decade. In March 2010, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, or, collectively, the Healthcare Reform Act. This law substantially changes the way health care is financed by both governmental and private insurers, and significantly impacts the pharmaceutical industry. The Healthcare Reform Act contains a number of provisions that are expected to impact our business and operations, including provisions governing enrollment in federal healthcare programs, reimbursement and discount programs and fraud and abuse prevention and control, which will impact existing government healthcare programs and will result in the development of new programs, including Medicare payment for performance initiatives and improvements to the physician quality reporting system and feedback program. We anticipate that if we obtain approval for our product candidates, some of our revenue and the revenue from our collaborators may be derived from U.S. government healthcare programs, including Medicare. Additionally, in 2009, the Department of Defense implemented a program pursuant to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 that requires rebates, based on Federal statutory pricing, from manufacturers of innovator drugs and biologics. Furthermore, beginning in 2011, the Healthcare Reform Act imposes a non-deductible fee treated as an excise tax on pharmaceutical manufacturers or importers who sell “branded prescription drugs,” which includes innovator drugs and biologics (excluding certain orphan drugs, generics and over-the-counter drugs) to U.S. government programs. We expect that the Healthcare Reform Act and other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future could have an adverse effect on our industry generally and our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates or could limit or eliminate our spending on development projects.
 
In addition to this legislation, there will continue to be proposals by legislators at both the federal and state levels, regulators and third-party payors to keep these costs down while expanding individual healthcare benefits. Certain of these changes could impose limitations on the prices we will be able to charge for any product candidates that are approved or the amounts of reimbursement available for these products from governmental agencies or third-party payors, or may increase the tax obligations on life sciences companies such as ours. While it is too early to predict specifically what effect the Health Reform Act and its implementation or any future legislation or policies


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will have on our business, we believe that healthcare reform may have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
 
Our product candidates AZ-002, AZ-003 and AZ-007 contain drug substances that are regulated by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Failure to comply with applicable regulations and requirements could harm our business.
 
The Controlled Substances Act imposes various registration, recordkeeping and reporting requirements, procurement and manufacturing quotas, labeling and packaging requirements, security controls and a restriction on prescription refills on certain pharmaceutical products. A principal factor in determining the particular requirements, if any, applicable to a product is its actual or potential abuse profile. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, or DEA, regulates chemical compounds as Schedule I, II, III, IV or V substances, with Schedule I substances considered to present the highest risk of substance abuse and Schedule V substances the lowest risk. Alprazolam, the API in AZ-002, is regulated as a Schedule IV substance, fentanyl, the API in AZ-003, is regulated as a Schedule II substance, and zaleplon, the API in AZ-007, is regulated as a Schedule IV substance. Each of these product candidates is subject to DEA regulations relating to manufacture, storage, distribution and physician prescription procedures, and the DEA may regulate the amount of the scheduled substance that would be available for clinical trials and commercial distribution. As a Schedule II substance, fentanyl is subject to more stringent controls, including quotas on the amount of product that can be manufactured as well as a prohibition on the refilling of prescriptions without a new prescription from the physician. The DEA periodically inspects facilities for compliance with its rules and regulations. Failure to comply with current and future regulations of the DEA could lead to a variety of sanctions, including revocation, or denial of renewal, of DEA registrations, injunctions, or civil or criminal penalties and could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
The single dose version of our Staccato system contains materials that are regulated by the U.S. government, and failure to comply with applicable regulations could harm our business.
 
The single dose version of our Staccato system uses energetic materials to generate the rapid heating necessary for vaporizing the drug, while avoiding degradation. Manufacture of products containing energetic materials is controlled by the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, or ATF. Technically, the energetic materials used in our Staccato system are classified as “low explosives,” and the ATF has granted us a license/permit for the manufacture of such low explosives. Additionally, due to inclusion of the energetic materials in our Staccato system, the U.S. Department of Transportation, or DOT, regulates shipments of the single dose version of our Staccato system. The DOT has granted the single dose version of our Staccato system “Not Regulated as an Explosive” status. Failure to comply with the current and future regulations of the ATF or DOT could subject us to future liabilities and could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, these regulations could restrict our ability to expand our facilities or construct new facilities or could require us to incur other significant expenses in order to maintain compliance.
 
We use hazardous chemicals and highly combustible materials in our business. Any claims relating to improper handling, storage or disposal of these materials could be time consuming and costly.
 
Our research and development processes involve the controlled use of hazardous materials, including chemicals. We also use energetic materials in the manufacture of the chemical heat packages that are used in our single dose devices. Our operations produce hazardous waste products. We cannot eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or discharge or injury from these materials. Federal, state and local laws and regulations govern the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these materials. We could be subject to civil damages in the event of an improper or unauthorized release of, or exposure of individuals to, hazardous materials. In addition, claimants may sue us for injury or contamination that results from our use or the use by third parties of these materials and our liability may exceed our total assets. Compliance with environmental and other laws and regulations may be expensive, and current or future regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts.
 
Certain of our suppliers are working with these types of hazardous and energetic materials in connection with our component manufacturing agreements. In the event of a lawsuit or investigation, we could be held responsible


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for any injury caused to persons or property by exposure to, or release of, these hazardous and energetic materials. Further, under certain circumstances, we have agreed to indemnify our suppliers against damages and other liabilities arising out of development activities or products produced in connection with these agreements.
 
We will need to implement additional finance and accounting systems, procedures and controls in the future as we grow and to satisfy new reporting requirements.
 
The laws and regulations affecting public companies, including the current provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Sarbanes-Oxley, and rules enacted and proposed by the SEC and by The NASDAQ Global Market, will result in increased costs to us as we continue to undertake efforts to comply with rules and respond to the requirements applicable to public companies. The rules make it more difficult and costly for us to obtain certain types of insurance, including director and officer liability insurance, and we may be forced to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage as compared to the polices previously available to public companies. The impact of these events could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or our board committees or as executive officers.
 
As a public company, we need to comply with Sarbanes-Oxley and the related rules and regulations of the SEC, including expanded disclosure, accelerated reporting requirements and more complex accounting rules. Compliance with Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley and other requirements will continue to increase our costs and require additional management resources. We have been upgrading our finance and accounting systems, procedures and controls and will need to continue to implement additional finance and accounting systems, procedures and controls as we grow to satisfy new reporting requirements. We currently do not have an internal audit group. In addition, we may need to hire additional legal and accounting staff with appropriate experience and technical knowledge, and we cannot assure you that if additional staffing is necessary that we will be able to do so in a timely fashion.
 
Our business is subject to increasingly complex corporate governance, public disclosure and accounting requirements that could adversely affect our business and financial results.
 
We are subject to changing rules and regulations of federal and state government as well as the stock exchange on which our common stock is listed. These entities, including the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, the SEC and The NASDAQ Global Market, have issued a significant number of new and increasingly complex requirements and regulations over the course of the last several years and continue to develop additional regulations and requirements in response to laws enacted by Congress. On July 21, 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Protection Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act, was enacted. The Dodd-Frank Act contains significant corporate governance and executive compensation-related provisions, some of which the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, has recently implemented by adopting additional rules and regulations in areas such as the compensation of executives (“say-on-pay”). We cannot assure you that we are or will be in compliance with all potentially applicable regulations. If we fail to comply with the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002, the Dodd-Frank Act and associated SEC rules, or any other regulations, we could be subject to a range of consequences, including restrictions on our ability to sell equity securities or otherwise raise capital funds, the de-listing of our common stock from The NASDAQ Global Market, suspension or termination of our clinical trials, failure to obtain approval to market AZ-004, restrictions on future products or our manufacturing processes, significant fines, or other sanctions or litigation. Our efforts to comply with these requirements have resulted in, and are likely to continue to result in, an increase in expenses and a diversion of management’s time from other business activities.
 
Our facilities are located near known earthquake fault zones, and the occurrence of an earthquake or other catastrophic disaster could damage our facilities and equipment, which could cause us to curtail or cease operations.
 
Our facilities are located in the San Francisco Bay Area near known earthquake fault zones and, therefore, are vulnerable to damage from earthquakes. We are also vulnerable to damage from other types of disasters, such as power loss, fire, floods and similar events. If any disaster were to occur, our ability to operate our business could be seriously impaired. We currently may not have adequate insurance to cover our losses resulting from disasters or other similar significant business interruptions, and we do not plan to purchase additional insurance to cover such


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losses due to the cost of obtaining such coverage. Any significant losses that are not recoverable under our insurance policies could seriously impair our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Risks Relating to Owning Our Common Stock
 
Our stock price has been and may continue to be extremely volatile.
 
Our common stock price has experienced large fluctuations. In addition, the trading prices of life science and biotechnology company stocks in general have experienced extreme price fluctuations in recent years. The valuations of many life science companies without consistent product revenues and earnings are extraordinarily high based on conventional valuation standards, such as price to revenue ratios. These trading prices and valuations may not be sustained. Any negative change in the public’s perception of the prospects of life science or biotechnology companies could depress our stock price regardless of our results of operations. Other broad market and industry factors may decrease the trading price of our common stock, regardless of our performance. Market fluctuations, as well as general political and economic conditions such as terrorism, military conflict, recession or interest rate or currency rate fluctuations, also may decrease the trading price of our common stock. In addition, our stock price could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, including:
 
  •  actual or anticipated regulatory approvals or non-approvals of our product candidates or competing products;
 
  •  actual or anticipated cash depletion of our financial resources
 
  •  actual or anticipated results and timing of our clinical trials;
 
  •  changes in laws or regulations applicable to our product candidates;
 
  •  changes in the expected or actual timing of our development programs, including delays or cancellations of clinical trials for our product candidates;
 
  •  period to period fluctuations in our operating results;
 
  •  announcements of new technological innovations or new products by us or our competitors;
 
  •  changes in financial estimates or recommendations by securities analysts;
 
  •  sales results for AZ-004, if it is approved for marketing;
 
  •  conditions or trends in the life science and biotechnology industries;
 
  •  changes in the market valuations of other life science or biotechnology companies;
 
  •  developments in domestic and international governmental policy or regulations;
 
  •  announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
 
  •  additions or departures of key personnel;
 
  •  disputes or other developments relating to proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters and our ability to obtain patent protection for our technologies;
 
  •  sales of our common stock (or other securities) by us; and
 
  •  sales and distributions of our common stock by our stockholders.
 
In the past, stockholders have often instituted securities class action litigation after periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities. If a stockholder files a securities class action suit against us, we would incur substantial legal fees, and our management’s attention and resources would be diverted from operating our business in order to respond to the litigation.


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If we sell shares of our common stock in future financings, existing common stockholders will experience immediate dilution and, as a result, our stock price may go down.
 
We will need to raise additional capital to fund our operations, to develop our product candidates and to develop our manufacturing capabilities. We may obtain such financing through the sale of our equity securities from time to time. As a result, our existing common stockholders will experience immediate dilution upon any such issuance. For example, in August 2009 we issued 10,000,000 shares of our common stock and warrants to purchase an additional 5,000,000 shares of our common stock in connection with the closing of our acquisition of all of the equity of Symphony Allegro, Inc., in October 2009 we issued 8,107,012 shares of our common stock and warrants to purchase an additional 7,296,312 shares of our common stock in a private placement, in May 2010 we issued a warrant to purchase 376,394 shares of our common stock in connection with a secured term debt financing, and in August 2010 we issued 6,685,183 shares of our common stock and warrants to purchase up to an additional 3,342,589 shares of our common stock in a registered direct offering. Additionally, in May 2010, we entered into a common stock purchase agreement with Azimuth that provides that, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth therein, Azimuth is committed to purchase up to 8,936,550 shares of our common stock at times and in amounts determined by us. If we enter into other financing transactions in which we issue equity securities in the future, our existing common stockholders will experience immediate dilution upon any such issuance.
 
If we fail to continue to comply with the listing requirements of The NASDAQ Global Market, the price of our common stock and our ability to access the capital markets could be negatively impacted.
 
Our common stock is currently listed on The NASDAQ Global Market. To maintain the listing of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Market we are required to meet certain listing requirements, including, among others, either: (i) a minimum closing bid price of $1.00 per share, a market value of publicly held shares (excluding shares held by our executive officers, directors and 10% or more stockholders) of at least $5 million and stockholders’ equity of at least $10 million; or (ii) a minimum closing bid price of $1.00 per share, a market value of publicly held shares (excluding shares held by our executive officers, directors and 10% or more stockholders) of at least $15 million and a total market value of listed securities of at least $50 million. As of March 11, 2011, the closing bid price of our common stock was $1.27 the total market value of our publicly held shares of our common stock (excluding shares held by our executive officers, directors and 10% or more stockholders) was $59.8 million and the total market value of our listed securities was $76.1 million. As of December 31, 2010, we had stockholders’ equity of $12.3 million. In addition, as recently as December 2010 the bid price of our common stock has been as low as $0.86 per share. If the closing bid price of our common stock is below $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive business days, we could be subject to delisting from The NASDAQ Global Market. Not maintaining our listing on The NASDAQ Global Market may result in a decrease in the trading price of our common stock, lessen interest by institutions and individuals in investing in our common stock, make it more difficult to obtain analyst coverage and make it more difficult for us to raise capital in the future.
 
Item 1B.   Unresolved Staff Comments
 
None.
 
Item 2.   Properties
 
We lease two buildings with an aggregate of 106,894 square feet of manufacturing, office, and laboratory facilities in Mountain View, California, which we began to occupy in the fourth quarter of 2007. We currently sublease 19,334 square feet, 20,956 square feet and 2,500 square feet, reducing the space we occupy to 64,104 square feet. The lease for both facilities expires on March 31, 2018, and we have two options to extend the lease for five years each. Our sublease agreements, as amended, expire on April 30, 2011 with regards to 19,334 square feet and on February 28, 2014 with regards to 20,956 square feet. We believe that the Mountain View facilities are sufficient for our office, manufacturing and laboratory needs for at least the next three years.
 
Item 3.   Legal Proceedings
 
None.


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Item 4.   Reserved
 
Not applicable.
 
PART II
 
Item 5.   Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Item 5A.   Quarterly Stock Price Information and Registered Shareholders
 
Our common stock trades on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “ALXA.” The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low sales prices of our common stock.
 
                 
2010
  High   Low
 
First Quarter
  $ 2.96     $ 2.30  
Second Quarter
    3.92       2.65  
Third Quarter
    3.64       2.42  
Fourth Quarter
    3.26       0.86  
 
                 
2009
  High     Low  
 
First Quarter
  $ 3.40     $ 1.40  
Second Quarter
    3.25       1.50  
Third Quarter
    3.01       1.90  
Fourth Quarter
    2.55       1.93  
 
As of December 31, 2010, there were 181 holders of record of our common stock. We have not paid cash dividends on our common stock since our inception, and we do not anticipate paying any in the foreseeable future.
 
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
 
None.


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Performance Graph
 
The graph below matches the cumulative 58-month total return of holders of Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc.’s common stock with the cumulative total returns of the NASDAQ Composite index and the NASDAQ Biotechnology index. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in Alexza’s common stock and in each of the indexes (including reinvestment of dividends) was $100 on 3/8/2006 and tracks it through 12/31/2010.
 
COMPARISON OF 58 MONTH CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc., the NASDAQ Composite Index
and the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index
 
(PERFORMANCE GRAPH)
 
$100 invested on 3/8/06 in stock or 2/28/06 in index, including reinvestment of dividends.
 
Fiscal year ending December 31.
 
                                                                                                               
      3/06     3/06     4/06     5/06     6/06     7/06     8/06     9/06     10/06     11/06     12/06
Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 
      100.00         114.57         105.76         95.89         86.13         86.02         82.26         94.48         95.53         98.24         133.84  
NASDAQ Composite
      100.00         103.06         102.55         96.46         96.33         93.16         97.27         100.68         105.79         108.88         108.57  
NASDAQ Biotechnology
      100.00         98.71         93.10         89.42         88.02         90.35         90.59         92.70         98.13         96.98         94.80  
                                                                                                               
 
                                                                                                                                   
1/07     2/07     3/07     4/07     5/07     6/07     7/07     8/07     9/07     10/07     11/07     12/07     1/08     2/08
113.40
      117.74         151.12         126.79         113.75         97.18         103.17         96.47         101.76         95.65         102.94         95.06         74.03         74.27  
110.98
      108.96         109.14         113.77         117.24         117.80         115.15         117.48         123.28         130.68         121.28         121.13         108.95         103.59  
98.05
      95.04         92.46         100.59         99.12         96.72         95.82         97.12         103.07         107.49         104.33         98.01         96.15         95.00  
                                                                                                                                   
 
                                                                                                                                   
3/08     4/08     5/08     6/08     7/08     8/08     9/08     10/08     11/08     12/08     1/09     2/09     3/09     4/09
80.85
      77.91         60.16         46.30         69.10         62.40         58.05         33.49         21.15         37.25         33.96         18.80         25.97         19.51  
103.67
      110.07         115.10         104.83         104.88         106.33         93.40         77.32         69.39         71.68         67.32         63.14         69.60         77.76  
95.13
      95.92         98.00         96.46         109.52         106.64         100.12         91.49         85.30         91.59         90.31         81.82         84.87         83.44  
                                                                                                                                   


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Table of Contents

                                                                                                                                   
5/09     6/09     7/09     8/09     9/09     10/09     11/09     12/09     1/10     2/10     3/10     4/10     5/10     6/10
24.56
      27.85         31.02         31.14         26.44         25.15         25.85         28.20         30.55         30.67         31.55         39.25         39.01         31.96  
80.79
      83.67         90.32         92.02         96.91         93.91         98.62         104.08         98.50         102.77         109.98         112.46         103.11         96.91  
86.00
      91.28         99.06         97.75         100.46         91.98         98.10         101.24         103.81         106.04         110.27         107.87         97.09         93.92  
                                                                                                                                   
 
                                                       
     7/10     8/10     9/10     10/10     11/10     12/10
  32 .55       33.14         37.25         12.22         10.62         14.69  
  103 .59       97.58         109.30         115.63         115.14         122.36  
  97 .86       95.55         103.89         107.64         103.99         109.14  
                                                       
 
The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
 
Item 5B.   Use of Proceeds from the Sale of Registered Securities
 
None.
 
Item 5C.   Treasury Stock
 
None.


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Item 6.   Selected Financial Data
 
                                                 
                                  Period From
 
                                  December 19,
 
                                  2000
 
                                  (Inception) to
 
    Year Ended December 31,     December 31,
 
    2010     2009     2008     2007     2006     2010  
    (In thousands, except per share data)  
 
Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:
                                               
Revenue
  $ 42,876     $ 9,514     $ 486     $     $ 1,028     $ 59,821  
Operating expenses:
                                               
Research and development
    33,528       39,778       61,565       45,645       36,494       277,989  
General and administrative
    14,000       15,406       17,641       14,888       9,969       92,110  
Restructuring charges
          2,037                         2,037  
Acquired in-process research and development
                                  3,916  
                                                 
Total operating expenses
    47,528       57,221       79,206       60,533       46,463       376,052  
Loss from operations
    (4,652 )     (47,707 )     (78,720 )     (60,533 )     (45,435 )     (316,231 )
Change in fair value of contingent consideration liability
    4,838       (7,983 )                       (3,145 )
Interest income/(expense) and other income/(expense), net
    (1,667 )     (375 )     1,679       4,623       1,909       8,183  
Net loss
    (1,481 )     (56,065 )     (77,041 )     (55,910 )     (43,526 )     (311,193 )
Consideration paid in excess of carrying value of the noncontrolling interest in Symphony Allegro, Inc. 
          (61,566 )                       (61,566 )
Loss attributed to noncontrolling interest in Symphony Allegro, Inc. 
          13,987       18,591       10,791       1,720       45,089  
                                                 
Net loss attributable to Alexza common stockholders
  $ (1,481 )   $ (103,644 )   $ (58,450 )   $ (45,119 )   $ (41,806 )   $ (327,670 )
                                                 
Basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to Alexza common stockholders
  $ (0.03 )   $ (2.68 )   $ (1.81 )   $ (1.58 )   $ (2.13 )        
                                                 
Shares used to compute basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to Alexza common stockholders
    55,421       38,609       32,297       28,605       19,584          
                                                 
 
                                         
    December 31,
    2010   2009   2008   2007   2006
    (In thousands)
 
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
                                       
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
  $ 41,449     $ 19,916     $ 37,556     $ 69,391     $ 42,623  
Investments held by Symphony Allegro, Inc. 
                21,318       39,449       49,956  
Working capital
    8,031       (3,830 )     42,771       106,092       79,649  
Total assets
    68,482       46,174       84,635       149,125       105,766  
Noncurrent portion of financing obligations
    13,208             2,515       6,317       5,865  
Convertible preferred stock
                             
Deficit accumulated during development stage
    (266,104 )     (264,623 )     (222,545 )     (164,095 )     (118,976 )
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
    12,290       (7,126 )     39,054       99,943       84,517  


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Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contains forward-looking statements that are based upon current expectations. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “intend,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those discussed in our forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Overview
 
We are a pharmaceutical company focused on the research, development, and commercialization of novel proprietary products for the acute treatment of central nervous system conditions. All of our product candidates are based on our proprietary technology, the Staccato system. The Staccato system vaporizes an excipient-free drug to form a condensation aerosol that, when inhaled, allows for rapid systemic drug delivery. Because of the particle size of the aerosol, the drug is quickly absorbed through the deep lung into the bloodstream, providing speed of therapeutic onset that is comparable to intravenous, or IV, administration but with greater ease, patient comfort and convenience
 
In January 2009, we reduced the development of all of our product candidates, other than AZ-004 (Staccato loxapine), our lead product candidate, in order to concentrate our efforts and resources on the clinical, regulatory, manufacturing and commercial development of AZ-004. In December 2009, we submitted our New Drug Application, or NDA, for AZ-004. In early 2010, we conducted a thorough review of our product pipeline, evaluating current and potential new Staccato-based product candidates. This review yielded three categories of Staccato-based product candidates: (1) product candidates where we believe we can add value through internal development, (2) product candidates where we have developed the product idea, but where a development partner is required, and (3) product candidates based on new ideas, primarily focused on new chemical entities, where the Staccato technology can facilitate better or more effective delivery. In July 2010, we announced that, in addition to AZ-004, AZ-007 (Staccato zaleplon) and Staccato nicotine would remain in active development. Active development on the remainder of our development pipeline is suspended. We are continuing to seek partners to support development and commercialization of our product candidates. We believe that our financial position as of December 31, 2010 will be sufficient to fund our operations, at our current cost levels, into the third quarter of 2011. We are unable to assert that our financial position is sufficient to fund operations beyond that date, and as a result, there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. We may not be able to raise sufficient capital on acceptable terms, or at all, to continue development of AZ-004 or to continue operations, and we may not be able to execute any strategic transaction.
 
Lead product update
 
Our lead product candidate is AZ-004, which is being developed for the rapid treatment of agitation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. In December 2009, we filed an NDA for our AZ-004 product candidate, submitted as Adasuvetm Staccato® (loxapine) inhalation aerosol, 5 mg and 10 mg. In October 2010, we received a Complete Response Letter, or CRL, from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, regarding our NDA for AZ-004. A CRL is issued by the FDA indicating that the NDA review cycle is complete and the application is not ready for approval in its present form. In December 2010, we completed an End-of-Review meeting with the FDA to discuss the issues outlined in the AZ-004 CRL. In January 2011, we received the official FDA minutes of the meeting, and we anticipate resubmitting the AZ-004 NDA in July 2011. We are seeking commercial partners for the worldwide development and commercialization of AZ-004.
 
In the CRL, the FDA stated that its primary clinical safety concern was related to data from the three Phase 1 pulmonary safety studies with AZ-004. This concern was primarily based on observed, dose-related post-dose decreases in forced expiratory volume in one second, or FEV1, a standard measure of lung function, in healthy subjects and in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, and asthma. The FDA also noted that decreases in FEV1 were recorded in subjects who were administered device-only, placebo versions of AZ-004.


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In the information package submitted to the FDA in response to the CRL and in preparation for the End-of-Review meeting, we presented evidence that we believe demonstrates the placebo device is safe, including a blinded expert review of the flow-volume loops data from the healthy subject study as further evidence that there appears to be no consistent pattern suggestive of airway obstruction in these subjects. We also provided an analysis that we believe shows that there is no meaningful temporal relationship between placebo administration and decreases in FEV1. We believe this evidence and analysis confirm that the changes seen were likely background events in the population studied, where the repeated and extensive pulmonary function testing may have contributed to some of the observations. Additionally, we believe we showed that the aerosol characterization does not indicate a basis for concern. We agreed to reiterate these arguments in our NDA resubmission.
 
In the information package, we also believe we showed that the pulmonary safety program in subjects with asthma and COPD had identified patients who may be susceptible to bronchospasm, the nature of this adverse event, how it can be managed, and that we believe the risk in these patients could be mitigated through labeling and a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS program. At the End-of-Review meeting, the FDA stated that it would be reasonable to propose a REMS program for the use of Staccato loxapine, and requested that as part of our resubmission, we provide a detailed REMS proposal including labeling, a medication guide and a communication plan, to manage the potential risks. In the resubmission we must also show how to identify patients at risk of developing pulmonary side-effects, as well as a way to decide who should and should not be treated with Staccato loxapine when they present for treatment. The FDA also informed us that it would likely present the NDA to an advisory committee.
 
The CRL also raised issues relating to the suitability of our stability studies and certain other Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls, or CMC, concerns, including items relating to the FDA’s pre-approval manufacturing inspection. Because AZ-004 incorporates a novel delivery system, the CRL also included input from the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health, or the CDRH. In the CRL the CDRH requested a human factors study and related analysis to validate that the product can be used effectively in the proposed clinical setting. We expect to finalize the protocol with the FDA and complete this study in the coming months. We are not currently required to conduct any additional efficacy or safety clinical trials for AZ-004. The CDRH also requested further bench testing of the product under an additional “worst-case” manufacturing scenario. We have completed this additional “worst-case” bench testing of the product, submitted the data to the FDA and believe that this issue has been adequately addressed.
 
In February 2010, we entered into a collaboration and license agreement, or license agreement, and a manufacture and supply agreement, collectively, the collaboration, with Biovail Laboratories International SRL, or Biovail, for AZ-004 for the treatment of psychiatric and/or neurological indications and the symptoms associated with these indications, including the initial indication of treating agitation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. On October 18, 2010, Biovail notified us of its intention to terminate the collaboration. Upon the termination, we reacquired the U.S. and Canadian rights to AZ-004 and have worldwide rights. Neither Alexza nor Biovail incurred any early termination penalties in connection with the termination of the collaboration.
 
Financing update
 
In December 2006, we entered into a transaction involving a series of related agreements providing for the financing of additional clinical and nonclinical development of AZ-002, Staccato alprazolam, and AZ-004/AZ-104, Staccato loxapine. Pursuant to the agreements, Symphony Capital LLC and other investors, whom we refer to collectively as the Allegro Investors, invested $50 million to form Symphony Allegro, Inc., or Symphony Allegro, to fund additional clinical and nonclinical development of Staccato alprazolam and Staccato loxapine. We exclusively licensed to Symphony Allegro certain intellectual property rights related to Staccato alprazolam and Staccato loxapine. We retained manufacturing rights to these product candidates. In August 2009, we completed the acquisition of Symphony Allegro through the exercise of an option to acquire all of the outstanding equity of Symphony Allegro, as amended in June 2009. In exchange for all of the outstanding shares of Symphony Allegro, we: (i) issued to the Allegro Investors 10 million shares of common stock, (ii) issued to the Allegro Investors 5-year warrants to purchase 5 million shares of common stock at an exercise price of $2.26 per share and canceled the previously outstanding warrants to purchase 2 million shares of common stock held by the Allegro Investors, and (iii) agreed to pay certain percentages of cash payments that may be generated from future partnering


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transactions for AZ-004, AZ-104 and/or AZ-002, the product candidates that were licensed to Symphony Allegro. In February 2010, we paid the Allegro Investors $7.5 million of the total proceeds that were received from Biovail pursuant to the collaboration. In addition, the Allegro Investors will be entitled to receive a portion of future milestone and royalty payments we may receive for AZ-004, AZ-104, and/or AZ-002.
 
In May 2010, we entered into a Loan and Security Agreement, or Loan Agreement, with Hercules Technology Growth Capital, Inc., or Hercules. Under the terms of the Loan Agreement, we have borrowed $15,000,000 at an interest rate of the higher of (i) 10.75% or (ii) 6.5% plus the prime rate as reported in the Wall Street Journal, with a maximum interest rate of 14%, and issued to Hercules a secured term promissory note evidencing the loan. We made interest only payments for the initial eight months, following which the loan will be repaid in 33 equal monthly installments. The Loan Agreement limits both the seniority and amount of future debt we may incur. We may be required to repay the loan in the event of a change in control. In conjunction with the loan, we issued to Hercules a five-year warrant to purchase 376,394 shares of our common stock at a price of $2.69 per share. The warrant is immediately exercisable and expires five years from the effective date. We estimated the fair value of this warrant as of the issuance date to be $921,000 which was recorded as a debt discount to the loan and consequently a reduction to the carrying value of the loan. The fair value of the warrant was calculated using the Black-Scholes option valuation model, and was based on the contractual term of the warrant of five years, a risk-free interest rate of 2.31%, expected volatility of 84% and 0% expected dividend yield. We also recorded fees paid to Hercules as a debt discount which further reduced the carrying value of the loan. The debt discount is being amortized to interest expense.
 
In May 2010, we obtained a committed equity financing facility under which we may sell up to 8,936,550 shares of common stock to Azimuth Opportunity, Ltd., or Azimuth, over a 24-month period. We are not obligated to utilize any of the facility and we remain free to enter into and consummate other equity and debt financing transactions. We will determine, at our sole discretion, the timing, the dollar amount and the price per share of each draw under this facility, subject to certain conditions. When and if we elect to use the facility, we will issue shares to Azimuth at a discount between 5.00% and 6.75% to the volume weighted average price of our common stock over a preceding period of trading days. Azimuth is not required to purchase any shares at a pre-discounted purchase price below $3.00 per share. Any shares sold under this facility will be sold pursuant to a shelf registration statement declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 20, 2010. This facility replaces a similar facility that was established in March 2008 and expired after its 24-month term. As of December 31, 2010, there have been no sales of common stock under either of these facilities.
 
In August 2010, we completed a registered direct offering of our common stock and warrants. We sold a total of 6,685,183 units, each unit consisting of (i) one share of common stock and (ii) one warrant to purchase 0.5 of a share of common stock, at a purchase price of $2.70 per unit. The warrants are exercisable six months after issuance at $3.30 per share and expire five years from the date of issuance. Net proceeds from the offering were approximately $16.4 million, after deducting placement agents’ commissions and offering expenses. The securities were sold pursuant to a shelf registration statement declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 20, 2010.
 
Other than those licensed to Cypress Biosciences, Inc., or Cypress, for our Staccato nicotine product candidate, we have retained all rights to our product candidates and the Staccato system. We intend to capitalize on our internal resources to develop certain product candidates and to identify routes to utilize external resources to develop and commercialize other product candidates.
 
We were incorporated December 19, 2000. We have funded our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities, capital lease and equipment financings, debt financings and government grants. We have generated $59.8 million in revenues from inception through December 31, 2010, primarily through license and development agreements and to a lesser extent United States Small Business Innovation Research grants and drug compound feasibility studies. Prior to 2007, we recognized governmental grant revenue and drug compound feasibility revenue, however, we expect no grant revenue or drug compound feasibility screening revenue in 2011. We do not expect any material product revenue until at least 2012.
 
We have incurred significant losses since our inception. As of December 31, 2010, our deficit accumulated during development stage was $266.1 million and total stockholders’ equity was $12.3 million. We recognized net


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losses of $1.5 million, $56.1 million, $77.0 million in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively, and $311.2 million in the period from December 19, 2000 (Inception) to December 31, 2010. In January 2009, we consolidated our operations to primarily focus our efforts on the continued rapid development of AZ-004. We expect our net losses to increase in 2011 compared to 2010, as the 2010 results were impacted by the revenue recognized from Biovail’s termination of the license agreement.
 
The process of conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials necessary to obtain FDA approval is costly and time consuming. We consider the development of our product candidates to be crucial to our long term success. If we do not complete development of our product candidates and obtain regulatory approval to market one or more of these product candidates, we may be forced to cease operations. The probability of success for each product candidate may be impacted by numerous factors, including preclinical data, clinical data, competition, device development, manufacturing capability, regulatory approval and commercial viability. Our strategy is to focus our resources on AZ-004. In addition, we plan to seek commercial partners for the worldwide development and commercialization for all of our product candidates. If in the future we enter into additional partnerships, third parties could have control over preclinical development or clinical trials for some of our product candidates. Accordingly, the progress of such product candidate would not be under our control. We cannot forecast with any degree of certainty which of our product candidates, if any, will be subject to any future partnerships or how such arrangements would affect our development plans or capital requirements.
 
As a result of the uncertainties discussed above, the uncertainty associated with clinical trial enrollments, and the risks inherent in the development process, we are unable to determine the duration and completion costs of the current or future clinical stages of our product candidates or when, or to what extent, we will generate revenues from the commercialization and sale of any of our product candidates. Development timelines, probability of success and development costs vary widely. While we are currently focused on developing our product candidates, we anticipate that we and our partners, will make determinations as to which programs to pursue and how much funding to direct to each program on an ongoing basis in response to the scientific and clinical success of each product candidate, as well as an ongoing assessment as to the product candidate’s commercial potential. We do not expect any of our current product candidates to be commercially available before 2012, if at all.
 
Critical Accounting Estimates and Judgments
 
Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as reported revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments related to development costs. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making assumptions about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
 
While our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 3 of the notes to consolidated financial statements, we believe the following accounting policies are critical to the process of making significant estimates and judgments in preparation of our financial statements.
 
Preclinical Study and Clinical Trial Accruals
 
We estimate our preclinical study and clinical trial expenses based on our estimates of the services received pursuant to contracts with multiple research institutions and clinical research organizations that conduct and manage preclinical studies and clinical trials on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. Preclinical study and clinical trial expenses include the following:
 
  •  fees paid to contract research organizations in connection with preclinical studies;
 
  •  fees paid to contract research organizations and other clinical sites in connection with clinical trials; and


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  •  fees paid to contract manufacturers in connection with the production of components and drug materials for preclinical studies and clinical trials.
 
We record accruals for these preclinical study and clinical trial costs based upon the estimated amount of work completed. All such costs are charged to research and development expenses based on these estimates. Costs related to patient enrollment in clinical trials are accrued as patients are entered in the trial. We monitor patient enrollment levels and related activities to the extent possible through internal reviews, correspondence and discussions with research institutions and organizations. However, if we have incomplete or inaccurate information, we may underestimate or overestimate activity levels associated with various preclinical studies and clinical trials at a given point in time. In this event, we could record significant research and development expenses in future periods when the actual activity level becomes known. To date, we have not made any material adjustments to our estimates of preclinical study and clinical trial costs. We make good faith estimates which we believe to be accurate, but the actual costs and timing of clinical trials are highly uncertain, subject to risk and may change depending upon a number of factors, including our clinical development plan.
 
Share-Based Compensation
 
We currently use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options and purchase rights issued under our 2005 Employee Stock Purchase Plan. The determination of the fair value of share-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option-pricing model is affected by our stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include our expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors, risk-free interest rates and expected dividends.
 
The estimated fair value of restricted stock unit awards is calculated based on the market price of our common stock on the date of grant, reduced by the present value of dividends expected to be paid on our common stock prior to vesting of the restricted stock unit. Our current estimate assumes no dividends will be paid prior to the vesting of the restricted stock unit.
 
We estimate the expected term of options based on the historical term periods of options that have been granted but are no longer outstanding and the estimated terms of outstanding options. We estimate the volatility of our stock based on our actual historical volatility since our initial public offering. We base the risk-free interest rate that we use in the option pricing model on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with remaining terms similar to the expected term on the options. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future and therefore use an expected dividend yield of zero in the option pricing model.
 
We are required to estimate forfeitures at the time of grant and revise those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. We use historical data to estimate pre-vesting option forfeitures and record share-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest. All share-based payment awards are amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards, which are generally the vesting periods.
 
If factors change and we employ different assumptions for estimating share-based compensation expense in future periods or if we decide to use a different valuation model, the expenses in future periods may differ significantly from what we have recorded in the current period and could materially affect our operating loss, net loss and net loss per share.
 
Contingent Consideration Liability
 
In August 2009, we completed our purchase of all of the outstanding equity of Symphony Allegro, and in exchange we: (i) issued to the Allegro Investors 10 million shares of our common stock; (ii) issued to the Allegro Investors 5-year warrants to purchase five million shares of our common stock with an exercise price of $2.26 per share; and (iii) will pay to the Allegro Investors certain percentages of cash payments that may be generated from future partnering transactions pertaining to AZ-004/104 (Staccato loxapine) or AZ-002 (Staccato alprazolam).
 
We estimate the fair value of the liability associated with the contingent cash payments to the Allegro Investors, or contingent consideration liability, on a quarterly basis using a probability-weighted discounted cash


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flow model. We derive multiple cash flow scenarios for each of the product candidates subject to the cash payments and apply a probability to each of the scenarios. These probability and risk adjusted weighted average cash flows are then discounted utilizing our estimated weighted average cost of capital, or WACC. Our WACC considers our cash position, competition, risk of substitute products, and risk associated with the financing of the development projects. We determined the discount rate to be 18% and applied this rate to the probability adjusted cash flow scenarios.
 
We record any changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration liability in earnings in the period of the change. Certain events including, but not limited to, clinical trial results, FDA approval or non-approval of our submissions, the timing and terms of any strategic partnership agreement, the commercial success of AZ-004, AZ-104 or AZ-002 and the discount rate assumption could have a material impact on the fair value of the contingent consideration liability, and as a result, our results of operations and financial position.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
We recognize revenue in accordance with the SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin, SAB, No. 101, Revenue Recognition in Financial Statements, as amended by Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 104, Revision of Topic 13.
 
In determining the accounting for collaboration agreements, we determine whether an arrangement involves multiple revenue-generating deliverables that should be accounted for as a single unit of accounting or divided into separate units of accounting for revenue recognition purposes and, if this division is required, how the arrangement consideration should be allocated among the separate units of accounting. If the arrangement represents a single unit of accounting, the revenue recognition policy and the performance obligation period must be determined, if not already contractually defined, for the entire arrangement. If the arrangement represents separate units of accounting, a revenue recognition policy must be determined for each unit.
 
Revenues for non-refundable upfront license fee payments, where we continue to have obligations, will be recognized as performance occurs and obligations are completed.
 
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
 
In October 2009, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, published Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, 2009-13, which amends the criteria to identify separate units of accounting within Subtopic 605-25, “Revenue Recognition-Multiple-Element Arrangements”. The revised guidance eliminates the residual method of allocation, and instead requires companies to use the relative selling price method when allocating revenue in a multiple deliverable arrangement. When applying the relative selling price method, the selling price for each deliverable shall be determined using vendor specific objective evidence of selling price, if it exists, otherwise using third-party evidence of selling price. If neither vendor specific objective evidence nor third-party evidence of selling price exists for a deliverable, companies shall use their best estimate of the selling price for that deliverable when applying the relative selling price method. The adoption of ASU 2009-13 will only affect multiple deliverable arrangements entered into after January 1, 2011. We are currently evaluating the potential impact, if any, the adoption of this guidance on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
 
In April 2010, the FASB issued ASU 2010-17, “Milestone Method of Revenue Recognition a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force.” FASB ASU 2010-17 provides guidance on defining a milestone and determining when it may be appropriate to apply the milestone method of revenue recognition for research and development transactions. A vendor can recognize consideration in its entirety as revenue in the period in which the milestone is achieved only if the milestone meets all criteria to be considered substantive. Additional disclosures describing the consideration arrangement and the entity’s accounting policy for recognition of such milestone payments are also required. FASB ASU 2010-17 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within such fiscal years, beginning on or after June 15, 2010, with early adoption permitted. The guidance may be applied prospectively to milestones achieved during the period of adoption or retrospectively for all prior periods. We are currently evaluating the potential impact, if any, of the adoption of this guidance on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.


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Results of Operations
 
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2010 and 2009 and 2008
 
Revenue.  We had $42,876,000, $9,514,000 and $486,000 of revenues in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. Revenues in 2008 consisted of revenues related to our license and development agreement, or Endo license agreement, with Endo Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Endo. In January 2009, we mutually agreed with Endo to terminate the Endo license agreement, at which time we fulfilled our obligations under the Endo license agreement and recognized the remaining $9.5 million of deferred revenues into revenues in 2009. In February 2010 we entered into a license and development agreement with Biovail in which we received an upfront payment of $40 million. In October 2010, Biovail gave notification of its intention to terminate the collaboration, at which time we recognized the upfront payment as revenues as we had fulfilled our obligations under the collaboration. In 2010, we also recognized $2.6 million from our license and development agreement, or Cypress Agreement, with Cypress and $244,000 of grant revenues from the U.S. government’s Qualified Therapeutic Development Program. We expect a decrease in 2011 revenues as a result of the recognition of the entirety of the revenues from Biovail in 2010 and as we do not anticipate any grant revenues.
 
Operating Expenses
 
Research and Development Expenses.  Research and development expenses consist of costs associated with research activities, as well as costs associated with our product development efforts, conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials and manufacturing development efforts. All research and development costs, including those funded by third parties, are expensed as incurred. Research and development expenses include:
 
  •  external research and development expenses incurred under agreements with third party contract research organizations and investigational sites where a substantial portion of our preclinical studies and all of our clinical trials are conducted;
 
  •  third party supplier, consultant and employee related expenses, which include salary and benefits; and
 
  •  facilities, depreciation and other allocated expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities, depreciation of leasehold improvements and equipment and laboratory and other supplies.
 
The table below sets forth our research and development expenses for 2010, 2009 and 2008 broken out between product candidate and general research expenses based on our internal records and estimated allocations of employee time and related expenses:
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
 
Product candidate expenses
  $ 26,059     $ 31,896     $ 48,681  
General research
    7,469       7,882       12,884  
                         
Total research and development
  $ 33,528     $ 39,778     $ 61,565  
                         
 
Research and Development Expenses.  Research and development expenses were $33.5 million, $39.8 million and $61.6 million in years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. In January 2009, we restructured our operations, including an approximate 33% reduction in headcount, to focus our efforts on the continued rapid development of our AZ-004 (Staccato loxapine) product candidate.
 
The restructuring of our operations resulted in a decrease in both product candidate and general research expenses in 2009 and 2010 as compared to prior periods as work wound down or halted for our non-AZ-004 product candidates. This emphasis on the rapid development of AZ-004 resulted in AZ-004 accounting for 96% of product candidate expenses in the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to 86% in 2009 and 47% in 2008. In July 2010, we announced that we moved AZ-007 into active development and began preliminary work on AZ-007 in preparation for the Phase 2 clinical trials. However, due to the FDA not approving AZ-004 for commercial marketing in October 2010, we are slowing the clinical development of AZ-007. We expect that 2011 research and development expenses will remain relatively consistent with 2010 levels.


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General and Administrative Expenses.  General and administrative expenses were $14.0 million, $15.4 million and $17.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. General and administrative expenses consist principally of salaries and related costs for personnel in executive, finance, accounting, business development, legal and human resources functions. Other general and administrative expenses include facility and information technology costs not otherwise included in research and development expenses, patent related costs and professional fees for legal, consulting and accounting services.
 
The decreases in general and administrative expenses were primarily due to decreased headcount expenses as a result of our restructuring in January 2009, reduced facility expenses as we completed our move to our Mountain View facility in the first half of 2008, and our efforts to reduce third party costs to conserve cash balances. The decrease in share-based compensation in 2010 of $1.3 million as compared to 2009 was a result of lower expense related to the share-based awards issued under the 2009-2010 Performance Based Incentive Program as vesting milestones were not met and previously issued share-based awards became fully vested during the year. We expect our non-share based compensation and general and administrative expenses in 2011 to remain relatively consistent with 2010 levels.
 
Restructuring Charges In January 2009, we restructured our operations to focus our efforts on the continued rapid development of our AZ-004 (Staccato loxapine) product candidate. The restructuring included a workforce reduction of 50 employees, representing approximately 33% of our total workforce and was completed in the second quarter of 2009. We incurred restructuring expenses related to employee severance and other termination benefits of $2.0 million, including a non-cash charge related to modifications to share-based awards of $56,000. The restructuring was completed in 2009.
 
Interest and Other Income, Net.  Interest and other income, net, primarily represents income earned on our cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities balances, and prior to August 26, 2009, marketable securities held by Symphony Allegro. Interest and other income, net was $(35,000), $92,000 and $2.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. The 2010 income was impacted by a loss on retirements of fixed assets of $79,000. The decrease in interest income was primarily due to lower average cash, cash equivalent and marketable securities balances and lower interest rates earned on such balances. We expect to continue to earn low interest income returns on our cash, cash equivalent and marketable securities balances.
 
Interest Expense.  Interest expense represents interest on our equipment loans and financing obligations and was $1.6 million, $467,000 and $935,000 in the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. The increase in 2010 as compared to 2009 was primarily due to the interest incurred on the $15 million note issued to Hercules in May 2010. The decrease in 2009 from 2008 was due to decreases in the outstanding balances of our equipment loan borrowings as we made no additional borrowings in 2008 or 2009.
 
Change in the Fair Value of Contingent Consideration Liability.  In connection with our acquisition of all of the outstanding equity of Symphony Allegro, we are obligated to pay the Allegro Investors certain percentages of cash payments that may be generated from future partnering transactions for AZ-002, AZ-004 and/or AZ-104. We measure the fair value of this contingent consideration liability at each balance sheet date. Any changes in the fair value of this contingent consideration liability will be recognized in earnings in the period of the change. Certain events including, but not limited to, clinical trial results, FDA approval or non-approval of our submissions, the timing and terms of strategic partnerships, the commercial success of AZ-002, AZ-004 and/or AZ-104 and the discount rate assumption could have a material impact on the fair value of the contingent liability, and as a result, our results of operations.
 
In October 2010, we received a CRL from the FDA for our AZ-004 NDA submitted in December 2009 and held a meeting with the FDA in December 2010 to address the issues outlined in the CRL. As a result of the CRL and the meeting with the FDA, we reduced the weighted-average expected cash flows for milestone payments and product royalties, and the timing of those cash flows, for AZ-004. The reduction of the expected cash flows and timing of these cash flows resulted in a reduction in the net present value of estimated future payments to Symphony Allegro. We recognized a gain of $4.8 million to reflect the reduction in the contingent consideration liability during the year ended December 31, 2010.


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In 2009, we announced preliminary results from our Phase 2b clinical trial of AZ-104, where AZ-104 did not meet the primary endpoint of the study. This change resulted in a decrease in the expected cash flow resulting in a decrease in the contingent consideration liability. In the fourth quarter of 2009, we modified our assumptions regarding the probability of certain cash flow outcomes to reflect the negotiations with Biovail to partner AZ-004 as well as the filing of our NDA. The reduction in these uncertainties resulted in an increase in probability of certain cash flows resulting in an increase in the contingent consideration liability. These items combined resulted in our incurring a loss on the change in fair value of the contingent consideration liability of $8.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2009.
 
Loss Attributed to Noncontrolling Interest in Symphony Allegro.  Prior to our purchase of Symphony Allegro on August 26, 2009, we consolidated Symphony Allegro’s financial condition and results of operations. Accordingly, we deducted the losses attributable to the noncontrolling interest from our net loss in the consolidated statement of operations, and we reduced the noncontrolling interest holders’ ownership interest in Symphony Allegro in the consolidated balance sheet by the loss attributed to the noncontrolling interests in Symphony Allegro. The losses attributed to the noncontrolling interest holders was $14.0 million in 2009 and $18.6 million in 2008. The decrease in 2009 was primarily due to a full year of Symphony Allegro’s losses being attributed to the noncontrolling interest in 2008 as compared to approximately 8 months in 2009 as a result of our acquisition of all of the outstanding equity of Symphony Allegro in August 2009.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Since inception, we have financed our operations primarily through private placements and public offerings of equity securities, revenues primarily from a licensing agreement and government grants, and payments from Symphony Allegro. We have received additional funding from financing obligations, interest earned on investments, as described below, and funds received upon exercises of stock options and exercises of purchase rights under our 2005 Employee Stock Purchase Plan. As of December 31, 2010, we had $41.4 million in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. Our cash and marketable security balances are held in a variety of interest bearing instruments, including obligations of United States government agencies, high credit rating corporate borrowers and money market accounts. Cash in excess of immediate requirements is invested with regard to liquidity, capital preservation and yield.
 
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities was $8.6 million, $(53.1) million, and $(55.1) million, in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. The net cash provided by or used in each of these periods primarily reflects net loss for these periods, offset in part by depreciation, non-cash stock-based compensation, the change in fair value of the contingent consideration liability, loss attributed to noncontrolling interests, and non-cash changes in operating assets and liabilities. In 2010, the deferred revenue balance resulted from upfront fees paid by Cypress as required by the Cypress Agreement signed in 2010. The increase in other assets in 2010 was a result of the deposit of $1.2 million with Autoliv. The decrease in other receivables in 2010 was a result of the collection of fees paid to the FDA upon our submission of our NDA in 2009. Our designation as a small business resulted in our exclusion from such fees and the amount was refunded in 2010. In 2009, the decrease in deferred revenue was related to the mutual termination of our license agreement with Endo, at which time we recognized the remaining $9.5 million of deferred revenue. The decreases in accounts payable of $2.2 million in 2009 and accrued clinical trial expense and other accrued liabilities of $2.7 million was due to the decreased activity in our operations. In 2008, the large decrease in other receivables was due to the collection of a receivable of $10.0 million from Endo in January 2008 related to the license agreement signed in December 2007 and a $2.1 million receivable related to the reimbursement of leasehold improvements from the landlord of our Mountain View facility in May 2008.
 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities was $(30.6) million, $20.1 million and $42.8 million in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. Investing activities consist primarily of purchases and maturities of marketable securities and capital purchases. During 2010 we purchased $21.5 million of marketable securities, net of maturities. During 2009 and 2008 we had maturities, net of purchases, of marketable securities of $4.9 million and $27.2 million, respectively. Maturities of marketable securities held by Symphony Allegro were $16.4 million and 18.1 million in 2009 and 2008, respectively. Purchases of property and equipment were $9.2 million, $1.2 million and $2.7 million in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. In 2010, the purchases primarily consisted of manufacturing equipment as we prepared for the expected commercialization of AZ-004.


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Net cash provided by financing activities was $22.3 million, $20.4 million and $6.9 million in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. Financing activities consist primarily of proceeds from the sale of our common stock, purchase of a noncontrolling interest, equipment financing arrangements and financing obligations. In 2010, 2009 and 2008, we received net proceeds from the issuance of common stock of $17.0 million, $19.7 million and $11.2 million, respectively. In 2009 we had proceeds from the purchase of the noncontrolling interest in Symphony Allegro of $4.9 million. In 2010, we had proceeds from debt borrowings, net of payments, of $12.7 million, while in 2009 and 2008, payments on debt were $4.1 million and $4.2 million, respectively.
 
We believe that with current cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities along with interest earned thereon, the proceeds from option exercises and purchases of common stock pursuant to our Employee Stock Purchase Plan, we will be able to maintain our current operations, at our current cost levels, into the third quarter of 2011. Changing circumstances may cause us to consume capital significantly faster or slower than we currently anticipate or to alter our operations. We have based these estimates on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could utilize our available financial resources sooner than we currently expect. The key assumptions underlying these estimates include:
 
  •  expenditures related to continued preclinical and clinical development of our lead product candidates during this period within budgeted levels;
 
  •  no unexpected costs related to the development of our manufacturing capability; and
 
  •  no growth in the number of our employees during this period.
 
Our forecast of the period of time that our financial resources will be adequate to support operations is a forward-looking statement and involves risks and uncertainties, and actual results could vary as a result of a number of factors, including the factors discussed in “Risk Factors.” In light of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development and commercialization of our product candidates and the extent to which we enter into strategic partnerships with third parties to participate in their development and commercialization, we are unable to estimate the amounts of increased capital outlays and operating expenditures associated with our current and anticipated clinical trials. Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including:
 
  •  the scope, rate of progress, results and costs of our preclinical studies, clinical trials and other research and development activities;
 
  •  the terms and timing of any distribution, strategic partnerships or licensing agreements that we may establish;
 
  •  the cost, timing and outcomes of regulatory approvals;
 
  •  the number and characteristics of product candidates that we pursue;
 
  •  the cost and timing of establishing manufacturing, marketing and sales capabilities;
 
  •  the cost of establishing clinical and commercial supplies of our product candidates;
 
  •  the cost of preparing, filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing any patent claims and other intellectual property rights; and
 
  •  the extent to which we acquire or invest in businesses, products or technologies, although we currently have no commitments or agreements relating to any of these types of transactions.
 
We will need to raise additional funds to support our operations, and such funding may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. In this regard, we received an explanatory paragraph from our independent registered public accounting firm in their audit opinion raising substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. If we are unable to raise additional funds when needed, we may not be able to continue development of our product candidates or we could be required to delay, scale back or eliminate some or all of our development programs, reduce our efforts to build our commercial manufacturing capacity, and other operations. We may seek to raise additional funds through public or private financing, strategic partnerships or other arrangements. Any additional equity financing may be dilutive to stockholders and debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants. If we raise funds through collaborative or licensing arrangements, we may be required to relinquish, on


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terms that are not favorable to us, rights to some of our technologies or product candidates that we would otherwise seek to develop or commercialize ourselves. Our failure to raise capital when needed may harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
 
Contractual Obligations
 
We lease two buildings with an aggregate of 106,894 square feet of manufacturing, office and laboratory facilities in Mountain View, California, which we began to occupy in the fourth quarter of 2007. We currently have subleases covering 19,334 square feet, 20,956 square feet and 2,500 square feet of these facilities, reducing the space we occupy to 64,104 square feet. The lease for both facilities expires on March 31, 2018, and we have two options to extend the lease for five years each. Our sublease agreements expire on April 30, 2011 with regards to 19,334 square feet, on February 28, 2014 with regards to 20,956 square feet and on August 31, 2011 with regards to 2,500 square feet. We believe that the Mountain View facilities are sufficient for our office, manufacturing and laboratory needs for at least the next three years.
 
We have financed a portion of our equipment purchases through various equipment financing agreements. Under the agreements, equipment advances are to be repaid in 36 to 48 monthly installments of principal and interest. The interest rate, which is fixed for each draw, is based on the U.S. Treasuries of comparable maturities and ranges from 9.2% to 10.5%. The equipment purchased under the equipment financing agreement is pledged as security.
 
On May 4, 2010, we entered into the Loan Agreement with Hercules. Under the terms of the Loan Agreement, we have borrowed $15,000,000 at an interest rate equal to the higher of (i) 10.75% or (ii) 6.5% plus the prime rate as reported in the Wall Street Journal, with a maximum interest rate of 14%, and issued to Hercules a secured term promissory note evidencing the loan. We made interest only payments for the initial eight months following which the loan will be repaid in 33 equal monthly installments.
 
On November 2, 2007, we entered into a manufacturing and supply agreement, or the manufacture agreement, with Autoliv ASP, Inc, or Autoliv, relating to the commercial supply of chemical heat packages that can be incorporated into our Staccato device. Autoliv had developed these chemical heat packages for us pursuant to a development agreement between Autoliv and us executed in October 2005.
 
In June 2010 and February 2011, we entered into agreements to amend the terms of the manufacture agreement, or the amendments. Under the terms of the first of the amendments, we paid Autoliv $4 million and issued Autoliv a $4 million unsecured promissory note in return for a production line for the commercial manufacture of chemical heat packages. Each production line is comprised of two identical and self sustaining “cells,” and the first such cell was completed, installed and qualified in connection with such amendment. Under the terms of the second of the amendments, the original $4 million note was cancelled and a new unsecured promissory note was issued with a reduced principal amount of $2.8 million, or the second note, and production on the second cell ceased. The second note is payable in 48 equal monthly installments of approximately $67,900 and we have paid the first two such installments. In the event that we request completion of the second cell of the first production line for the commercial manufacture of chemical heat packages, Autoliv will complete, install and fully qualify such second cell for a cost to us of $1.2 million and Autoliv will transfer ownership of such cell to us upon the payment in full of such $1.2 million and the second note. At our request, Autoliv will manufacture up to two additional production lines for the commercial manufacture of chemical heat packages at a cost not to exceed $2,400,000 for each additional line.
 
We will pay Autoliv a specified purchase price, which varies based on annual quantities ordered by us, per chemical heat package delivered. The initial term of the manufacture agreement expires on December 31, 2012, at which time the manufacture agreement will automatically renew for successive five-year renewal terms unless we or Autoliv notify the other party no less than 36 months prior to the end of the initial term or the then-current renewal term that such party wishes to terminate the manufacture agreement.
 
Our recurring losses from operations and our need for additional capital raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern, and as a result, we have classified all of our financing obligations as current. If this substantial doubt is removed in future periods, we will reclassify these financing obligations between current


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and non-current. Our future contractual payments, net of sublease income, including interest at December 31, 2010 are as follows (in thousands):
 
                                         
    Payments Due by Period  
          Less Than
                   
    Total     1 Year     1-3 Years     3-5 Years     Thereafter  
 
Equipment financing obligations
  $ 443     $ 443     $     $     $  
Operating lease obligations
    34,582       4,572       9,294       9,582       11,134  
Term note obligations
    22,226       7,100       13,962       1,164        
                                         
    $ 57,251     $ 12,115     $ 23,256     $ 10,746     $ 11,134  
                                         
 
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
None.
 
Item 7A.   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
Our exposure to market risk is confined to our cash, cash equivalents, which have maturities of less than three months, and marketable securities. The primary objective of our investment activities is to preserve our capital to fund operations. We also seek to maximize income from our investments without assuming significant risk. To achieve our objectives, we maintain a portfolio of cash equivalents and marketable securities in a variety of securities of high credit quality. As of December 31, 2010, we had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $41.4 million. The securities in our investment portfolio are not leveraged, are classified as available for sale and are, due to their very short-term nature, subject to minimal interest rate risk. We currently do not hedge interest rate exposure. Because of the short-term maturities of our investments, we do not believe that an increase in market rates would have a material negative impact on the realized value of our investment portfolio. We actively monitor changes in interest rates. We perform quarterly reviews of our investment portfolio and believe we have no exposure related to mortgage and other asset backed securities and no exposure to auction rate securities.


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Item 8.   Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
ALEXZA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
 
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
         
    62  
    63  
    64  
    65  
    75  
    76  


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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
The Board of Directors and Stockholders
Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (a development stage company) (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, and the related consolidated statements of operations, convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity (deficit), and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010 and for the period from December 19, 2000 (inception) to December 31, 2010. These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (a development stage company) at December 31, 2010 and 2009, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010 and for the period from December 19, 2000 (inception) to December 31, 2010, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
 
As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s recurring losses from operations and its need for additional capital raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans as to these matters are described in Note 2. The 2010 consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
 
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated March 15, 2011 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
 
/s/  Ernst & Young LLP
Ernst & Young LLP
 
Palo Alto, California
March 15, 2011


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ALEXZA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC
(a development stage company)

 
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 
                 
    December 31,  
    2010     2009  
    (In thousands, except share
 
    and per share amounts)  
 
ASSETS
Current assets:
               
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 13,671     $ 13,450  
Marketable securities
    27,778       6,466  
Other receivables
          1,406  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    965       804  
                 
Total current assets
    42,414       22,126  
Property and equipment, net
    24,361       23,598  
Restricted cash
    400       400  
Other assets
    1,307       50  
                 
Total assets
  $ 68,482     $ 46,174  
                 
 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
Current liabilities:
               
Accounts payable
  $ 2,781     $ 2,705  
Accrued clinical trial liabilities
    216       303  
Other accrued liabilities
    3,158       3,481  
Current portion of contingent consideration liability
    5,300       13,202  
Other current liabilities
          3,750  
Financing obligations
    18,597       2,515  
Deferred revenues
    4,331        
                 
Total current liabilities
    34,383       25,956  
Deferred rent
    14,609       15,708  
Noncurrent portion of contingent consideration liability
    7,200       11,636  
Commitments (See Note 8)
               
Stockholders’ equity (deficit):
               
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized at December 31, 2010 and 2009; no shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2010 or 2009
           
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 100,000,000 shares authorized at December 31, 2010 and 2009; 59,766,328 and 52,411,356 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively
    6       5  
Additional paid-in capital
    278,386       257,493  
Other comprehensive income (loss)
    2       (1 )
Deficit accumulated during development stage
    (266,104 )     (264,623 )
                 
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
    12,290       (7,126 )
                 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity (deficit)
  $ 68,482     $ 46,174  
                 
 
See accompanying notes.


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ALEXZA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
(a development stage company)

 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
 
                                 
                      Period from
 
                      December 19,
 
                      2000 (Inception)
 
    Year Ended December 31,     to December 31,
 
    2010     2009     2008     2010  
    (In thousands, except per share amounts)  
 
Revenue
  $ 42,876     $ 9,514     $ 486     $ 59,821  
Operating expenses:
                               
Research and development
    33,528       39,778       61,565       277,989  
General and administrative
    14,000       15,406       17,641       92,110  
Restructuring charges
          2,037             2,037  
Acquired in-process research and development
                      3,916  
                                 
Total operating expenses
    47,528       57,221       79,206       376,052  
                                 
Loss from operations
    (4,652 )     (47,707 )     (78,720 )     (316,231 )
Change in fair value of contingent consideration liability
    4,838       (7,983 )           (3,145 )
Interest and other income, net
    (35 )     92       2,614       13,863  
Interest expense
    (1,632 )     (467 )     (935 )     (5,680 )
                                 
Net loss
    (1,481 )     (56,065 )     (77,041 )     (311,193 )
Consideration paid in excess of carrying value of the noncontrolling interest in Symphony Allegro, Inc. 
          (61,566 )           (61,566 )
Loss attributed to noncontrolling interest in Symphony Allegro, Inc. 
          13,987       18,591       45,089  
                                 
Net loss attributable to Alexza common stockholders
    (1,481 )     (103,644 )     (58,450 )     (327,670 )
                                 
Net loss per share attributable to Alexza common stockholders
  $ (0.03 )   $ (2.68 )   $ (1.81 )        
                                 
Shares used to compute net loss per share attributable to Alexza common stockholders
    55,421       38,609       32,297          
                                 
 
See accompanying notes.


64


Table of Contents

 
 
                                                                                                         
    Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Stockholders              
                                                                Deficit
    Noncontrolling
       
                                                                Accumulated
    Interest
       
    Convertible
                            Additional
    Stockholder
    Deferred
    Other
    During the
    in
    Total
 
    Preferred Stock     Preferred Stock     Common Stock     Paid-in
    Note
    Stock
    Comprehensive
    Development
    Symphony
    Stockholders’
 
    Shares     Amount     Shares     Amount     Shares     Amount     Capital     Receivable     Compensation     (Loss) Income     Stage     Allegro, Inc.     Equity (Deficit)  
    (In thousands, except share and per share amounts)  
 
Issuance of common stock to founders at $0.22 per share in December 2000 in exchange for technology and cash of $8
        $           $       454,536     $     $ 100     $     $     $     $     $     $ 100  
Issuance of Series A preferred stock for cash at $0.40 per share in July 2001, net of issuance costs of $9
    2,500,000       991                                                                    
Issuance of Series A1 preferred stock at $1.55 per share in December 2001, in connection with merger
    1,610,250       2,496                                                                    
Issuance of Series B preferred stock for cash at $1.40 per share in December 2001, net of issuance costs of $71
    6,441,000       8,946                                                                    
Issuance of common stock in connection with merger at $1.10 per share in December 2001
                            868,922             956                                     956  
Warrants assumed in merger transaction
                                        10                                     10  
Issuance of common stock for cash at $0.22 per share upon exercise of options in December 2001
                            9,090             2                                     2  
Compensation expense related to consultant stock options
                                        3                                     3  
Net loss
                                                                (5,652 )           (5,652 )
                                                                                                         
Balance at December 31, 2001 (carried forward)
    10,551,250     $ 12,433           $       1,332,548     $     $ 1,071     $     $     $     $ (5,652 )   $     $ (4,581 )
 
See accompanying notes.


65


Table of Contents

 
                                                                                                         
    Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Stockholders              
                                                                Deficit
    Noncontrolling
       
                                                                Accumulated
    Interest
       
    Convertible
                            Additional
    Stockholder
    Deferred
    Other
    During the
    in
    Total
 
    Preferred Stock     Preferred Stock     Common Stock     Paid-in
    Note
    Stock
    Comprehensive
    Development
    Symphony
    Stockholders’
 
    Shares     Amount     Shares     Amount     Shares     Amount     Capital     Receivable     Compensation     (Loss) Income     Stage     Allegro, Inc.     Equity (Deficit)  
    (In thousands, except share and per share amounts)  
 
Balance at December 31, 2001 (brought forward)
    10,551,250     $ 12,433           $       1,332,548     $     $ 1,071     $     $     $     $ (5,652 )   $     $ (4,581 )
Issuance of common stock for cash at $0.22 per share upon exercise of options in February 2002
                            10,606             3                                     3  
Issuance of warrants to purchase Series B preferred stock in March 2002, in connection with equipment financing loan
          27                                                                    
Issuance of common stock for cash at $0.22 per share upon exercise of options in July 2002
                            2,180                                                  
Issuance of common stock to stockholder at $0.99 per share in exchange for promissory note in July 2002
                            53,156             53       (53 )                              
Issuance of Series C preferred stock for cash at $1.56 per share in September 2002, net of issuance costs of $108
    28,870,005       44,892                                                                    
Repurchase of common stock for cash at $1.05 per share in October 2002
                            (2,634 )           (3 )                                   (3 )
Issuance of common stock for cash at $1.05 per share for services upon exercise of warrants in December 2002
                            9,368             10                                     10  
Compensation expense related to consultant stock options
                                        10                                     10  
Unrealized gain on investments
                                                          51                   51  
Net loss
                                                                (8,163 )           (8,163 )
                                                                                                         
Balance at December 31, 2002 (carried forward)
    39,421,255     $ 57,352           $       1,405,224     $     $ 1,144     $ (53 )   $     $ 51     $ (13,815 )   $     $ (12,673 )
 
See accompanying notes.


66


Table of Contents

 
                                                                                                         
    Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Stockholders              
                                                                Deficit
    Noncontrolling
       
                                                                Accumulated
    Interest
       
    Convertible
                            Additional
    Stockholder
    Deferred
    Other
    During the
    in
    Total
 
    Preferred Stock     Preferred Stock     Common Stock     Paid-in
    Note
    Stock
    Comprehensive
    Development
    Symphony
    Stockholders’
 
    Shares     Amount     Shares     Amount     Shares     Amount     Capital     Receivable     Compensation     (Loss) Income     Stage     Allegro, Inc.     Equity (Deficit)  
    (In thousands, except share and per share amounts)  
 
Balance at December 31, 2002 (brought forward)
    39,421,255     $ 57,352           $       1,405,224     $     $ 1,144     $ (53 )   $     $ 51     $ (13,815 )   $     $ (12,673 )
Issuance of common stock for cash at $0.22, $0.99 and $1.10 per share upon exercise of options
                            74,903             47                                     47  
Issuance of warrants to purchase Series C preferred stock in connection with equipment financing loan in January 2003
          35                                                                    
Issuance of warrants to purchase Series C preferred stock in connection with equipment financing loan in September 2003
          27                                                                    
Repurchase of common stock for cash at $1.05 per share in January 2003
                            (1,172 )           (1 )                                   (1 )
Repurchase of common stock for cash at $0.22 per share in November 2003
                            (14,772 )           (3 )                                   (3 )
Compensation expense related to consultant stock options
                                        31                                     31  
Deferred stock compensation expense related to modification of consultant stock option
                                        1             (1 )                        
Unrealized loss on investments
                                                          (55 )                 (55 )
Net loss
                                                                (14,328 )           (14,328 )
                                                                                                         
Balance at December 31, 2003 (carried forward)
    39,421,255     $ 57,414           $       1,464,183     $     $ 1,219     $ (53 )   $ (1 )   $ (4 )   $ (28,143 )   $     $ (26,982 )
 
See accompanying notes.


67


Table of Contents

 
                                                                                                         
    Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Stockholders              
                                                                Deficit
    Noncontrolling
       
                                                                Accumulated
    Interest
       
    Convertible
                            Additional
    Stockholder
    Deferred
    Other
    During the
    in
    Total
 
    Preferred Stock     Preferred Stock     Common Stock     Paid-in
    Note
    Stock
    Comprehensive
    Development
    Symphony
    Stockholders’
 
    Shares     Amount     Shares     Amount     Shares     Amount     Capital     Receivable     Compensation     (Loss) Income     Stage     Allegro, Inc.     Equity (Deficit)  
    (In thousands, except share and per share amounts)  
 
Balance at December 31, 2003 (brought forward)
    39,421,255     $ 57,414           $       1,464,183     $     $ 1,219     $ (53 )   $ (1 )   $ (4 )   $ (28,143 )   $     $ (26,982 )
Cancellation of unvested common stock at $0.99 per share in March 2004
                            (24,365 )           (24 )     24                                
Repayment of vested portion of stockholder note receivable for cash
                                              29                               29  
Issuance of warrants to purchase Series C preferred stock in connection with equipment financing loan in April 2004
          20                                                                    
Issuance of common stock for cash at $0.22, $0.99 and $1.10 per share upon exercise of options
                            100,192             72                                     72  
Repurchase of common stock for cash at $1.05 per share in September 2004
                            (404 )                                                
Issuance of Series D preferred stock at $1.29 per share in November and December 2004, net of issuance costs of $2,239
    40,435,448       49,760                                                                    
Issuance of warrants to purchase common stock in connection with Series D financing in November 2004
                                        91                                     91  
Compensation expense related to consultant stock options
                                        40                                     40  
Compensation expense related to employee stock option modifications
                                        19                                     19  
Amortization of deferred stock compensation
                                                    1                         1  
Unrealized loss on investments
                                                          (41 )                 (41 )
Net loss
                                                                (16,625 )           (16,625 )
                                                                                                         
Balance at December 31, 2004 (carried forward)
    79,856,703     $ 107,194           $       1,539,606     $     $ 1,417     $     $     $ (45 )   $ (44,768 )   $     $ (43,396 )
 
See accompanying notes.


68


Table of Contents

 
                                                                                                         
    Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Stockholders              
                                                                Deficit
    Noncontrolling
       
                                                                Accumulated
    Interest
       
    Convertible
                            Additional
    Stockholder
    Deferred
    Other
    During the
    in
    Total
 
    Preferred Stock     Preferred Stock     Common Stock     Paid-in
    Note
    Stock
    Comprehensive
    Development
    Symphony
    Stockholders’
 
    Shares     Amount     Shares     Amount     Shares     Amount     Capital     Receivable     Compensation     (Loss) Income     Stage     Allegro, Inc.     Equity (Deficit)  
    (In thousands, except share and per share amounts)  
 
Balance at December 31, 2004 (brought forward)
    79,856,703     $ 107,194           $       1,539,606     $     $ 1,417     $     $     $ (45 )   $ (44,768 )   $     $ (43,396 )
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options $0.22, $0.99, $1.10, per share
                            380,508             357                                     357  
Compensation expense related to consultant stock options
                                        195                                     195  
Deferred stock compensation, net of $4 reversal in connection with employee terminations
                                        3,329             (3,329 )                        
Amortization of deferred stock compensation,
                                                    404                         404  
Variable compensation expense
                                        442                                     442  
Unrealized gain on investments
                                                          15                   15  
Net loss
                                                                (32,402 )           (32,402 )
                                                                                                         
Balance at December 31, 2005 (carried forward)
    79,856,703     $ 107,194           $       1,920,114     $     $ 5,740     $     $ (2,925 )   $ (30 )   $ (77,170 )   $     $ (74,385 )
 
See accompanying notes.


69


Table of Contents

 
                                                                                                         
    Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Stockholders              
                                                                Deficit
    Noncontrolling
       
                                                                Accumulated
    Interest
       
    Convertible
                            Additional
    Stockholder
    Deferred
    Other
    During the
    in
    Total
 
    Preferred Stock     Preferred Stock     Common Stock     Paid-in
    Note
    Stock
    Comprehensive
    Development
    Symphony
    Stockholders’
 
    Shares     Amount     Shares     Amount     Shares     Amount     Capital     Receivable     Compensation     (Loss) Income     Stage     Allegro, Inc.     Equity (Deficit)  
    (In thousands, except share and per share amounts)  
 
Balance at December 31, 2005 (brought forward)
    79,856,703     $ 107,194           $       1,920,114     $     $ 5,740     $     $ (2,925 )   $ (30 )   $ (77,170 )   $     $ (74,385 )
Issuance of common stock for cash and shares upon exercise of options at a weighted average price of $1.28 per share
                            159,446             195                                     195  
Issuance of common stock for cash under the Company’s Employee Stock Purchase Plan
                            131,682