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EX-32.1 - EX-32.1 - CYTOKINETICS INCcytk-ex321_9.htm
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EX-5.1 - EX-5.1 - CYTOKINETICS INCcytk-ex51_100.htm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     

Commission file number: 000-50633

 

CYTOKINETICS, INCORPORATED

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

94-3291317

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

280 East Grand Avenue

South San Francisco, California

94080

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (650) 624-3000

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

 

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

Trading symbol

 

CYTK

Name of each exchange on which registered

 

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

Number of shares of common stock, $0.001 par value, outstanding as of May 4, 2020: 59,469,525

 

 

 

 


Table of Contents

 

CYTOKINETICS, INCORPORATED

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR FORM 10-Q

FOR THE three MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2020

 

 

Page

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

3

Item 1. Financial Statements (Unaudited)

3

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019

3

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019

4

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit) for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019

5

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019

6

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

7

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

16

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

29

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

29

 

 

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

30

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

30

Item 1A. Risk Factors

30

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

64

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities

64

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

64

Item 5. Other Information

64

Item 6. Exhibits

65

 

 

SIGNATURES

66

 

 

 

 

 

 

2


Table of Contents

 

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

CYTOKINETICS, INCORPORATED

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except per share data) (Unaudited)

 

 

 

March 31, 2020

 

 

December 31, 2019

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

49,776

 

 

$

36,433

 

Short-term investments

 

 

170,930

 

 

 

188,679

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

2,704

 

 

 

5,163

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

2,528

 

 

 

3,477

 

Total current assets

 

 

225,938

 

 

 

233,752

 

Long-term investments

 

 

16,510

 

 

 

42,650

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

5,162

 

 

 

4,530

 

Operating lease right-of-use assets and other assets

 

 

8,972

 

 

 

8,882

 

Total assets

 

$

256,582

 

 

$

289,814

 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

3,527

 

 

$

8,160

 

Accrued liabilities

 

 

9,677

 

 

 

12,123

 

Short-term lease liability

 

 

5,030

 

 

 

4,616

 

Other current liabilities

 

 

2,507

 

 

 

1,124

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

20,741

 

 

 

26,023

 

Term loan, net

 

 

45,340

 

 

 

45,052

 

Convertible notes, net

 

 

85,455

 

 

 

84,205

 

Liability related to the sale of future royalties, net

 

 

148,983

 

 

 

143,276

 

Long-term lease liability

 

 

1,774

 

 

 

2,195

 

Total liabilities

 

 

302,293

 

 

 

300,751

 

Commitments and contingencies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ deficit:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value

 

 

59

 

 

 

59

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

857,038

 

 

 

853,341

 

Accumulated other comprehensive income

 

 

1,613

 

 

 

679

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(904,421

)

 

 

(865,016

)

Total stockholders’ deficit

 

 

(45,711

)

 

 

(10,937

)

Total liabilities and stockholders’ deficit

 

$

256,582

 

 

$

289,814

 

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

3


Table of Contents

 

CYTOKINETICS, INCORPORATED

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(In thousands, except per share data) (Unaudited)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31, 2020

 

 

March 31, 2019

 

Revenues:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development revenues

 

$

3,825

 

 

$

8,464

 

Total revenues

 

 

3,825

 

 

 

8,464

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

21,738

 

 

 

23,545

 

General and administrative

 

 

12,449

 

 

 

9,437

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

34,187

 

 

 

32,982

 

Operating loss

 

 

(30,362

)

 

 

(24,518

)

Interest expense

 

 

(4,077

)

 

 

(1,170

)

Non-cash interest expense on liability related to the sale of future royalties

 

 

(5,689

)

 

 

(4,819

)

Interest and other income, net

 

 

723

 

 

 

1,141

 

Net loss

 

$

(39,405

)

 

$

(29,366

)

Net loss per share — basic and diluted

 

$

(0.66

)

 

$

(0.54

)

Weighted-average number of shares used in computing net loss per share —

   basic and diluted

 

 

59,270

 

 

 

54,821

 

Other comprehensive income:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities, net

 

 

934

 

 

 

106

 

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(38,471

)

 

$

(29,260

)

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

 

 

 

4


Table of Contents

 

CYTOKINETICS, INCORPORATED

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ Equity (Deficit)

(In thousands, except share data) (Unaudited)

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

Additional

Paid-In

 

 

Accumulated

Other

Comprehensive

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

Total

Stockholders’

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Capital

 

 

Income

 

 

Deficit

 

 

Deficit

 

Balance, December 31, 2019

 

 

59,172,124

 

 

$

59

 

 

$

853,341

 

 

$

679

 

 

$

(865,016

)

 

$

(10,937

)

Exercise of stock options

 

 

12,165

 

 

 

 

 

 

93

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

93

 

Vesting of restricted stock units, net of taxes withheld

 

 

274,563

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2,255

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2,255

)

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,524

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,524

 

Claims settlement under Section 16(b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,151

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,151

 

Issuance of warrants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

184

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

184

 

Other comprehensive income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

934

 

 

 

 

 

 

934

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(39,405

)

 

 

(39,405

)

Balance, March 31, 2020

 

 

59,458,852

 

 

$

59

 

 

$

857,038

 

 

$

1,613

 

 

$

(904,421

)

 

$

(45,711

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

Additional

Paid-In

 

 

Accumulated

Other

Comprehensive

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

Total

Stockholders’

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Capital

 

 

Income

 

 

Deficit

 

 

Equity

 

Balance, December 31, 2018

 

 

54,717,906

 

 

$

55

 

 

$

768,703

 

 

$

500

 

 

$

(743,324

)

 

$

25,934

 

Exercise of stock options

 

 

5,116

 

 

 

 

 

 

31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31

 

Vesting of restricted stock units, net of taxes withheld

 

 

165,347

 

 

 

 

 

 

(732

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(732

)

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,282

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,282

 

Issuance of common stock under at-the-market offering, net of issuance costs

 

 

562,811

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,117

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,117

 

Other comprehensive income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

106

 

 

 

 

 

 

106

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(29,366

)

 

 

(29,366

)

Balance, March 31, 2019

 

 

55,451,180

 

 

$

55

 

 

$

775,401

 

 

$

606

 

 

$

(772,690

)

 

$

3,372

 

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

5


Table of Contents

 

CYTOKINETICS, INCORPORATED

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(In thousands) (Unaudited)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31, 2020

 

 

March 31, 2019

 

Cash flows from operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(39,405

)

 

$

(29,366

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-cash interest expense on liability related to sale of future royalties

 

 

5,706

 

 

 

4,819

 

Non-cash stock-based compensation expense

 

 

3,524

 

 

 

2,282

 

Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment

 

 

408

 

 

 

286

 

Interest receivable and amortization on investments

 

 

293

 

 

 

(533

)

Non-cash interest expense related to debt

 

 

1,724

 

 

183

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

2,459

 

 

 

(1,934

)

Contract assets

 

 

 

 

 

2,082

 

Prepaid and other assets

 

 

949

 

 

 

(983

)

Operating lease right-of-use assets

 

 

1,016

 

 

 

856

 

Accounts payable

 

 

(4,633

)

 

 

(1,217

)

Accrued and other liabilities

 

 

(1,064

)

 

 

(2,466

)

Operating lease liabilities

 

 

(1,112

)

 

 

(916

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(30,135

)

 

 

(26,907

)

Cash flows from investing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of investments

 

 

(10,592

)

 

 

(41,295

)

Sales and maturities of investments

 

 

55,122

 

 

 

61,196

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(1,041

)

 

 

(257

)

Net cash provided by investing activities

 

 

43,489

 

 

 

19,644

 

Cash flows from financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from and payments for stock based award activities, net

 

 

(2,162

)

 

 

(701

)

Claims settlement under Section 16(b)

 

 

2,151

 

 

 

 

Issuance of common stock under at-the-market offering, net of issuance costs

 

 

 

 

 

5,117

 

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities

 

 

(11

)

 

 

4,416

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

 

 

13,343

 

 

 

(2,847

)

Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period

 

 

36,433

 

 

 

42,256

 

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period

 

$

49,776

 

 

$

39,409

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-cash investing and financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Right-of-use assets recognized in exchange for lease obligations

 

 

1,106

 

 

 

10,686

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

6


Table of Contents

 

CYTOKINETICS, INCORPORATED

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Note 1 — Organization and Significant Accounting Policies

Cytokinetics, Incorporated (the “Company”, “we” or “our”) was incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware on August 5, 1997. The Company is a late stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of novel small molecule therapeutics that modulate muscle function for the potential treatment of serious diseases and medical conditions.

Our financial statements contemplate the conduct of our operations in the normal course of business. We have incurred an accumulated deficit of $904.4 million since inception and there can be no assurance that we will attain profitability. The Company anticipates that it will have operating losses and net cash outflows in future periods.

We are subject to risks common to late stage biopharmaceutical companies including, but not limited to, development of new drug candidates, dependence on key personnel, and the ability to obtain additional capital as needed to fund our future plans. Our liquidity will be impaired if sufficient additional capital is not available on terms acceptable to us. To date, we have funded operations primarily through sales of our common stock, contract payments under our collaboration agreements, sale of future royalties, debt financing arrangements and issuances, government grants and interest income. Until we achieve profitable operations, we intend to continue to fund operations through payments from strategic collaborations, additional sales of equity and debt securities, grants and debt financings. We have never generated revenues from commercial sales of our drugs and may not have drugs to market for at least several years, if ever. Our success is dependent on our ability to enter into new strategic collaborations and/or raise additional capital and to successfully develop and market one or more of our drug candidates. As a result, we may choose to raise additional capital through equity or debt financings to continue to fund operations in the future. We cannot be certain that sufficient funds will be available from such a financing or through a collaborator when required or on satisfactory terms. Additionally, there can be no assurance that our drug candidates will be accepted in the marketplace or that any future products can be developed or manufactured at an acceptable cost. These factors could have a material adverse effect on our future financial results, financial position and cash flows.

Based on the current status of our research and development activities, we believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments will be sufficient to fund cash requirements for at least the next 12 months from the filing date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. If, at any time, our prospects for financing research and development programs decline, we may decide to reduce research and development expenses by delaying, discontinuing or reducing funding of one or more of our research or development programs. Alternatively, we might raise funds through strategic collaborations, public or private financings or other arrangements. Such funding, if needed, may not be available on favorable terms, or at all. These financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Basis of Presentation

Our condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Cytokinetics and our wholly-owned subsidiary. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. The financial statements include all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) that management believes are necessary for the fair statement of our financial information. These interim results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full fiscal year or any future interim period. The balance sheet as of December 31, 2019 has been derived from the audited financial statements at that date, but does not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. The financial statements and related disclosures have been prepared with the presumption that users of the interim financial statements have read or have access to the audited financial statements for the preceding fiscal year. Accordingly, these financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company’s Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to revenue recognition, investments, accrued research and development expenses, other long-lived assets, stock-based compensation, operating lease assets and liabilities, and the valuation of deferred tax assets. We base our estimates on our historical experience and also on assumptions that we believe are reasonable; however, actual results could significantly differ from those estimates.

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Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2016-13, ‘Financial Instruments — Credit Losses — Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”), which requires that financial assets measured at amortized cost be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. The measurement of expected credit losses is based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect collectability. ASU 2016-13 also eliminates the concept of “other-than-temporary” impairment when evaluating available-for-sale debt securities and instead focuses on determining whether any impairment is a result of a credit loss or other factors. An entity will recognize an allowance for credit losses on available-for-sale debt securities rather than an other-than-temporary impairment that reduces the cost basis of the investment. ASU 2016-13 is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. We adopted ASU 2016-13 as of January 1, 2020 and the adoption did not have a material impact on the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808): Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606 (“ASU 2018-18”), which makes targeted improvements to clarify the interaction between Topic 808, Collaborative Arrangements, and Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2018-18 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. We adopted ASU 2018-18 on January 1, 2020 and the adoption did not have a material impact on the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting (“ASU 2020-04’). ASU 2020-04 provides optional guidance for a limited period of time to ease the potential burden associated with the expected market transition from the London Inter-Bank Offer Rate ("LIBOR") to alternative reference rates. Companies can apply ASU 2020-04 immediately, however the guidance will only be available until December 31, 2022. The Company’s term loan utilizes LIBOR as the reference rate and the Company is currently evaluating the impact that adopting this new accounting standard will have on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures.

Note 2 — Net Loss Per Share

We excluded the following from diluted net loss per share because inclusion would have been antidilutive (in thousands):

 

 

March 31, 2020

 

 

March 31, 2019

 

Options to purchase common stock

 

 

9,092

 

 

 

5,844

 

Warrants to purchase common stock

 

 

187

 

 

 

142

 

Restricted stock and performance units

 

 

1,134

 

 

 

881

 

Shares issuable related to the ESPP

 

 

60

 

 

 

85

 

Shares issuable upon conversion of convertible notes

 

 

16,675

 

 

 

 

Total shares

 

 

27,148

 

 

 

6,952

 

 

Note 3 — Research and Development Arrangements

Amgen Inc. (“Amgen”)

We and Amgen continue activities related to novel small molecule therapeutics, including omecamtiv mecarbil, that activate cardiac muscle contractility for potential applications in the treatment of heart failure under the collaboration and option agreement between the Company and Amgen dated December 29, 2006, as amended (the “Amgen Agreement”).

Under the Amgen Agreement, we are eligible to receive over $300.0 million in additional development milestone payments based on various clinical milestones, including the initiation of certain clinical studies, the submission of an application for marketing authorization for a drug candidate to certain regulatory authorities and the receipt of such approvals. Additionally, we are eligible to receive up to $300.0 million in commercial milestone payments provided certain sales targets are met. Due to the nature of drug development, including the inherent risk of development and approval of drug candidates by regulatory authorities, we cannot estimate if and when these milestone payments could be achieved or become due and, accordingly, we consider the milestone payments to be constrained and exclude the milestone payments from the transaction price.

In 2018, we paid Amgen $18.8 million and completed the exercise of our option under the Amgen Agreement to co-invest $40.0 million in the Phase 3 development program of omecamtiv mecarbil in exchange for a total incremental royalty from Amgen of up to 4% on increasing worldwide sales of omecamtiv mecarbil outside Japan (the “Co-Invest Option”).

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We recognize research and development revenue for reimbursements from Amgen of both internal costs of certain full-time employee equivalents and other costs related to the Amgen Agreement. Research and development revenue from Amgen of $2.3 million and $4.2 million in the first quarters of 2020 and 2019, respectively, consists of reimbursement of costs we incurred related to METEORIC-HF (Multicenter Exercise Tolerance Evaluation of Omecamtiv Mecarbil Related to Increased Contractility in Heart Failure), a Phase 3 clinical trial intended to evaluate the potential of omecamtiv mecarbil to increase exercise performance.

We had accounts receivable of $2.3 million from Amgen as of March 31, 2020 and $3.3 million as of December 31, 2019.

 

Astellas Pharma Inc. (“Astellas”)

We and Astellas entered into that certain License and Collaboration Agreement, dated June 21, 2013 (as subsequently amended and restated, the “Astellas Agreement”) focused on the research, development, and commercialization of skeletal muscle activators.

In 2014, we and Astellas amended and restated the Astellas Agreement and expanded the objective of the collaboration to include spinal muscular atrophy (“SMA”) and potentially other neuromuscular indications for reldesemtiv and other fast skeletal muscle troponin activators (“FSTAs”).

In 2016, we and Astellas amended the Astellas Agreement (the “2016 Astellas Amendment”) to expand the collaboration to include the development of reldesemtiv for the potential treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (“ALS”), as well as the possible development in ALS of other FSTAs previously licensed by us to Astellas, and Astellas paid us a $35.0 million non-refundable upfront amendment fee and an accelerated $15.0 million milestone payment for the initiation of the first Phase 2 clinical trial of reldesemtiv in ALS that was otherwise provided for in the Astellas Agreement, as if such milestone had been achieved upon the execution of the 2016 Astellas Amendment, and committed research and development consideration of $44.2 million, for total consideration of $94.2 million.

On April 23, 2020, we and Astellas entered into the two agreements referenced below which, taken together, amend and restate the Company’s research, development and commercialization collaboration with Astellas under the Astellas Agreement.

Fast Skeletal Regulatory Activator Agreement

The Company and Astellas entered into that certain Fast Skeletal Regulatory Activator Agreement, dated April 23, 2020 (the “Astellas FSRA Agreement”). As a result of the Astellas FSRA Agreement, the Company will now have exclusive control and responsibility for the Company's future development and commercialization of reldesemtiv, CK-601 and other fast skeletal regulatory activator (collectively “FSRA”) compounds and products, and accordingly, Astellas has agreed to terminate its license to all FSRA compounds and related products.

Under the Astellas FSRA Agreement, Astellas has agreed to pay one-third of the out-of-pocket clinical development costs which may be incurred in connection with the Company’s potential Phase 3 clinical trial of reldesemtiv in ALS, up to a maximum contribution by Astellas of $12 million. In addition, Astellas has agreed to non-cash contributions to the Company, which include the transfer of its existing inventories of active pharmaceutical ingredient of reldesemtiv and CK-601. Astellas has also agreed to the continued conduct of ongoing stability studies pertaining to such existing inventories of active pharmaceutical ingredient, at Astellas’ cost. In exchange, the Company will pay Astellas a low- to mid- single digit royalty on sales of reldesemtiv in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and the European Union until the later of (i) ten years following the first commercial sale of such product in a major market country, or (ii) December 31, 2034, subject to certain royalty reduction provisions. The Company would not owe Astellas royalties on sales of reldesemtiv in any other country, or on the sale of any FSRA compounds or related products other than reldesemtiv.

License and Collaboration Agreement for Other Skeletal Sarcomere Activators

The Company and Astellas also entered into that certain License and Collaboration Agreement for Other Skeletal Sarcomere Activators, dated April 23, 2020 (the “Astellas OSSA Agreement”), which is an amendment and restatement of the Astellas Agreement and removes the FSRA compounds and related products from the collaboration.

Under the Astellas OSSA Agreement, additional research and early and late state development milestone payments for research and clinical milestones, including the initiation of certain clinical studies, the submission of an application for marketing authorization for a drug candidate to certain regulatory authorities and the commercial launch of collaboration products could total up to $250.0 million, except under certain scenarios. Additionally, $200.0 million in commercial milestones could be received under the Astellas OSSA Agreement provided certain sales targets are met. We are eligible to receive $1.0 million in research milestone payments under the collaboration for each future potential drug candidate. Due to the nature of drug development, including the inherent risk of development and approval of drug candidates by regulatory authorities, it is not possible to estimate if and when these milestone payments could be achieved or become due.

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We continue to recognize research revenue for reimbursements from Astellas of internal costs of certain full-time employee equivalents, supporting collaborative research and development programs, and of other costs related to those programs. Research and development revenue from Astellas was $1.5 million and $4.3 million in the first quarters of 2020 and 2019, respectively.

We had no accounts receivable from Astellas as of March 31, 2020 and $1.9 million as of December 31, 2019.

Note 4 — Fair Value Measurements

We value our financial assets and liabilities at fair value, defined as the price that would be received for assets when sold or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (exit price). We utilize market data or assumptions that we believe market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, including assumptions about risk and the risks inherent in the inputs to the valuation technique. These inputs can be readily observable, market corroborated or generally unobservable.

We primarily apply the market approach for recurring fair value measurements and endeavor to utilize the best information reasonably available. Accordingly, we use valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs to the extent possible, and consider the security issuers’ and the third-party issuers’ credit risk in our assessment of fair value.

We classify fair value based on the observability of those inputs using a hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurement) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurement):

Level 1 — Observable inputs, such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;

Level 2 — Inputs, other than the quoted prices in active markets, that are observable either directly or through corroboration with observable market data; and

Level 3 — Unobservable inputs, for which there is little or no market data for the assets or liabilities, such as internally-developed valuation models.

Fair value of financial assets:

The follow tables set forth the fair value of our financial assets, which consists of cash equivalents and investments classified as available-for-sale securities, that were measured on a recurring basis (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

March 31, 2020

 

 

 

Fair Value Hierarchy Level

 

Amortized

Cost

 

 

Unrealized

Gains

 

 

Unrealized

Losses

 

 

Fair

Value

 

Money market funds

 

Level 1

 

$

46,538

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

46,538

 

U.S. Treasury securities

 

Level 1

 

 

115,391

 

 

 

1,047

 

 

 

 

 

 

116,438

 

Agency bonds

 

Level 2

 

 

28,391

 

 

 

83

 

 

 

 

 

 

28,474

 

Commercial paper

 

Level 2

 

 

6,227

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

6,232

 

Corporate obligations

 

Level 2

 

 

35,754

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

(103

)

 

 

35,659

 

 

 

 

 

$

232,301

 

 

$

1,143

 

 

$

(103

)

 

$

233,341

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2019

 

 

 

Fair Value Hierarchy Level

 

Amortized

Cost

 

 

Unrealized

Gains

 

 

Unrealized

Losses

 

 

Fair

Value

 

Money market funds

 

Level 1

 

$

31,535

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

31,535

 

U.S. Treasury securities

 

Level 1

 

 

134,845

 

 

 

72

 

 

 

(1

)

 

 

134,916

 

Agency bonds

 

Level 2

 

 

47,024

 

 

 

23

 

 

 

(9

)

 

 

47,038

 

Commercial paper

 

Level 2

 

 

10,435

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

10,439

 

Corporate obligations

 

Level 2

 

 

40,426

 

 

 

24

 

 

 

(7

)

 

 

40,443

 

 

 

 

 

$

264,265

 

 

$

123

 

 

$

(17

)

 

$

264,371

 

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Interest income, net was $0.7 million and $1.1 million in the first quarters of 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Investments available for sale as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 exclude an investment in equity classified as a Level 1 investment in our short-term investments with a fair value of $0.6 million and $1.0 million, respectively. In the first quarters of 2020 and 2019, we recognized an unrealized loss of $0.4 million and an immaterial unrealized gain, respectively. As of March 31, 2020, unrealized losses were not due to changes in credit risk and we believe investments with an unrealized loss would be held until maturity.

No credit losses on debt securities were recorded during the three-month periods ended March 31, 2020 and March 31, 2019. In its evaluation to determine expected credit losses, management considered all available historical and current information, expectations of future economic conditions, the type of security, the credit rating of the security, and the size of the loss position, as well as other relevant information. The Company does not intend to sell, and is unlikely to be required to sell, any of these available-for-sale investments before their effective maturity or market price recovery.

The carrying amount of our accounts receivable and accounts payable approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.

Fair value of financial liabilities:

As of March 31, 2020, the fair value of our term loan approximated its carrying value of $45.3 million, because it is carried at a market observable interest rate, which is a Level 2 input (see Note 7 – “Debt”).

As of March 31, 2020, the estimated fair value of our convertible notes was $181.5 million and was based upon observable, Level 2 inputs, including pricing information from recent trades of the convertible notes (see Note 7 – “Debt”).

As of March 31, 2020, the fair value of the liability related to the sale of future royalties is based on our current estimates of future royalties expected to be paid to RPI Finance Trust (“RPI”), an entity related to Royalty Pharma, over the life of the arrangement, which are considered Level 3 inputs (See Note 8 – “Liability Related to Sale of Future Royalties”).

There were no transfers between Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 during the periods presented.

Note 5 — Balance Sheet Components

Accrued liabilities were as follows (in thousands):

 

 

March 31, 2020

 

 

December 31, 2019

 

Accrued liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clinical and preclinical costs

 

$

2,446

 

 

$

2,215

 

Compensation related

 

 

5,229

 

 

 

8,343

 

Other accrued expenses

 

 

2,002

 

 

 

1,565

 

Total accrued liabilities

 

$

9,677

 

 

$

12,123

 

 

Note 6 — Leases

The lease for our existing facilities expires in 2021 and includes rental payments on a graduated scale and payment of certain operating expenses. As of March 31, 2020, the remaining lease term is 1.3 years and the discount rate used to determine the operating lease liability was 9.0%.

In July 2019, we amended the lease agreement in connection with our leasing of additional premises within the same office location (the “Expansion Lease”) for 9,530 square feet of an office space. The Expansion Lease has an initial term of 39 months, and commenced in January 2020. As of March 31, 2020, the remaining lease term of the Expansion Lease is 3.0 years and the discount rate used to determine the operating lease liability was 11.5% .

In July 2019, we entered into a lease agreement for approximately 234,892 square feet of office and laboratory space at a facility located in South San Francisco, California (the “Oyster Point Lease”). The lease has an initial term of twelve years and may commence as early as September 2021. We have two consecutive five-year options to extend the lease. Subject to rent abatement for

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the first two months of the lease, we will be required to pay $5.45 per square foot for 159,891 square feet for the first twelve months of the lease term, which will increase at a rate of 3.5% per year. After the first twelve months of the lease, rent will be payable on the entire leased square footage. A refundable security deposit of $5.1 million is also required as part of the lease. We paid fifty percent of the security deposit amount on December 31, 2019 and the remaining fifty percent is due in January 2021. The landlord will provide a tenant improvement allowance of $43.6 million for costs relating to the initial design and construction of the improvements. We will pay certain operating costs of the facility and have certain rights to sublease under the agreement. The total commitment of undiscounted lease payments for the Oyster Point lease was $217.7 million as of March 31, 2020.

The Company has not recognized a right-of-use asset or aggregate lease liability as of March 31, 2020  for the Oyster Point Lease as the underlying assets were unavailable for use by the Company at any time in the period ended March 31, 2020.

The undiscounted future non-cancellable lease payments under all of our lease agreements as of March 31, 2020 is as follows (in thousands):

Years ending December 31:

 

 

 

 

2020 remainder

 

$

3,951

 

2021

 

 

4,616

 

2022

 

 

12,694

 

2023

 

 

16,195

 

2024

 

 

16,648

 

Thereafter

 

 

170,919

 

Total undiscounted future lease payments

 

 

225,023

 

Less: Undiscounted lease payments related to Oyster Point Lease

 

 

(217,667

)

Less: Present value adjustments

 

 

(552

)

Total lease liability

 

$

6,804

 

Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities for the first quarter of 2020 was $2.0 million and was included in net cash used in operating activities in our condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.

Rent expense was $1.4 million and $1.3 million for the first quarters in 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Note 7 — Debt

Term Loan

Prior to May 17, 2019 we maintained a loan and security agreement dated as of October 19, 2015, as amended (the “Original Loan Agreement”) with Oxford Finance LLC (“Oxford”) and Silicon Valley Bank (“SVB”) (Oxford and SVB, collectively the “Lenders”) to fund our working capital and other general corporate needs.   

Subsequently, we and the Lenders entered into that certain Loan and Security Agreement, dated May 17, 2019, as amended, (the “Term Loan Agreement”) pursuant to which the Lenders made available to us a $45.0 million loan (the “Term Loan”). The proceeds of the Term Loan were used in part to repay in full all amounts outstanding under the Original Loan Agreement, an aggregate principal amount of $42.0 million.

The Term Loan was accounted for as a debt modification in a non-troubled debt restructuring, rather than a debt extinguishment, based on a comparison of the present value of the cash flows under the terms of the debt immediately before and after the effective date of the Term Loan, which resulted in a change of less than 10%. As a result, issuance costs paid to the Lenders in connection with the Term Loan were recorded as a reduction of the carrying amount of the debt liability and were not significant. Unamortized issuance costs as of the date of the modification were amortized to interest expense over the repayment term of Term Loan.

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Both borrowings under the Original Loan Agreement and Term Loan Agreement bear interest at an annual rate equal to the greater of (a) 8.05% or (b) the sum of 6.81% plus the 30-day U.S. LIBOR rate. The borrowing under the Original Loan Agreement was repayable in monthly interest-only payments through November 2019 followed by 35 months of monthly payments of interest and principal. The borrowing under the Term Loan Agreement was initially repayable in monthly interest-only payments through December 31, 2020. The interest-only period was automatically extended until July 1, 2021 as a result of the Company’s initiation of a Phase 2 trial for CK-274 in cardiomyopathy and could potentially be extended through December 31, 2021 if positive results are achieved in the Phase 3 GALACTIC-HF trial for omecamtiv mecarbil in chronic heart failure, in form and content reasonably acceptable to the Lenders. The ultimate interest-only period will be followed by equal monthly payments of principal and interest to the maturity date in December 2023. We are required to make a final payment upon loan maturity of 6.00% of the notes payable, which we accrete over the life of the Term Loan. Our obligations under the Term Loan Agreement are secured by substantially all our current and future assets, other than our intellectual property.

Interest expense for the Term Loan for the first quarters of 2020 and 2019 was $1.2 million and $1.2 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2020, the interest rate applicable to borrowings under the Term Loan was 8.05%.

The Term Loan Agreement contains customary representations and warranties and customary affirmative and negative covenants applicable to us and includes customary events of default, including but not limited to the nonpayment of principal or interest, violations of covenants and material adverse changes. Upon an event of default, the Lenders may, among other things, accelerate the loans and foreclose on the collateral. Our obligations under the Term Loan Agreement are secured by substantially all our current and future assets, other than our intellectual property. If the Term Loan becomes subject to mandatory prepayment under these provisions, we are subject to certain prepayment premiums of 3.00% in the first year, 2.00% in the second year and 1.00% in the third year and thereafter. We determined that these contingent prepayment provisions were an embedded component that qualified as a derivative which should be bifurcated from the Term Loan and accounted for separately from the host contract. As of March 31, 2020, the fair value of this embedded derivative was immaterial.

Future minimum payments under the Term Loan Agreement are (in thousands):

Years ending December 31:

 

 

 

 

2020 remainder

 

$

2,785

 

2021

 

 

12,519

 

2022

 

 

20,264

 

2023

 

 

23,381

 

Future minimum payments

 

 

58,949

 

Less: Interest and final payment

 

 

(13,949

)

Term Loan, gross

 

$

45,000

 

Convertible Notes

On November 13, 2019, the Company issued $138.0 million aggregate principal amount of 2026 Notes. The 2026 Notes are unsecured obligations and bear interest at an annual rate of 4.0% per year, payable semi-annually on May 15 and December 15 of each year, beginning May 15, 2020. The 2026 Notes are governed by an indenture between the Company and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. The 2026 Notes will mature on November 15, 2026, unless earlier repurchased or redeemed by the Company or converted at the option of the holders. The Company may redeem the 2026 Notes prior to the maturity date but is not required to and no sinking fund is provided for the 2026 Notes. The 2026 Notes may be converted, under certain circumstances as described below, based on an initial conversion rate of 94.7811 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount (which represents an initial conversion price of $10.55 per share). The conversion rate for the 2026 Notes will be subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain specified events. In addition, upon the occurrence of a make-whole fundamental change (as defined in the indenture), the Company will, in certain circumstances, increase the conversion rate by a number of additional shares for a holder that elects to convert its notes in connection with such make-whole fundamental change. The Company received approximately $133.9 million in net proceeds, after deducting the initial purchasers’ discount, from the issuance of the 2026 Notes.

The 2026 Notes may be converted at the option of the holder under any of the following circumstances: (1) during any calendar quarter commencing after the calendar quarter ending on March 31, 2020 (and only during such calendar quarter), if the last reported sale price of the Company’s common stock for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) during a period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on, and including, the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter exceeds 127.5% of the last reported sale price of the Company’s common stock on November 7, 2019; (2) during the 5 consecutive business days immediately after any 10 consecutive trading day period (such 10 consecutive trading day period, the “measurement period”) if the trading price per $1,000 principal amount of 2026 Notes for each trading day of the measurement period was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock on such trading day and the conversion rate on such

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trading day; (3) upon the occurrence of certain corporate events or distributions on the Company’s common stock; (4) if the Company calls the 2026 Notes for redemption; and (5) at any time from, and including, July 15, 2026 until the close of business on the scheduled trading day immediately before the maturity date, November 15, 2026. The Company will settle conversions by paying or delivering, as applicable, cash, shares of the Company’s common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of the Company’s common stock, at the Company’s election, based on the applicable conversion rate.

The 2026 Notes will be redeemable, in whole or in part, at the Company’s option at any time, and from time to time, on or after November 20, 2023 and, in the case of any partial redemption, on or before the 60th scheduled trading day before the maturity date, at a cash redemption price equal to the principal amount of the 2026 Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date but only if the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock exceeds 130% of the conversion price on (1) each of at least 20 trading days, whether or not consecutive, during the 30 consecutive trading days ending on, and including, the trading day immediately before the date the Company sends the related redemption notice; and (2) the trading day immediately before the date the Company sends such notice. If a “fundamental change” (as defined in the indenture) occurs, then, subject to certain exceptions, holders may require the Company to repurchase their 2026 Notes at a cash repurchase price equal to the principal amount of the 2026 Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date.

In accounting for the issuance of the 2026 Notes, the Company separated the 2026 Notes into liability and equity components. The carrying amount of the liability component of approximately $84.2 million was calculated by using a discount rate of 12.0%, which was estimated to be the Company’s borrowing rate on the date of the issuance of the notes for a similar debt instrument without the conversion feature. The carrying amount of the equity component of approximately $49.5 million, representing the conversion option, was determined by deducting the fair value of the liability component from the par value of the 2026 Notes. The equity component of the 2026 Notes is included in additional paid-in capital in the consolidated balance sheets and is not remeasured as long as it continues to meet the conditions for equity classification. The difference between the principal amount of the 2026 Notes and the liability component (the “debt discount”) is amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method over the term of the 2026 Notes.

Debt issuance costs for the issuance of the 2026 Notes were approximately $5.0 million, consisting of initial purchasers' discount and other issuance costs. In accounting for the transaction costs, the Company allocated the total amount incurred to the liability and equity components using the same proportions as the proceeds from the 2026 Notes. Transaction costs attributable to the liability component were approximately $3.1 million, were recorded as debt issuance cost (presented as contra debt in the consolidated balance sheet) and are being amortized to interest expense over the term of the 2026 Notes. The transaction costs attributable to the equity component were approximately $1.9 million and were netted with the equity component in stockholders’ equity. As of March 31, 2020, the unamortized debt issuance cost for the 2026 Notes was $3.0 million on the consolidated balance sheet.

The following table presents the total amount of interest cost recognized relating to the 2026 Notes (in thousands):

 

 

Three Months Ended

March 31, 2020

 

Contractual interest expense

 

$

1,380

 

Amortization of debt discount

 

 

1,237

 

Amortization of debt issuance costs

 

 

12

 

Total interest costs recognized

 

$

2,629

 

The effective interest rate on the liability component of the 2026 Notes was 12.5% for the year ended March 31, 2020, which remains unchanged from the date of issuance. The remaining unamortized debt discount was $49.5 million as of March 31, 2020, and will be amortized over approximately 6.7 years. The if-converted value of the 2026 Notes exceeded its principal amount by $58.6 million as of March 31, 2020.

Capped Call Transactions

In connection with the offering of the 2026 Notes, the Company entered into privately-negotiated capped call transactions with one of the underwriters in the offering or its affiliate. The Company used approximately $13.4 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the 2026 Notes to pay the cost of the capped call transactions. The capped call transactions are expected generally to reduce potential dilution to the Company’s common stock upon any conversion of the 2026 Notes and/or offset any cash payments the Company is required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted 2026 Notes, as the case may be, in the event that the market value per share of the Company’s common stock, as measured under the terms of the capped call transactions at the time of

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exercise, is greater than the strike price of the capped call transactions (which initially corresponds to the initial conversion price of the 2026 Notes, and is subject to certain adjustments), with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap initially equal to approximately $14.07 (which represents a premium of approximately 70% over the last reported sale price of the Company’s common stock on November 7, 2019), subject to certain adjustments. The capped call transactions are separate transactions, entered into by the Company and are not part of the terms of the 2026 Notes.

Given that the transactions meet certain accounting criteria, the convertible note capped call transactions are recorded in stockholders’ equity, and they are not accounted for as derivatives and are not remeasured each reporting period. As of March 31, 2020, the Company had not purchased any shares under the convertible note capped call transactions.

Note 8 — Liability Related to Sale of Future Royalties

In February 2017, we entered into a Royalty Purchase Agreement (the “Royalty Agreement”), under which we sold a portion of our right to receive royalties on potential net sales of omecamtiv mecarbil (and potentially other compounds with the same mechanism of action) under the Amgen Agreement to RPI for a payment of $90.0 million (the “Royalty Monetization”). The Royalty Monetization is non-refundable, even if omecamtiv mecarbil is never commercialized.

We recognized $5.7 million and $4.8 million in non-cash interest expense in the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, related to the Royalty Agreement. 

Note 9 — Stockholders’ Equity

Warrants

During the first quarter of 2020, in connection with the Term Loan Agreement further described in Note 7, we issued a warrant with an exercise price of $10.42 per share to purchase 21,595 shares of our common stock. The warrant was issued in connection with achieving the interest-only extension milestone 1 in the Term Loan Agreement. The warrant was fully exercisable and expires in January 2030. The $0.2 million fair value of the warrant related to the Term Loan was recorded as interest expense in the period. As of March 31, 2020, we had outstanding warrants issued pursuant to the Original Loan Agreement and Term Loan Agreement with a weighted average exercise price of $7.62 per share to purchase 187,019 shares of our common stock.

Claims settlement

In the first quarter of 2020, we received $2.2 million from a claims settlement with certain institutional investors that were beneficial owners of our common stock related to the disgorgement of short swing profits pursuant to Section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

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ITEM 2.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this report. Operating results are not necessarily indicative of results that may occur in future periods.

This report contains forward-looking statements indicating expectations about future performance and other forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, that involve risks and uncertainties. We intend that such statements be protected by the safe harbor created thereby. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties and our actual results and the timing of events may differ significantly from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements. Examples of such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about or relating to:

 

guidance concerning revenues, research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses for 2020;

 

the sufficiency of existing resources to fund our operations for at least the next 12 months;

 

our capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

the initiation, design, conduct, enrollment, progress, timing and scope of clinical trials and development activities for our drug candidates conducted by ourselves or our partners, Amgen and Astellas, including the anticipated timing for initiation of clinical trials, anticipated rates of enrollment for clinical trials and anticipated timing of results becoming available or being announced from clinical trials;

 

the results from the clinical trials, the non-clinical studies and chemistry, manufacturing, and controls activities of our drug candidates and other compounds, and the significance and utility of such results;

 

anticipated interactions with regulatory authorities;

 

our and our partners’ plans or ability to conduct the continued research and development of our drug candidates and other compounds;

 

the advancement of omecamtiv mecarbil in Phase 3 clinical development or the timing of any results from such Phase 3 clinical trial;

 

our expected roles in research, development or commercialization under our strategic alliances with Amgen and Astellas;

 

the properties and potential benefits of, and the potential market opportunities for, our drug candidates and other compounds, including the potential indications for which they may be developed;

 

the sufficiency of the clinical trials conducted with our drug candidates to demonstrate that they are safe and efficacious;

 

our receipt of milestone payments, royalties, reimbursements and other funds from current or future partners under strategic alliances, such as with Amgen or Astellas;

 

our ability to continue to identify additional potential drug candidates that may be suitable for clinical development;

 

market acceptance of our drugs;

 

changes in third party healthcare coverage and reimbursement policies;

 

our plans or ability to commercialize drugs, with or without a partner, including our intention to develop sales and marketing capabilities;

 

the focus, scope and size of our research and development activities and programs;

 

the utility of our focus on the biology of muscle function, and our ability to leverage our experience in muscle contractility to other muscle functions;

 

our ability to protect our intellectual property and to avoid infringing the intellectual property rights of others;

 

future payments and other obligations under loan, lease agreements and the convertible notes;

 

potential competitors and competitive products;

 

retaining key personnel and recruiting additional key personnel;

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the potential impact of recent accounting pronouncements on our financial position or results of operations; and

 

the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our research and development activities and business operations, including the availability of financing.

Such forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to:

 

Amgen’s decisions with respect to the timing, design and conduct of research and development activities for omecamtiv mecarbil and related compounds, including decisions to postpone or discontinue research or development activities relating to omecamtiv mecarbil and related compounds;

 

Astellas’ decisions with respect to the timing, design and conduct of research and development activities for those skeletal muscle activators subject to the Astellas OSSA Agreement;

 

our ability to enter into strategic partnership agreements for any of our programs on acceptable terms and conditions or in accordance with our planned timelines;

 

our ability to obtain additional financing on acceptable terms, if at all;

 

our receipt of funds and access to other resources under our current or future strategic alliances, in the development, testing, manufacturing or commercialization of our drug candidates or slower than anticipated patient enrollment, in our or partners’ clinical trials, or in the manufacture and supply of clinical trial materials;

 

failure by our contract research organizations, contract manufacturing organizations and other vendors to properly fulfill their obligations or otherwise perform as expected;

 

results from non-clinical studies that may adversely impact the timing or the further development of our drug candidates and other compounds;

 

the possibility that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) or foreign regulatory agencies may delay or limit our or our partners’ ability to conduct clinical trials or may delay or withhold approvals for the manufacture or sale of our products;

 

changing standards of care and the introduction of products by competitors or alternative therapies for the treatment of indications we target that may limit the commercial potential of our drug candidates;

 

difficulties or delays in achieving market access, reimbursement and favorable drug pricing for our drug candidates and the potential impacts of health care reform;

 

changes in laws and regulations applicable to drug development, commercialization or reimbursement;

 

the uncertainty of protection for our intellectual property, whether in the form of patents, trade secrets or otherwise;

 

potential infringement or misuse by us of the intellectual property rights of third parties;

 

activities and decisions of, and market conditions affecting, current and future strategic partners;

 

accrual information provided by and performance of our contract research organizations (“CROs”), contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”), and other vendors;

 

potential ownership changes under Internal Revenue Code Section 382; and

 

the timeliness and accuracy of information filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) by third parties.

In addition, such statements are subject to the risks and uncertainties discussed in the “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this document. Such statements speak only as of the date on which they are made, and, except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which factors will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

Business

When used in this report, unless otherwise indicated, “Cytokinetics,” “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refers to Cytokinetics, Incorporated. CYTOKINETICS, and our logo used alone and with the mark CYTOKINETICS, are registered service marks and

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trademarks of Cytokinetics. Other service marks, trademarks and trade names referred to in this report are the property of their respective owners.

Overview

We are a late-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, developing and commercializing first-in-class muscle activators and next-in-class muscle inhibitors as potential treatments for debilitating diseases in which muscle performance is compromised and/or declining. We have discovered and are developing muscle-directed investigational medicines that may potentially improve the health span of people with devastating cardiovascular and neuromuscular diseases of impaired muscle function. Our research and development activities relating to the biology of muscle function have evolved from our knowledge and expertise regarding the cytoskeleton, a complex biological infrastructure that plays a fundamental role within every human cell. As a leader in muscle biology and the mechanics of muscle performance, we are developing small molecule drug candidates specifically engineered to impact muscle function and contractility.

Our clinical-stage drug candidates are: omecamtiv mecarbil, a novel cardiac myosin activator, AMG 594, a novel cardiac troponin activator, reldesemtiv, a novel fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (“FSTA”) and CK-3773274 (“CK-274”), a novel cardiac myosin inhibitor.

Omecamtiv mecarbil is being evaluated for the potential treatment of heart failure under a strategic alliance with Amgen to discover, develop, and commercialize novel small molecule therapeutics designed to activate cardiac muscle contractility pursuant to the collaboration and option agreement dated December 29, 2006, as amended (the “Amgen Agreement”). Amgen, in collaboration with Cytokinetics, is conducting GALACTIC-HF (Global Approach to Lowering Adverse Cardiac Outcomes Through Improving Contractility in Heart Failure), a Phase 3 cardiovascular outcomes clinical trial of omecamtiv mecarbil in heart failure. In collaboration with Amgen, we are conducting METEORIC-HF (Multicenter Exercise Tolerance Evaluation of Omecamtiv Mecarbil Related to Increased Contractility in Heart Failure), a second Phase 3 clinical trial intended to evaluate its potential to increase exercise performance.

AMG 594 was discovered under our joint research program with Amgen. In collaboration with Cytokinetics, Amgen is conducting a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, single and multiple ascending dose, single-center Phase 1 study to assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of AMG 594 in healthy subjects.

CK-274 is a novel, oral, small molecule cardiac myosin inhibitor that we discovered independent of our collaborations. CK-274 arose from an extensive chemical optimization program conducted with attention to therapeutic index and pharmacokinetic properties that may translate into next-in-class potential in clinical development. CK-274 was designed to reduce the hypercontractility that is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (“HCM”). In preclinical models, CK-274 reduces myocardial contractility by binding directly to cardiac myosin at a distinct and selective allosteric binding site, thereby preventing myosin from entering a force producing state. CK-274 reduces the number of active actin-myosin cross bridges during each cardiac cycle and consequently reduces myocardial contractility. This mechanism of action may be therapeutically effective in conditions characterized by excessive hypercontractility, such as HCM. We completed a Phase 1 study which met its primary and secondary objectives to assess the safety and tolerability of single and multiple oral doses of CK-274, describe the pharmacokinetics of CK-274 and its pharmacodynamic effects as measured by echocardiography, as well as to characterize the pharmacokinetics (“PK”) and pharmacodynamic (“PD”) relationship with regards to cardiac function. These data support the advancement of CK-274 into a Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with obstructive HCM which started in the first quarter of 2020. REDWOOD-HCM is a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-finding clinical trial in patients with symptomatic, obstructive HCM.

Reldesemtiv selectively activates the fast skeletal muscle troponin complex in the sarcomere by increasing its sensitivity to calcium, leading to an increase in skeletal muscle contractility. Reldesemtiv was developed under our joint development program with Astellas under the License and Collaboration Agreement, dated June 21, 2013, as amended and restated (the “Astellas Agreement”).

In collaboration with Astellas, we conducted a Phase 2 clinical trial of reldesemtiv in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (“SMA”) and a Phase 2 clinical trial of reldesemtiv in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (“ALS”), called FORTITUDE-ALS (Functional Outcomes in a Randomized Trial of Investigational Treatment with CK-2127107 to Understand Decline in Endpoints – in ALS). Astellas, in collaboration with us, conducted a Phase 2 clinical trial of reldesemtiv in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (“COPD”) and a Phase 1b clinical trial of reldesemtiv in elderly subjects with limited mobility.

Our research continues to drive innovation and leadership in muscle biology. All of our drug candidates have arisen from our cytoskeletal research activities. Our focus on the biology of the cytoskeleton distinguishes us from other biopharmaceutical companies, and potentially positions us to discover and develop novel therapeutics that may be useful for the treatment of severe diseases and medical conditions. Each of our drug candidates has a novel mechanism of action compared to currently marketed drugs, which we believe validates our focus on the cytoskeleton as a productive area for drug discovery and development. We intend to leverage our experience in muscle contractility to expand our current pipeline and expect to identify additional potential drug candidates that may be suitable for clinical development.

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Research and Development Programs

Our long-standing interest in the cytoskeleton has led us to focus our research and development activities on the biology of muscle function and, in particular, small molecule modulation of muscle contractility. We believe that our expertise in the modulation of muscle contractility is an important differentiator for us. Our preclinical and clinical experience in muscle contractility may position us to discover and develop additional novel therapies that have the potential to improve the health of patients with severe and debilitating diseases or medical conditions.

Small molecules that affect muscle contractility may have several applications for a variety of serious diseases and medical conditions. For example, heart failure is a disease often characterized by impaired cardiac muscle contractility which may be treated by modulating the contractility of cardiac muscle. Similarly, certain diseases and medical conditions associated with muscle weakness may be amenable to treatment by enhancing the contractility of skeletal muscle. Because the modulation of the contractility of different types of muscle, such as cardiac and skeletal muscle, may be relevant to multiple diseases or medical conditions, we believe we can leverage our expertise in these areas to more efficiently discover and develop potential drug candidates that modulate the applicable muscle type for multiple indications.

We segment our research and development activities related to muscle contractility by our cardiac muscle contractility program and our skeletal muscle contractility program. We also conduct research and development on novel treatments for disorders involving muscle function beyond muscle contractility.

Cardiac Muscle Program

Our cardiac muscle contractility program is focused on the cardiac sarcomere, the basic unit of muscle contraction in the heart. The cardiac sarcomere is a highly ordered cytoskeletal structure composed of cardiac myosin, actin and a set of regulatory proteins. Cardiac myosin is the cytoskeletal motor protein in the cardiac muscle cell. It is directly responsible for converting chemical energy into the mechanical force, resulting in cardiac muscle contraction. Our most advanced cardiac program is based on the hypothesis that activators of cardiac myosin may address certain adverse properties of existing positive inotropic agents. Current positive inotropic agents, such as beta-adrenergic receptor agonists or inhibitors of phosphodiesterase activity, increase the concentration of intracellular calcium, thereby increasing cardiac sarcomere contractility. The effect on calcium levels, however, also has been linked to potentially life-threatening side effects. In contrast, our novel cardiac myosin activators work by a mechanism that directly stimulates the activity of the cardiac myosin motor protein, without increasing the intracellular calcium concentration. They accelerate the rate-limiting step of the myosin enzymatic cycle and shift it in favor of the force-producing state. Rather than increasing the velocity of cardiac contraction, this mechanism instead lengthens the systolic ejection time, which results in increased cardiac function in a potentially more oxygen-efficient manner.

Our earlier stage cardiac program is based on the hypothesis that inhibitors of hyperdynamic contraction and obstruction of left ventricular blood flow may counteract the pathologic effects of mutations in the sarcomere that lead to hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. A targeted oral therapy addressing this disease etiology may improve symptoms, exercise capacity and potentially slow disease progression.

Amgen Strategic Alliance

Our strategic alliance with Amgen to discover, develop, and commercialize novel small molecule therapeutics designed to activate cardiac muscle, including omecamtiv mecarbil, for the potential treatment of heart failure is governed by the Amgen Agreement. Amgen has exclusive, worldwide rights to develop and commercialize omecamtiv mecarbil and related compounds subject to our specified development and commercial participation rights. Amgen has also entered an alliance with Les Laboratoires Servier and Institut de Recherches Internationales Servier (“Servier”) for exclusive commercialization rights for omecamtiv mecarbil in Europe as well as the Commonwealth of Independent States (“CIS”), including Russia; Servier contributes funding for development and provides strategic support to the program.

Under the Amgen Agreement we are eligible for potential additional pre-commercialization and commercialization milestone payments of over $600.0 million in the aggregate on omecamtiv mecarbil and other potential products arising from research under the collaboration, and royalties that escalate based on increasing levels of annual net sales of products commercialized under the agreement.

The Amgen Agreement provided for us to receive increased royalties by co-funding the Phase 3 development program for omecamtiv mecarbil and other drug candidates under the collaboration. We co-invested $40.0 million in the Phase 3 development program of omecamtiv mecarbil in exchange for a total incremental royalty from Amgen of up to 4% on increasing worldwide sales of omecamtiv mecarbil outside Japan and the right to co-promote omecamtiv mecarbil in institutional care settings in North America, with reimbursement by Amgen for certain sales force activities. A joint commercial operating team comprising representatives of Cytokinetics and Amgen will be responsible for the day-to-day management of the commercialization program of omecamtiv mecarbil.

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Amgen generally has discretion to elect whether to pursue or abandon the development of omecamtiv mecarbil and may terminate our strategic alliance for any reason upon six months’ prior notice. With our consent, Amgen granted Servier an option to commercialize omecamtiv mecarbil in Europe and the CIS, including Russia, which Servier decided to exercise. In August 2016, we entered into a letter agreement with Amgen and Servier, which provides that if Amgen’s rights to omecamtiv mecarbil are terminated with respect to the territory subject to Servier’s sublicense, the sublicensed rights previously granted by Amgen to Servier with respect to omecamtiv mecarbil, will remain in effect and become a direct license or sublicense of such rights by us to Servier, on substantially the same terms as those in the Option, License and Collaboration Agreement between Amgen and Servier.

Omecamtiv mecarbil

Our lead drug candidate from our cardiac contractility program is omecamtiv mecarbil, a novel cardiac myosin activator. We expect omecamtiv mecarbil to be developed as a potential treatment across the continuum of care in heart failure both for use in the hospital setting and for use in the outpatient setting. Omecamtiv mecarbil is the subject of a Phase 3 development program in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction under our strategic alliance with Amgen.

Omecamtiv mecarbil: Clinical Development

GALACTIC-HF: GALACTIC-HF is a Phase 3 cardiovascular outcomes clinical trial of omecamtiv mecarbil which is being conducted by Amgen, in collaboration with Cytokinetics. The primary objective of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial is to determine if treatment with omecamtiv mecarbil when added to standard of care is superior to standard of care plus placebo in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure events in patients with high risk chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. GALACTIC-HF is being conducted under a Special Protocol Assessment (“SPA”) with the FDA. GALACTIC-HF completed enrollment in mid-2019, having enrolled 8,256 symptomatic chronic heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction in over 1,000 sites in 35 countries who were either currently hospitalized for a primary reason of heart failure or had had a hospitalization or admission to an emergency room for heart failure within one year prior to screening. Patients are randomized to either placebo or omecamtiv mecarbil with dose titration up to a maximum dose of 50 mg twice daily based on the plasma concentration of omecamtiv mecarbil after initiation of drug therapy. The primary endpoint is a composite of time to cardiovascular death or first heart failure event, whichever occurs first, with heart failure event defined as hospitalization, emergency room visit, or urgent unscheduled clinic visit for heart failure. Secondary endpoints include time to cardiovascular death; patient reported outcomes as measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Total Symptom Score; time to first heart failure hospitalization; and time to all-cause death.

In February 2020, we announced the publication of a manuscript relating to the design of GALACTIC-HF in the Journal of American College of Cardiology: Heart Failure (JACC: HF).

In February 2020, we, Amgen and Servier announced that the Data Monitoring Committee (“DMC”) for GALACTIC-HF recently completed the second and final planned interim analysis, which included consideration of pre-specified criteria for futility and superiority. The DMC reviewed data from GALACTIC-HF and recommended that GALACTIC-HF continue without changes to its conduct. The second interim analysis was triggered once a pre-specified number of cardiovascular deaths had occurred in GALACTIC-HF as stipulated by the trial’s protocol. A futility analysis allowed the potential for stopping GALACTIC-HF early had the interim analysis shown a low likelihood of the trial demonstrating a clinically meaningful and statistically significant benefit on the primary endpoint in patients receiving omecamtiv mecarbil, plus standard of care, compared to patients receiving placebo plus standard of care. A superiority analysis allowed the potential for stopping the trial early if the primary composite endpoint and the secondary endpoint (time to cardiovascular death) reached statistical significance, adjusting the statistical threshold for interim review. The DMC considers all available evidence in its recommendations regarding trial conduct, and the stopping boundaries provide guidance to the DMC but are not binding rules.

In March 2020, we announced that patient baseline characteristics and demographics from GALACTIC-HF were published during the Virtual American College of Cardiology 69th Annual Scientific Session together with the World Congress of Cardiology (ACC.20/WCC Virtual).

On May 8, 2020, we announced that the FDA has granted fast track designation for omecamtiv mecarbil for the potential treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.  Fast track designation may potentially expedite the review of a drug that is intended for the treatment of a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and demonstrates the potential to address an unmet medical need for such a disease or condition.

We expect top line results for GALACTIC-HF in the fourth quarter of 2020 and do not anticipate delays in the completion of GALACTIC-HF attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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METEORIC-HF: In collaboration with Amgen, we are conducting METEORIC-HF, a second Phase 3 clinical trial intended to evaluate its potential to increase exercise performance. Patients are being randomized in a 2:1 fashion to omecamtiv mecarbil, which is started at 25 mg twice daily and titrated to 25, 37.5 or 50 mg twice daily based on the same PK-guided dosing regimen as is used in GALACTIC-HF, or to placebo. METEORIC-HF is planned to enroll approximately 270 symptomatic chronic heart failure patients in nine countries. The primary endpoint of METEORIC-HF is change in peak oxygen uptake on Cardio-Pulmonary Exercise Testing (“CPET”) from baseline to Week 20. Secondary endpoints include change in total workload during CPET from baseline to Week 20, change in ventilatory efficiency during CPET from baseline to Week 20 and change in the average daily activity units measured over 2 weeks from baseline to Week 18-20. In consultation with the DMC for METEORIC-HF, Cytokinetics and Amgen have agreed to temporarily suspend enrollment in METEORIC-HF to protect the safety and health of clinical trial participants and healthcare professionals. Cytokinetics is working closely with clinical sites to monitor study visits and is taking certain steps to mitigate potential risk associated with the COVID-19 pandemic by enabling remote study visits and home delivery of investigational product to ensure study continuity and integrity. Cytokinetics continues to enable site start-up activities with an objective to activate over 50 new sites throughout North America and Europe. We believe enrollment may be completed by the end of the fourth quarter of 2020 if enrollment can be reactivated by the end of the second quarter of 2020.

AMG 594

AMG 594 is a novel, selective, oral, small molecule cardiac troponin activator which was discovered under our joint research program with Amgen. In preclinical models, AMG 594 increases myocardial contractility by binding to cardiac troponin through an allosteric mechanism that sensitizes the cardiac sarcomere to calcium, facilitating more actin-myosin cross bridge formation during each cardiac cycle thereby resulting in increased myocardial contractility. Similar to cardiac myosin activation, preclinical research has shown that cardiac troponin activation does not change the calcium transient of cardiac myocytes.

In March 2020, we announced that preclinical data were presented at the Keystone Symposium “Charting a New Course for Heart Failure: From Discovery to Data,” demonstrating that AMG 594 selectively increases calcium sensitivity of cardiac muscle fibers and increases cardiac contractility.

AMG 594: Clinical Development

In collaboration with Cytokinetics, Amgen is conducting a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, single and multiple ascending dose, single-center Phase 1 study to assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of AMG 594 in healthy subjects. The study design includes several single ascending dose cohorts and three multiple ascending dose cohorts, with eight healthy subjects per cohort. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Amgen and Cytokinetics recently agreed to temporarily suspend enrollment in the Phase 1 study of AMG 594 to protect the safety and health of clinical study participants and healthcare professionals.

CK-274

CK-274 is a novel, oral, small molecule cardiac myosin inhibitor that our company scientists discovered independent of our collaborations. CK-274 arose from an extensive chemical optimization program conducted with attention to therapeutic index and pharmacokinetic properties that may translate into next-in-class potential in clinical development. CK-274 was purposely designed to reduce the hypercontractility that is associated with HCM. In preclinical models, CK-274 reduces myocardial contractility by binding directly to cardiac myosin at a distinct and selective allosteric binding site, thereby preventing myosin from entering a force producing state. CK-274 reduces the number of active actin-myosin cross bridges during each cardiac cycle and consequently reduces myocardial contractility. This mechanism of action may be therapeutically effective in conditions characterized by excessive hypercontractility, such as HCM. The preclinical pharmacokinetics of CK-274 were characterized evaluated and optimized for potential rapid onset, ease of titration and rapid symptom relief in the clinical setting. The initial focus of the development program for CK-274 will include an extensive characterization of its PK/PD relationship as has been a hallmark of Cytokinetics’ industry-leading development programs in muscle pharmacology. The overall development program will assess the potential of CK-274 to improve exercise capacity and relieve symptoms in patients with hyperdynamic ventricular contraction due to HCM.

In February 2020, we announced that preclinical data were presented at the Biophysical Society 64th Annual Meeting demonstrating that CK-274 has a distinct binding site on cardiac myosin, and selectively reduces cardiac myosin activity in vitro.

CK-274: Clinical Development

We conducted a Phase 1 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-part, single and multiple ascending dose clinical trial of CK-274 to assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CK-274 in healthy subjects. In 2019 we presented data from the Phase 1 study of CK-274. The study met its primary and secondary objectives to assess the safety and tolerability of single and multiple oral doses of CK-274, describe the pharmacokinetics of CK-274 and its pharmacodynamic effects as measured by echocardiography, as well as to characterize the PK/PD relationship with regards to cardiac function. These data support the advancement of CK-274 into a Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with obstructive HCM. In 2019, we prepared for the start of REDWOOD-HCM (Randomized Evaluation of Dosing With CK-274 in Obstructive Outflow Disease in HCM), the Phase 2 clinical

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trial designed to determine the safety and tolerability of CK-274 in patients with symptomatic, obstructive HCM. REDWOOD-HCM started in in the first quarter of 2020 and will continue through 2020. Screening and enrollment of patients in REDWOOD-HCM have slowed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We have temporarily suspended enrollment in REDWOOD-HCM to protect the safety and health of clinical trial participants and healthcare professionals. We have been engaging sites to enable patient-specific plans for dispensation of investigational product and accommodations for potential remote visits. We continue to prioritize clinical site start-up activities with an objective to activate over 20 new sites throughout North America and Europe. We believe data from the first cohort of patients enrolled in REDWOOD-HCM can be available in the second half of 2020 if enrollment in the first cohort can be completed by mid-year.

CK-271

We submitted an IND in the first quarter of 2020 for CK-271, a second cardiac myosin inhibitor. We plan to start a Phase 1 study of CK-271 in the second quarter of 2020. One of the hallmarks of Cytokinetics' research and development approach has been to advance multiple compounds to enable potential expansion of a drug development program into different indications and patient populations. CK-271 may afford us the opportunity to expand the clinical development program beyond obstructive and non-obstructive HCM and explore other potential patient populations that may benefit from a cardiac myosin inhibitor.

Skeletal Muscle Contractility Program

Our skeletal muscle contractility program is focused on the activation of the skeletal sarcomere, the basic unit of skeletal muscle contraction. The skeletal sarcomere is a highly ordered cytoskeletal structure composed of skeletal muscle myosin, actin, and a set of regulatory proteins, which include the troponins and tropomyosin. This program leverages our expertise developed in our ongoing discovery and development of cardiac sarcomere activators, including the cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil.

We believe that our skeletal sarcomere activators may lead to new therapeutic options for diseases and medical conditions associated with neuromuscular dysfunction and potentially also conditions associated with aging and muscle weakness and wasting. The clinical effects of muscle weakness and wasting, fatigue and loss of mobility can range from decreased quality of life to, in some instances, life-threatening complications. By directly improving skeletal muscle function, a small molecule activator of the skeletal sarcomere potentially could enhance functional performance and quality of life in patients suffering from diseases or medical conditions associated with skeletal muscle weakness or wasting, such as ALS, SMA, COPD or sarcopenia (general frailty associated with aging).

Astellas Strategic Alliance

Our strategic alliance with Astellas to advance novel therapies for diseases and medical conditions associated with muscle impairment and weakness commenced in 2013 under the original Astellas Agreement. Initially we exclusively licensed to Astellas rights to co-develop and potentially co-commercialize reldesemtiv and other FSTAs in non-neuromuscular indications and to develop and commercialize other novel mechanism skeletal muscle activators in all indications, subject to certain Cytokinetics’ development and commercialization rights. Subsequently, in 2014, we and Astellas expanded the strategic alliance to include certain neuromuscular indications, including SMA, for reldesemtiv and other FSTAs and to advance reldesemtiv into Phase 2 clinical development, initially in SMA. In 2016, we and Astellas further expanded the strategic alliance to include the development of reldesemtiv for the potential treatment of ALS, as well as the possible development in ALS of other FSTAs previously licensed by us to Astellas, and granted Astellas an option for a global collaboration for the development and commercialization of our first-generation FSTA, tirasemtiv (the “Option on Tirasemtiv”).

On April 23, 2020, Cytokinetics and Astellas entered into two agreements, which, taken together, amend and restate our research, development and commercialization collaboration with Astellas under the Astellas Agreement, as set out below.

The Company and Astellas signed a Fast Skeletal Regulatory Activator Agreement dated April 23, 2020 (the “Astellas FSRA Agreement”). As a result of the FSRA Agreement, the Company will now have exclusive control and responsibility for the Company's future development and commercialization of reldesemtiv, CK-601 and other fast skeletal regulatory activator (collectively “FSRA”) compounds and products, and accordingly, Astellas has agreed to terminate its license to all FSRA compounds and related products. Under the Astellas FSRA Agreement, Astellas has agreed to pay one-third of the out-of-pocket clinical development costs which may be incurred in connection with the Company’s potential Phase 3 clinical trial of reldesemtiv in ALS up to a maximum contribution by Astellas of $12 million. In addition, Astellas has agreed to non-cash contributions to the Company, which include the transfer of its existing inventories of active pharmaceutical ingredient of reldesemtiv and CK-601. Astellas has also agreed to the continued conduct of ongoing stability studies pertaining to such existing inventories of active pharmaceutical ingredient, at Astellas' cost. In exchange, the Company will pay Astellas a low- to mid- single digit royalty on sales of reldesemtiv in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and the European Union until the later of (i) ten years following the first commercial sale of such product in a major market country, or (ii) December 31, 2034, subject to certain royalty reduction provisions. The Company would not owe Astellas royalties on sales of reldesemtiv in any other country, or on the sale of any FSRA compounds or related products other than reldesemtiv.

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The Company and Astellas also signed a License and Collaboration Agreement for Other Skeletal Sarcomere Activators, dated April 23, 2020 (the “Astellas OSSA Agreement”). The Astellas OSSA Agreement is an amendment and restatement of the Astellas Agreement and removes the FSRA compounds and related products from the collaboration.

Under the Astellas OSSA Agreement, Astellas has extended the joint research program at the Company focused on the discovery of additional next-generation skeletal muscle activators (other than FSRAs) through December 31, 2020, with a minimum of fifteen (15) research FTE’s being supported by Astellas.  

In addition, under the Astellas OSSA Agreement, Astellas has exclusive rights to co-develop and commercialize skeletal sarcomere activators (other than FSRA compounds and products) in all indications, subject to certain development and commercialization rights of the Company; the Company may co-promote and conduct certain commercial activities in the U.S., Canada and/or Europe under agreed scenarios. Astellas will be responsible for the costs associated with the development of all collaboration products under the Astellas OSSA Agreement, subject to the Company’s option to co-fund certain development costs as described below. The Company retains an option to conduct early-stage development for certain agreed indications at its initial expense, subject to reimbursement if development continues under the collaboration. Astellas will reimburse the Company for certain expenses associated with its co-promotion activities. The Astellas OSSA Agreement also provides for the Company to lead certain activities relating to the commercialization of collaboration products for neuromuscular indications in the U.S., Canada and Europe under particular scenarios. The research term may be extended beyond December 31, 2020 by mutual consent.  

If development candidates are identified and advance in clinical research, the Astellas OSSA Agreement contains provisions related to shared development roles between the Company and Astellas, and opportunities for the Company to co-invest and/or co-promote under certain conditions. In the case of molecules taken forward solely by Astellas, the Company would receive development and regulatory milestones of $25 to $35 million per product, up to $250 million for all products, except under certain scenarios, commercial milestones of up to $200 million, and royalties that range from a mid-single digit level to low double-digits.  In the event of co-investment by the Company and approvals in certain indications, the Company would receive royalties ranging from mid-to-high double digits (not to exceed an incremental rate in the mid-twenties).

Astellas may terminate the Astellas OSSA Agreement as to any particular product or territory, or in its entirety, upon 180 days advance written notice following expiration of the research term.

Reldesemtiv

Reldesemtiv selectively activates the fast skeletal muscle troponin complex in the sarcomere by increasing its sensitivity to calcium, leading to an increase in skeletal muscle contractility. Reldesemtiv has demonstrated pharmacological activity in preclinical models and evidence of potentially clinically relevant pharmacodynamic effects in humans. The FDA granted reldesemtiv orphan drug designation for the potential treatment of SMA in 2017 and for the potential treatment of ALS in 2019. The European Medicines Agency (“EMA”) granted orphan medicinal product designation to reldesemtiv for the potential treatment of SMA in 2019 and for the potential treatment of ALS in March 2020.

Reldesemtiv: Clinical Development

SMA: In 2018, we announced data from a hypothesis-generating, Phase 2 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study in patients with SMA which was designed to determine potential pharmacodynamic effects of a suspension formulation of reldesemtiv following 8 weeks of oral dosing in each of two cohorts of 36 patients with Type II, Type III, or Type IV disease. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of reldesemtiv. The study showed statistically significant concentration-dependent increases in changes from baseline in Six Minute Walk Distance (“6MWD”), a sub-maximal exercise test of aerobic capacity and endurance. The study also showed statistically significant increases for Maximal Expiratory Pressure (“MEP”), a measure of strength of respiratory muscles. Other assessments, including the Hammersmith Functional Motor Score - Extended, Revised Upper Limb Module, Timed Up-and-Go, Forced Vital Capacity, and the SMA Health Index (“SMA-HI”), a patient reported outcome measure (“PROM”) developed to comply with FDA standards for PROMs, did not demonstrate differences between reldesemtiv versus placebo. Adverse events were similar between groups receiving reldesemtiv and placebo.

Additional results presented in 2018 showed sustained increases in 6MWD and MEP four weeks after discontinuation of study drug (i.e., follow-up). A post-hoc analysis also showed that changes from baseline in the 6MWD at 450 mg twice daily were significantly correlated with changes from baseline on certain domains of the SMA-HI intended to reflect improved endurance, especially Fatigue and Activity Participation. Decreases in SMA-HI scores reflect reduced disease burden as measured by that PROM, suggesting that as 6MWD increased, disease burden assessed by that domain of the SMA-HI was reduced.

In 2019, we announced that we received feedback from the FDA that the 6MWD is an acceptable primary efficacy endpoint for a potential registration program for reldesemtiv in patients with SMA who have maintained ambulatory function. The FDA also recommended adding a global function scale as a secondary endpoint.

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In 2019, we announced that data from two preclinical studies of reldesemtiv showed that the addition of reldesemtiv to treatment with SMN upregulators (nusinersen and SMN-C1, an analogue to risdiplam) significantly increased muscle force in a mouse model of SMA.

ALS: In collaboration with Astellas, we conducted FORTITUDE-ALS. This trial enrolled 458 eligible ALS patients who were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive either 150 mg, 300 mg or 450 mg of reldesemtiv or placebo dosed orally twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint of FORTITUDE-ALS was the change from baseline in the percent predicted slow vital capacity (“SVC”) at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints included slope of the change from baseline in the mega-score of muscle strength measured by hand held dynamometry and handgrip dynamometry in patients on reldesemtiv; change from baseline in the ALS Functional Rating Scale – Revised (“ALSFRS-R”); incidence and severity of treatment-emergent adverse events; and plasma concentrations of reldesemtiv at the sampled time points during the study. Exploratory endpoints measured included the effect of reldesemtiv versus placebo on self-assessments of respiratory function made at home by the patient with help as needed by the caregiver; disease progression through quantitative measurement of speech production characteristics over time; disease progression through quantitative measurement of handwriting abilities over time; and the change from baseline in quality of life (as measured by the ALS Assessment Questionnaire-5) in patients on reldesemtiv.

In 2019, we announced that results of FORTITUDE-ALS. FORTITUDE-ALS did not achieve statistical significance for a pre-specified dose-response relationship in its primary endpoint of change from baseline in SVC after 12 weeks of dosing (p=0.11). Similar analyses of ALSFRS-R and slope of the Muscle Strength Mega-Score yielded p-values of 0.09 and 0.31, respectively. However, patients on all dose groups of reldesemtiv declined numerically less than patients on placebo for SVC and ALSFRS-R, with larger differences emerging over time.

While the dose-response analyses for the primary and secondary endpoints did not achieve statistical significance at the level of 0.05, in a post-hoc analysis pooling the doses together, patients who received reldesemtiv in FORTITUDE-ALS declined less than patients who received placebo. The trial showed numerical effects favoring reldesemtiv across dose levels and timepoints with clinically meaningful magnitudes of effect observed at 12 weeks for the primary and secondary endpoints. The differences between reldesemtiv and placebo in SVC and ALSFRS-R total score observed after 12 weeks of treatment were still evident at follow-up, four weeks after the last dose of study drug.

The incidence of early treatment discontinuations, serious adverse events and clinical adverse events in FORTITUDE-ALS were similar between placebo and active treatment arms. The most common clinical adverse effects in the trial included fatigue, nausea and headache. The leading cause for early termination from FORTITUDE-ALS for patients who received placebo was progressive disease; the leading cause for early termination for patients who received reldesemtiv was a decline in cystatin C based estimated glomerular filtration rate (“eGFR”), a measure of renal function. Elevations in transaminases and declines in cystatin C eGFR were dose-related.

In 2019, post-hoc analyses from FORTITUDE-ALS were presented. The analyses demonstrated that, in the combined middle and faster progressing tertiles of patients, the decline in the ALSFRS-R total score from baseline to week 12 in patients who received any dose of reldesemtiv was significantly smaller than the decline on placebo, while no significant difference between reldesemtiv and placebo was observed in slower progressing patients.

In 2019, we presented subgroup analyses of FORTITUDE-ALS, the Phase 2 clinical trial of reldesemtiv in patients with ALS, showing that the effect of reldesemtiv on patients with ALS was similar whether or not patients were also receiving edaravone and/or riluzole.

In the fourth quarter of 2019 and the first quarter of 2020, we convened regulatory interactions and conducted feasibility and other planning activities in preparation for the potential advancement of reldesemtiv to a Phase 3 trial in patients in ALS.

CK-601

In October 2018, we announced the advancement of CK-601, a next-generation FSTA, into Investigational New Drug (“IND”)-enabling studies, which triggered a $2.0 million milestone payment from Astellas to us. CK-601 was designed in a joint research program conducted by the companies’ scientists to have different pharmacokinetics and physicochemical properties than reldesemtiv which may inform its development for the treatment of diseases and conditions associated with both neuromuscular and non-neuromuscular etiology and pathogenesis. We expect to continue IND-enabling studies for CK-601 in 2020.

Ongoing Research in Skeletal Muscle Activators

Our research program with Astellas was extended through 2020. Currently our research on the direct activation of skeletal muscle continues in two areas. We are conducting translational research in preclinical models of disease and muscle function with FSTAs to explore the potential clinical applications of this novel mechanism in diseases or conditions associated with skeletal muscle dysfunction. We also are conducting preclinical research on other chemically and pharmacologically distinct mechanisms to activate the skeletal sarcomere, which we have agreed to be the focus for our continued joint research program with Astellas in 2020.

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Beyond Muscle Contractility

We developed preclinical expertise in the mechanics of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle that extends from proteins to tissues to intact animal models. Our translational research in muscle contractility has enabled us to better understand the potential impact of small molecule compounds that increase skeletal or cardiac muscle contractility and to apply those findings to the further evaluation of our drug candidates in clinical populations. In addition to contractility, other major functions of muscle play a role in certain diseases that could benefit from novel mechanism treatments. Accordingly, our knowledge of muscle contractility may serve as an entry point to the discovery of novel treatments for disorders involving muscle functions other than muscle contractility. We are leveraging our current understandings of muscle biology to investigate new ways of modulating these other aspects of muscle function for other potential therapeutic applications.

COVID-19 Business Update

We are continuing to closely monitor the impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic on our business and are taking proactive efforts designed to protect the health and safety of our employees, patients, study investigators and clinical research staff, and to maintain business continuity. We believe that the measures we are implementing are appropriate and are helping to reduce the transmission of COVID-19, and we will continue to monitor and seek to comply with guidance from governmental authorities and adjust our activities as appropriate.

Based on guidance issued by federal, state and local authorities, we transitioned to a remote work model for a vast majority of our employees effective March 16, 2020, while maintaining certain essential in-person laboratory functions in order to advance key research and development initiatives, supported by the implementation of updated onsite procedures.

In the conduct of our business activities, we are also taking actions designed to protect the safety of patients and healthcare professionals. For patients already enrolled in our clinical trials, we and our partners are working closely with study investigators and clinical trial site staff to continue treatment in compliance with trial protocols and to uphold trial integrity, while working to observe government and institutional guidelines designed to safeguard the health and safety of patients and site staff. 

As discussed above, at this time we do not anticipate delays in the completion of GALACTIC-HF attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. As of mid-April, we suspended enrollment activities in METEORIC-HF and REDWOOD-HCM although activities to ready new site activations continue. These internal and external activities have allowed us to continue progress across our clinical development programs. In respect of METEORIC-HF, we believe enrollment may be completed by the end of the fourth quarter of 2020 if enrollment can be reactivated by the end of the second quarter of 2020.  In respect of REDWOOD-HCM, we believe data from the first cohort of patients enrolled can be available in the second half of 2020 if enrollment in the first cohort can be completed by mid-year. If the pandemic precludes resumption of enrollment in METEORIC-HF and REDWOOD-HCM by the end of the second quarter of 2020, we anticipate an impact to our ability to track with our current timelines.

While the potential economic impact brought by, and the duration of, the COVID-19 pandemic may be difficult to assess or predict, the pandemic could result in significant and prolonged disruption of global financial markets, reducing our ability to access capital, which could in the future negatively affect our liquidity. In addition, a recession or market correction resulting from the spread of COVID-19 could materially affect our business and the value of our common stock.

While we expect the COVID-19 pandemic to continue to affect our business operations, the extent of the impact on our clinical development and regulatory efforts and the value of and market for our common stock will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence at this time, such as the ultimate duration of the pandemic, travel restrictions, quarantines, social distancing and business closure requirements in the U.S. and in other countries, and the effectiveness of actions taken globally to contain and treat COVID-19. For additional information about risks and uncertainties related to the COVID-19 pandemic that may impact our business, our financial condition and our results of operations, see the section titled “Risk Factors” under Part II, Item 1A in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Estimates

The accounting policies that we consider to be our most critical (i.e., those that are most important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations and that require our most difficult, subjective or complex judgments), the effects of those accounting policies applied and the judgments made in their application are summarized in “Item 7 — Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Estimates” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.

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Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and expenses and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We review our estimates on an ongoing basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 1, “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” in the Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of recently adopted accounting pronouncements and accounting pronouncements not yet adopted, and their expected impact on our financial position and results of operations.

Results of Operations

Revenues

Revenue for the first quarters of 2020 and 2019 was $3.8 million and $8.5 million, respectively, and primarily consisted of revenues from our collaborations with Amgen and Astellas, including research and development revenue of $2.3 million and $4.2 million, respectively, from Amgen and $1.5 million and $4.3 million, respectively, from Astellas.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses for the first quarters of 2020 and 2019 were as follows (in thousands):

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 31, 2020

 

 

March 31, 2019

 

 

Increase

(Decrease)

 

Cardiac muscle contractility

 

$

12,108

 

 

$

11,473

 

 

$

635

 

Skeletal muscle contractility

 

 

2,619

 

 

 

6,948