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EX-32.1 - EXHIBIT 32.1 - CAVCO INDUSTRIES INC.cvco-2018331xexhibit321.htm
EX-31.2 - EXHIBIT 31.2 - CAVCO INDUSTRIES INC.cvco-2018331xexhibit312.htm
EX-31.1 - EXHIBIT 31.1 - CAVCO INDUSTRIES INC.cvco-2018331xexhibit311.htm
EX-23 - EXHIBIT 23 - CAVCO INDUSTRIES INC.cvco-2018331xexhibit231.htm
EX-21 - EXHIBIT 21 - CAVCO INDUSTRIES INC.cvco-2018331xexhibit21.htm

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018
or
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                    to
Commission File Number 000-08822
 
Cavco Industries, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
56-2405642
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
1001 North Central Avenue, Suite 800
Phoenix, Arizona 85004
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
602-256-6263
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
(Global Select Market)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this Chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a small reporting company. See definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
¨
Accelerated filer
ý
Non-accelerated filer
¨ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
¨
Emerging growth company
¨
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  ý
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates as of September 30, 2017 (based on the closing price on the Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC on September 30, 2017) was $655,357,047. Shares of Common Stock held by each officer, director and holder of 5% or more of the outstanding Common Stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of May 25, 2018, 9,044,943 shares of Registrant’s Common Stock, $.01 par value, were outstanding.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Cavco Industries, Inc.’s Definitive Proxy Statement relating to its 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.



CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31, 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
Page
 
 
 
 
 

1


PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
General
Cavco Industries, Inc., a Delaware corporation, was formed on June 30, 2003, as a successor corporation to previous Cavco entities operating since 1965. Headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona, the Company designs and produces factory-built homes primarily distributed through a network of independent and Company-owned retailers, planned community operators and residential developers. We are one of the largest producers of manufactured homes in the United States, based on reported wholesale shipments, marketed under a variety of brand names, which include Cavco Homes, Fleetwood Homes, Palm Harbor Homes, Fairmont Homes, Friendship Homes, Chariot Eagle and Lexington Homes. The Company is also a leading builder of park model RVs, vacation cabins and systems-built commercial structures, as well as modular homes built primarily under the Nationwide Homes brand. Cavco's mortgage subsidiary, CountryPlace Acceptance Corp. ("CountryPlace"), is an approved Federal National Mortgage Association ("FNMA" or "Fannie Mae") and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation ("FHLMC" or "Freddie Mac") seller/servicer, and a Government National Mortgage Association ("GNMA" or "Ginnie Mae") mortgage-backed securities issuer that offers conforming mortgages, non-conforming mortgages and home-only loans to purchasers of factory-built homes. Our insurance subsidiary, Standard Casualty Co. ("Standard Casualty"), provides property and casualty insurance primarily to owners of manufactured homes. The terms "Cavco," "us," "we," "our," the "Company," and any other similar terms refer to Cavco Industries, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise indicated in this Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Annual Report").
We construct our homes using an assembly-line process in which each module or floor section is assembled in stages. Our assembly-line process is designed to be flexible enough to accommodate significant customization, as requested by our customers. The Company operates 20 homebuilding facilities located in the Northwest, Southwest, South, Southeast, Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions.
We distribute our homes through 39 Company-owned U.S. retail outlets and a network of independent distribution points in 47 states, Canada and Japan. Thirty-one of our Company-owned retail stores are located in Texas.
CountryPlace originates single-family residential mortgages and home-only loans, and services, for itself and others, conforming land-home mortgages, non-conforming mortgages and manufactured home-only loans. CountryPlace is authorized by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development ("HUD") to directly endorse Federal Housing Administration ("FHA") Title I and Title II mortgage insurance, is an approved lender with the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs ("VA") and the U.S. Department of Agriculture ("USDA") under its Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program, is approved by the GNMA to issue GNMA-insured mortgage-backed securities and is authorized to sell mortgages to, and service mortgages for, the FNMA and the FHLMC. A conforming mortgage or loan is one that conforms to the guidelines of a Government-Sponsored Enterprise ("GSE"), such as Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or a government agency, such as FHA; a non-conforming mortgage or loan does not conform to these guidelines (see Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements).
Standard Casualty is domiciled in Texas and is primarily a specialty writer of manufactured home physical damage insurance. Standard Casualty holds insurance licenses in multiple states; however, a significant portion of its writings occur in Texas and Arizona. In addition to writing direct policies, Standard Casualty assumes and cedes reinsurance in the ordinary course of business (see Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements).
See Note 21 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for financial information regarding our business segments, factory-built housing and financial services, both of which are discussed below.



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Business Strategies
Our marketing strategy is to offer manufactured homes that appeal to a wide range of home buyers. Our principal focus is on the sale of high-value homes to entry-level and move-up buyers and to persons age 55 and older. We also market to special niches such as subdivision developers and vacation home buyers.
Our production strategy is to develop and maintain the resources necessary to build varied and unique customer specifications in an efficient factory production environment. This enables us to attract retailers and consumers who want the flexibility to customize homes to meet their specific needs, but also seek the value created by building a home on a factory production line.
Our competitive strategy is to build homes of superior quality, offer innovative designs and floor plans, demonstrate exceptional value, provide the engineering and technical resources to enable custom home building and be responsive and efficient in servicing the customer after the sale. We strive to maintain a competitive advantage by reacting quickly to changes in the marketplace and to the specific needs of our retailers and consumers.
Cavco has strategically expanded its factory operations and related business initiatives primarily through the acquisition of industry competitor operations. This has enabled the Company to more broadly participate in the overall housing industry recovery.
The purchase of the Fleetwood Homes, Inc. ("Fleetwood") and Palm Harbor Homes, Inc. ("Palm Harbor") assets in August 2009 and April 2011, respectively, increased home production capabilities and distribution and provided entry into financial services businesses specific to the Company's industry, allowing the Company to be vertically integrated. The transactions further expanded the Company's geographic reach at a national level by adding factories and retail locations serving the Northwest, West, South, South Central and Mid-Atlantic regions.
The purchase of Chariot Eagle, LLC ("Chariot Eagle") and Fairmont Homes, LLC ("Fairmont Homes"), in March 2015 and May 2015, respectively, provided for further operating capacity, increased home production capabilities and further strengthened our market position in the Midwest, the western Great Plains states, the Northeast and several provinces in Canada.
The purchase of Lexington Homes, Inc. ("Lexington Homes") in April 2017 provided additional operating capacity and increased home production capabilities, further expanding our distribution into new Southern markets.
Products
A majority of our products are constructed in accordance with the National Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards promulgated by HUD ("HUD code"). We also build park model RVs, constructed to standards approved by the American National Standards Institute, a private, non-profit organization that administers and coordinates a voluntary standardization and conformity program. Park model RVs are less than 400 square feet in size, are primarily used as vacation dwellings and seasonal living, and are placed in planned communities, recreational home parks and resorts. We also produce a wide variety of modular homes, which include single and multi-module ranch, split-level and Cape Cod style homes, as well as two and three story homes and multi-family units. We also build commercial modular structures, including apartment buildings, condominiums, hotels, workforce housing, schools and housing for U.S. military troops (e.g., barracks). Commercial buildings are constructed in the same facilities in which we build our residential homes using similar assembly line processes and techniques. These commercial projects are generally engineered to the purchaser's specifications. The buildings are transported to the customer's site in the same manner as homes and are often set by crane and finished at the site.
We produce our residential homes in a variety of floor plans. Most of these homes are single-story and generally range in size from approximately 500 to 3,300 square feet, but may be larger in the case of multi-level modular homes. In fiscal years 2018 and 2017, we sold 14,537 and 13,820 homes, respectively.

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Each home typically contains a living room, dining area, kitchen, one to five bedrooms and one or more bathrooms, and is equipped with central heating and hot water systems, kitchen appliances, floor coverings and window treatments. Feature upgrades include fireplaces, central air conditioning, tile roofs, high ceilings, skylights, hardwood floors, custom cabinetry, granite countertops and eco-friendly elements. We also offer a variety of structural and decorative customizations to meet the home buyer's specifications. With manufacturing centers strategically positioned across the nation, we utilize local market research to design homes to meet the demands of our customers. We have the ability to react and modify floor plans and designs to consumers' specific needs. By offering a full range of homes from entry-level models to large custom homes and with the ability to engineer designs in-house, we can accommodate a wide spectrum of customer requests.
We regularly introduce new floor plans, decors, exteriors, features and accessories to appeal to changing trends in different regions of the country. We have developed engineering systems which, through the use of computer-aided technology, permit customization of homes and assist with product development and enhancement. We work with a variety of partners, meeting an expanding range of housing needs from a home buyer's private land to planned neighborhoods to recreational or resort properties to accommodations for workforces in agriculture and industry.
We employ a concerted effort to identify niche market opportunities where our diverse product lines and custom building capabilities provide us with a competitive advantage. We are focused on building quality, energy efficient homes for the modern home buyer. Our green building initiatives involve the creation of an energy efficient envelope, including higher utilization of renewable materials. These homes provide environmentally-friendly maintenance requirements, typically lower utility costs, specially designed ventilation systems and sustainability. Cavco also builds homes designed to use alternative energy sources, such as solar and wind. From bamboo flooring and tankless water heaters to solar-powered homes, our products are diverse and tailored to a wide range of consumer interests.
Our manufactured homes are constructed and equipped at our factories. The finished home is then generally transported by independent trucking companies either to a retail sales center, planned community, housing development, work site or the customer's site. Retailers or other independent installers are responsible for placing the home on site and, in most instances, arranging for connections to utilities and providing installation and finish-out services. Although manufactured homes are designed to be transportable, cost considerations cause very few to be moved from their original site after installation.
Factory-built Housing
Manufacturing Operations. Our homes are constructed in factories using an assembly-line process and employing from 112 to 341 employees at each facility. Most of our homes are constructed in one or more sections (also known as floors or modules) on a permanently affixed steel or wood support chassis. Each section is assembled in stages beginning with the construction of the chassis, followed by the addition of other constructed and purchased components and ending with a final quality control inspection. The efficiency of the assembly-line process and the benefits of constructing homes in a controlled factory environment enables us to produce quality homes in less time and at a lower cost per square foot than building homes on individual sites.
We operate 20 manufacturing facilities in Millersburg and Woodburn, Oregon; Nampa, Idaho; Riverside, California; Phoenix and Goodyear, Arizona; Austin, Fort Worth, Seguin and Waco, Texas; Montevideo, Minnesota (2); Nappanee, Indiana; Lafayette, Tennessee; Lexington, Mississippi; Martinsville and Rocky Mount, Virginia; Douglas, Georgia; and Ocala and Plant City, Florida. These manufacturing facilities range from approximately 79,000 to 341,000 square feet of floor space. The production schedules for our manufacturing facilities are based on wholesale orders received from independent and Company-owned retailers. In general, however, our facilities are structured to operate on a one shift per day, five days per week basis, and we currently manufacture a typical home in approximately six production days.

4


Manufactured housing is a regional business and the primary geographic market for a typical manufacturing facility is within a cost effective shipping radius of 350 miles. Each of our manufacturing facilities serves multiple retailers along with a number of one-time purchasers. Because we produce homes to fill existing wholesale orders, our factories generally do not carry finished goods inventories, except for homes awaiting delivery. Materials used in our homebuilding operations are mainly standard items carried by major suppliers and consist of wood, wood products, steel, gypsum wallboard, windows, doors, fiberglass insulation, carpet, vinyl, fasteners, plumbing materials, aluminum, appliances and electrical items. We generally contract for our materials and labor at a fixed price. Increases in the cost of materials and labor may reduce gross margins from home sales to the extent that increased costs cannot be fully or efficiently recovered through higher home sales prices. From time to time and to varying degrees, we may experience shortages in the availability of materials and/or labor in the markets we serve. These shortages may result in extended order backlogs, delays in the delivery of homes, reduced gross margins from home sales, or all of these.
At March 31, 2018, we had a backlog of home orders with wholesale sales values of approximately $179.0 million, compared to a backlog of $88.8 million at April 1, 2017. Retailers may cancel orders prior to production without penalty. After production of a particular home has commenced, the order becomes noncancelable and the retailer is obligated to take delivery of the home. Accordingly, until production of a particular home has commenced, we do not consider our order backlog to be firm orders. In response to accelerating demand, we have raised production levels by increasing our workforce size and capabilities. However, the constrained labor market is a key challenge to further increasing production to keep pace with increased order rates. In addition, we have implemented higher product pricing to offset rising input costs, including labor and material price increases, although large backlogs may cause deferred realization of the full benefits of these surcharges.
Revenue and Distribution. The Company sold 14,537, 13,820 and 12,339 homes in fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, through Company-owned and independent distribution channels.
As of March 31, 2018, we had a total of 39 Company-owned retail centers, located in Oregon, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma and Florida. Thirty-one of the Company-owned retail stores are located in Texas. Our Company-owned sales centers are generally located on main roads or highways with high visibility. Each of our Company-owned retail sales centers has a sales office, which is generally a factory-built structure, and a variety of model homes of various sizes, floor plans, features and prices. Customers most often custom order a home that will be built at a manufacturing facility, or they may purchase a home from the inventory of homes maintained at the location, including a model home. Model homes may be displayed in a residential setting with sidewalks and landscaping. Each sales center usually employs a manager and one to five salespersons, who are compensated through a combination of salary and commission. We internally finance home inventories at Company-owned retail centers.
As of March 31, 2018, we had a network of independent distribution points, of which 12% were in Arizona, 11% in Texas, 8% in California, 7% in Florida, and 7% in Oregon, based on the quantity of wholesale shipments during fiscal 2018. The remaining 55% were in 42 other states, Canada and Japan. As is common in the industry, our independent distributors typically sell homes produced by other manufacturers in addition to those we produce. Some independent retailers operate multiple sales outlets. No independent retailer accounted for 10% or more of our factory-built housing revenue during any fiscal year within the three-year period ended March 31, 2018.
We continually seek to increase our wholesale shipments by growing sales at our existing independent retailers and by finding new independent retailers to sell our homes. We provide comprehensive sales training to retail sales associates and bring them to our manufacturing facilities for product training and to view new product designs as they are developed. These training seminars facilitate the sale of our homes by increasing the skill and knowledge of the retail sales consultants. In addition, we display our products in trade shows and support our retailers through the distribution of floor plan literature, brochures, decor selection displays, point of sale promotional material and internet-based marketing assistance.

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Independent retailers frequently finance a portion of their home purchases through wholesale floor plan financing arrangements. In most cases, we receive a deposit or a commitment from the retailer's lender for each home ordered. We then manufacture the home and it is shipped at the retailer's expense. Payment is due from the lender upon shipment of the product. For a description of wholesale floor plan financing arrangements used by independent retailers and our obligations in connection with these arrangements, see "Financing—Commercial Financing" below.
Warranties. We provide the retail home buyer a one-year limited warranty covering defects in material or workmanship in home structure, plumbing and electrical systems. Nonstructural components of a cosmetic nature are warranted for 120 days, except in specific cases where state laws require longer warranty terms. Our warranty does not extend to installation and setup of the home, which is generally arranged by the retailer. Appliances, floor coverings, roofing and certain other components are warranted by their original manufacturer for various lengths of time.
Financial Services
Finance. We provide a source of home buyer financing to our customers on competitive terms through our subsidiary, CountryPlace. CountryPlace offers conforming mortgages, non-conforming mortgages and home-only loans to purchasers of numerous brands of factory-built homes sold by Company-owned retail sales centers and certain independent retailers, builders, communities and developers. CountryPlace is authorized to directly endorse FHA Title I and Title II mortgage insurance, is an approved lender with the VA and the USDA under its Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program, is approved to issue GNMA-insured mortgage-backed securities and is authorized to sell mortgages to, and service mortgages for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Most loans originated through CountryPlace are sold to investors. CountryPlace also provides various loan servicing functions for non-affiliated entities under contract.
CountryPlace's loan contracts are fixed and step rate and have monthly scheduled payments of principal and interest. The scheduled payments for each contract would, if made on their respective due dates, result in a full amortization of the contract. Loan contracts secured by collateral that is geographically concentrated could experience higher rates of delinquencies, default and foreclosure losses than loan contracts secured by collateral that is more geographically dispersed. CountryPlace has loan contracts secured by factory-built homes located in 29 states, with the largest concentrations in Texas, Florida, New Mexico and Arizona.
We believe that providing financing alternatives improves our responsiveness to the financing needs of prospective home purchasers and provides us with opportunities for additional sources of loan origination and servicing revenues. CountryPlace has modestly expanded its home-only lending programs in recent years, partially with the support of independent third party financiers. Home-only loans originated are either sold outright, grouped and sold as a pool of loans or held for investment.
Insurance. Standard Casualty specializes in homeowner property and casualty insurance products for the manufactured housing industry. Standard Casualty is domiciled in Texas and holds insurance licenses in multiple states, primarily serving the Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Georgia markets. In addition to writing direct policies, Standard Casualty assumes and cedes reinsurance in the ordinary course of business. In Texas, policies are written through one affiliated managing general agent, which produces all premiums, and through local agents, most of which are manufactured home retailers. All business outside the state of Texas is written on a direct basis through local agents.

6


Financing
Commercial Financing. Certain of our wholesale factory-built housing sales to independent retailers were purchased through wholesale floor plan financing arrangements. Under a typical floor plan financing arrangement, an independent financial institution specializing in this line of business provides the retailer with a loan for the purchase price of the home and maintains a security interest in the home as collateral. The financial institution customarily requires us, as the manufacturer of the home, to enter into a separate repurchase agreement with the financial institution that, upon default by the retailer and under certain other circumstances, obligates the Company to repurchase the financed home at declining prices over the term of the repurchase agreement (which, in most cases, is 18 to 36 months). The price at which we may be obligated to repurchase a home under these agreements is based upon the amount financed, plus certain administrative and shipping expenses. Our obligation under these repurchase agreements ceases upon the purchase of the home by the retail customer. The maximum amount of our contingent obligations under such repurchase agreements was approximately $55.6 million as of March 31, 2018 compared to $46.3 million as of April 1, 2017. The risk of loss under these agreements is spread over many retailers and is further reduced by the resale value of the homes.
Faced with illiquid capital markets in late calendar year 2008, significant changes were initiated at each of the manufactured housing sector's remaining inventory finance companies (floor plan lenders), which restricted the availability of inventory financing for the industry. As a result of these changes, the Company enters into commercial loan arrangements with distributors of our products under which the Company provides funds for financing purchases (see Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements). The Company's involvement in commercial loans has increased the availability of manufactured home financing to distributors, communities and developers. While the availability of financing for the industry's wholesale distribution chain has improved, we believe that taking part in the wholesale financing of homes is helpful to borrowers and allows our homes continued exposure to potential home buyers. These initiatives support the Company's ongoing efforts to expand our distribution base in all of our markets with existing and new customers. We have also earned interest income on these loans, which is recorded in Other income, net in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income. However, the initiatives expose the Company to risks associated with the creditworthiness of certain customers and business partners, including independent retailers, developers, communities and inventory financing partners.
Consumer Financing. Sales of factory-built homes are significantly affected by the availability and cost of consumer financing. There are three basic types of consumer financing in the factory-built housing industry: conforming mortgage loans which comply with the requirements of FHA, VA, USDA or GSE loans; non-conforming mortgages for purchasers of the home and the land on which the home is placed; and personal property loans (often referred to as home-only or chattel loans) for consumers where the home is the sole collateral for the loan (generally HUD code homes).
Restrictive underwriting guidelines, irregular appraisal processes, higher interest rates compared to mortgages for site-built homes, regulatory burdens, a limited number of institutions lending to manufactured home buyers and limited secondary market availability for manufactured home loans have been significant constraints to industry growth. We are working directly with other industry participants to develop manufactured home consumer financing loan portfolios to attract industry financiers interested in furthering or expanding lending opportunities in the industry. Additionally, we continue to invest in community-based lending initiatives that provide home-only financing to new residents of certain manufactured home communities. Our mortgage subsidiary has developed and invests in home-only lending programs to grow sales of homes through traditional distribution points as well. We believe that growing our participation in home-only lending may provide additional sales growth opportunities for our factory-built housing operations.

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We are also working through industry trade associations to encourage favorable legislative and GSE action to address the mortgage financing needs of potential buyers of affordable homes. Federal law requires the GSEs to issue a regulation to implement the "Duty to Serve" requirements specified in the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, as amended by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008. FNMA and FHLMC released their final Underserved Markets Plan that describes, with specificity, the actions they will take over a three-year period to fulfill the "Duty to Serve" obligation. These plans became effective on January 1, 2018. Each of the three-year plans is intended to establish steps to ensure home-only loans can be purchased in bulk prior to proceeding with a pilot program to purchase these loans. Expansion of the secondary market for home-only lending through the GSEs could provide further demand for housing, as lending options would likely become more available to home buyers. Although some limited progress has been made in this area, meaningful positive impact in the form of increased home orders has yet to be realized.
Industry Overview
General. Manufactured housing provides an alternative in urban, suburban and rural areas to other forms of new low-cost housing such as site-built housing and condominiums, and to existing housing such as pre-owned homes and apartments. According to statistics published by the Institute for Building Technology and Safety ("IBTS") and the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, for the 2017 calendar year, manufactured housing wholesale shipments of homes constructed in accordance with the HUD code accounted for an estimated 13.3% of all new single-family homes sold.
According to data reported by the Manufactured Housing Institute ("MHI"), industry home shipments continue to improve, increasing to approximately 93,000 HUD code manufactured homes shipped during calendar year 2017, compared to the 81,000 shipped during calendar 2016 and 71,000 shipments in 2015. Annual shipments have increased each year since calendar year 2009 when only 50,000 HUD code manufactured homes were shipped, the lowest level since the industry began recording statistics in 1959. While shipments of HUD code manufactured homes have improved modestly in recent years, the manufactured housing industry continues to operate at relatively low levels compared to historical shipment statistics.
Protracted Industry Downturn. Beginning in mid-1999, the manufactured housing industry experienced a prolonged and significant downturn. This downturn resulted in part from the fact that, beginning in 1999, consumer lenders in the sector began to tighten underwriting standards and curtail credit availability in response to higher than anticipated rates of loan defaults and significant losses upon the repossession and resale of the manufactured homes securing defaulted loans. From 2004 to 2007, the industry's downturn was exacerbated by the aggressive financing methods available to customers of developers and marketers of standard site-built homes, which had the effect of diverting potential manufactured housing buyers to more expensive site-built homes. Beginning in 2008, the global credit crisis and general deterioration of economic conditions extended the depressed market conditions in which our industry operates. These factors have resulted in low wholesale shipment levels and underutilized manufacturing and retail locations. However, while the industry continues to operate at generally low levels, as discussed above, industry shipment numbers have been increasing over the past eight years.
Home Buyer Demographics. We believe the segment of the housing market in which manufactured housing is most competitive includes consumers with household incomes under $50,000. This segment has a high representation of young single persons and young married couples, as well as persons age 55 and older. The comparatively low cost of fully-equipped manufactured housing is attractive to these consumers. Persons in rural areas and those who presently live in manufactured homes also make up a significant portion of the demand for new manufactured housing. Innovative engineering and design, as well as efficient production techniques, continue to position manufactured homes to meet the demand for affordable housing in rural markets and manufactured housing communities. The markets for affordable factory-built housing are very competitive as well as cyclical and seasonal. The industry is sensitive to employment levels, consumer confidence, availability of financing and general economic conditions.

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We believe that employment rates and underemployment among potential home buyers who favor affordable housing as well as consumer confidence levels are improving from low levels reported in recent years. "First-time" and "move-up" buyers of affordable homes are historically among the largest segments of new manufactured home purchasers. Included in this group are lower-income households that were particularly affected by a period of persistently low employment rates and underemployment. The process of repairing damaged credit among such consumers and efforts to save for a home loan down-payment often require substantial time; however, improving consumer confidence in the U.S. economy is evident among manufactured home buyers interested in our products for seasonal or retirement living that have been concerned about financial stability, and now appear to be less hesitant to commit to a new home purchase. We believe sales of our products may continue to increase as employment and consumer confidence levels continue to recover.
The two largest manufactured housing consumer demographics, young adults and those who are 55+ years old, are both growing. The U.S. adult population is estimated to expand by approximately 12.1 million between 2017 and 2022. Young adults born from 1976 to 1995, sometimes referred to as Gen Y, represent a large segment of the population. Late-stage Gen Y is approximately 2.2 million people larger than the next age category born from 1966 to 1975, Gen X, and is considered to be in the peak home-buying years. Gen Y represents prime first-time home buyers who may be attracted by the affordability, diversity of style choices and location flexibility of factory-built homes. The age 55 and older category is reported to be the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population. This group is similarly interested in the value proposition; however, they are also motivated by the energy efficiency and low maintenance requirements of systems-built homes, and by the lifestyle offered by planned communities that are specifically designed for homeowners that fall into this age group.
Competition
The manufactured housing industry is highly competitive at both the manufacturing and retail levels, with competition based upon several factors, including price, product features, reputation for service and quality, depth of distribution, promotion, merchandising and the terms of retail customer financing. We compete with approximately 35 other producers of manufactured homes, as well as companies offering for sale homes repossessed from wholesalers or consumers. In addition, manufactured homes compete with new and existing site-built homes, as well as apartments, townhouses and condominiums.
There are a number of other national manufacturers competing for a significant share of the manufactured housing market in the United States, including Clayton Homes, Inc., Champion Home Builders, Inc. and Skyline Corporation. Certain of these competitors possess greater financial, manufacturing, distribution and marketing resources.
Although many lenders to factory-built home buyers have reduced their volume or exited the business, there are significant competitors to CountryPlace in the markets we serve. These competitors include national, regional and local banks, independent finance companies, mortgage brokers and mortgage banks, such as: 21st Mortgage Corporation, an affiliate of Clayton Homes, Inc. and Berkshire Hathaway, Inc.; Triad Financial Services, Inc.; and CU Factory Built Lending, LP. Certain of these competitors are larger than CountryPlace and have access to substantially more capital and cost efficiencies.
The market for homeowners insurance is highly competitive. Standard Casualty competes principally in property and casualty insurance for owners of manufactured homes with companies such as National Lloyds and American Modern Insurance. We compete based on price, the breadth of our product offerings, product features, customer service, claim handling and use of technology.

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Government Regulation
Our manufactured homes are subject to a number of federal, state and local laws, codes and regulations. Construction of manufactured housing is governed by the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974, as amended, or the Home Construction Act. In 1976, HUD issued regulations under the Home Construction Act establishing comprehensive national construction standards. In 1994, the codes were amended and expanded to, among other things, address specific requirements for homes destined for geographic areas subject to severe weather conditions. The HUD regulations, known collectively as the Federal Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards, cover all aspects of manufactured home construction, including structural integrity, fire safety, wind loads, thermal protection and ventilation. Such regulations preempt conflicting state and local regulations on such matters, and are subject to periodic change. Our manufacturing facilities, and the plans and specifications of the HUD code manufactured homes they produce, have been approved by a HUD-certified inspection agency. Further, an independent HUD-certified third-party inspector regularly reviews our manufactured homes for compliance with HUD regulations during construction. Failure to comply with applicable HUD regulations could expose us to a wide variety of sanctions, including mandated closings of our manufacturing facilities. We believe our manufactured homes are in substantial compliance with all present HUD requirements. Our park model RVs are not subject to HUD regulations, but we believe that our park model RVs meet all present standards of the American National Standards Institute.
Manufactured and site-built homes are all typically built with wood products that contain formaldehyde resins. HUD regulates the allowable concentrations of formaldehyde in certain products used in manufactured homes and requires manufacturers to warn purchasers about formaldehyde-associated risks. The Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") and other governmental agencies have in the past evaluated the effects of formaldehyde. We use materials in our manufactured homes that meet HUD standards for formaldehyde emissions and believe we comply with HUD and other applicable government regulations in this regard.
The transportation of manufactured homes on highways is subject to regulation by various federal, state and local authorities. Such regulations may prescribe size and road use limitations and impose lower than normal speed limits and various other requirements.
Our manufactured homes are subject to local zoning and housing regulations. In certain cities and counties in areas where our homes are sold, local governmental ordinances and regulations have been enacted which restrict the placement of manufactured homes on privately-owned land or which require the placement of manufactured homes in manufactured home communities. Such ordinances and regulations may adversely affect our ability to sell homes for installation in communities where they are in effect. A number of states have adopted procedures governing the installation of manufactured homes. Utility connections are subject to state and local regulations which must be complied with by the retailer or other person installing the home.
Certain warranties we issue may be subject to the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Federal Trade Commission Improvement Act ("Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act"), which regulates the descriptions of warranties on consumer products. In the case of warranties subject to the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, the Company is subject to a number of additional regulatory requirements. For example, warranties that are subject to the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act must be included in a single easy-to-read document that is generally made available prior to purchase. The Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act also prohibits certain attempts to disclaim or modify implied warranties and the use of deceptive or misleading terms. A claim for a violation of the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act can be the subject of an action in federal court in which consumers may be able to recover attorneys' fees. The description and substance of our warranties are also subject to a variety of state laws and regulations. A number of states require manufactured home producers and retailers to post bonds to ensure the satisfaction of consumer warranty claims.

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A variety of laws affect the financing of the homes we manufacture. The Federal Consumer Credit Protection Act ("Truth-in-Lending Act") and Regulation Z promulgated thereunder require written disclosure of information relating to such financing, including the amount of the annual percentage interest rate and the finance charge. The Federal Fair Credit Reporting Act also requires certain disclosures to potential customers concerning credit information used as a basis to deny credit. The Federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act and Regulation B promulgated thereunder prohibit discrimination against any credit applicant based on certain specified grounds. The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act ("RESPA") and Regulation X promulgated thereunder require certain disclosures regarding the nature and costs of real estate settlements. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") has adopted or proposed various Trade Regulation Rules dealing with unfair credit and collection practices and the preservation of consumers' claims and defenses. Direct loans and mortgage loans eligible for inclusion in a Ginnie Mae security are subject to the credit underwriting requirements of the FHA. A variety of state laws also regulate the form of financing documents and the allowable deposits, finance charge and fees chargeable pursuant to financing documents.
In 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act ("Dodd-Frank Act") was passed into law. The Dodd-Frank Act was a sweeping piece of legislation designed to reform credit and lending practices after the global credit crisis of 2008. Although many rules have been implemented, the full impact will not be known for years as rule revisions and the enforcement of the rules continue to evolve. On May 24, 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act ("Dodd-Frank Reform Act") was signed into law. The Dodd-Frank Reform Act revises portions of the Dodd-Frank Act, reduces the regulatory burden on smaller financial institutions, including eliminating provisions of the Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008 ("SAFE Act"), and protects consumer access to credit. With the elimination of certain provisions of the SAFE Act, manufactured housing retailers can now assist home buyers with securing financing for the purchase of homes; however, they may not assist in negotiating the financing terms. This will enable buyers to more easily find access to financing and make the overall home buying experience smoother.
Certain CFPB mortgage finance rules required under the Dodd-Frank Act, and modified by the Dodd-Frank Reform Act apply to consumer credit transactions secured by a dwelling, which include real property mortgages and home-only loans (financed without land) secured by manufactured homes. These rules defined standards for origination of "Qualified Mortgages," established specific requirements for lenders to prove borrowers' ability to repay loans, and outlined the conditions under which Qualified Mortgages are subject to safe harbor limitations on liability to borrowers. The rules also establish interest rates and other cost parameters for determining which Qualified Mortgages fall under safe harbor protection. Among other issues, Qualified Mortgages with interest rates and other costs outside the limits are deemed "rebuttable" by borrowers and expose the lender and its assignees (including investors in loans, pools of loans, and instruments secured by loans or loan pools) to possible litigation and penalties.
While many manufactured homes are currently financed with agency-conforming mortgages in which the ability to repay is verified, and interest rates and other costs are within the safe harbor limits established under the CFPB mortgage finance rules, certain loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes, especially home-only loans and non-conforming land-home loans, may fall outside the safe harbor limits. The rules have caused some lenders to curtail underwriting such loans, and some investors are reluctant to own or participate in owning such loans because of the uncertainty of potential litigation and other costs. As a result, some prospective buyers of manufactured homes may be unable to secure the financing necessary to complete purchases. In addition, compliance with the law and ongoing rule implementation has caused lenders to incur additional costs to implement new processes, procedures, controls and infrastructure required to comply with the regulations. Compliance may constrain lenders' ability to profitably price certain loans. Failure to comply with these regulations, changes in these or other regulations, or the imposition of additional regulations, could affect our earnings, limit our access to capital and have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

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The CFPB rules amending the Truth-in-Lending Act ("TILA") and RESPA expanded the types of mortgage loans that are subject to the protections of the Home Ownership and Equity Protections Act of 1994 ("HOEPA"), revised and expanded the tests for coverage under HOEPA, and imposed additional restrictions on mortgages that are covered by HOEPA. As a result, certain manufactured home loans are subject to HOEPA limits on interest rates and fees. Loans with rates or fees in excess of the limits are deemed High Cost Mortgages and provide additional protections for borrowers, including with respect to determining the value of the home. Most loans for the purchase of manufactured homes have been written at rates and fees that would not appear to be considered High Cost Mortgages under the new rule. Although some lenders may continue to offer loans that are now deemed High Cost Mortgages, the rate and fee limits appear to have deterred some lenders from offering loans to certain borrowers and may continue to make them reluctant to enter into loans subject to the provisions of HOEPA. As a result, some prospective buyers of manufactured homes may be unable to secure financing necessary to complete manufactured home purchases.
The Dodd-Frank Act amended provisions of TILA to require rules for appraisals on principal residences securing higher-priced mortgage loans ("HPML"). Certain loans secured by manufactured homes, primarily home-only loans, could be considered HPMLs. Among other things, the rules require creditors to provide copies of appraisal reports to borrowers prior to loan closing. To implement these amendments, the CFPB adopted the HPML Appraisal Rule, effective December 30, 2014, and loans secured by new manufactured homes were exempt from the rule until July 18, 2015. While effects of these requirements are not fully known, some prospective home buyers may be deterred from completing a manufactured home purchase as a result of appraised values.
The Dodd-Frank Act also required integrating disclosures provided by lenders to borrowers under TILA and RESPA. The final rule became effective October 3, 2015. The TILA-RESPA Integrated Disclosure ("TRID") mandated extensive changes to the mortgage loan closing process and necessitated significant changes to mortgage origination systems.
Regulation C of the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act ("HMDA") enacted in 1975 requires certain financial institutions, including non-depository institutions, to collect, record, report and disclose information about their mortgage lending activity. The data-related requirements in the HMDA and Regulation C are used to identify potential discriminatory lending patterns and enforce anti-discrimination statutes. The Dodd-Frank Act transferred rulemaking authority for HMDA to the CFPB, effective in 2011. It also amended the HMDA to require financial institutions to report additional data points and to collect, record and report additional information. The CFPB issued a final rule amending Regulation C, which became effective on January 1, 2018. Regulation C generally applies to consumer-purpose, closed-end loans and open-end lines of credit that are secured by a dwelling. Non-depository financial institutions are subject to Regulation C if they originate at least 25 covered closed-end mortgage loans or at least 100 covered open-end lines of credit in each of the two preceding calendar years. Violations of Regulation C, including incomplete, inaccurate, or omitted data are subject to administrative sanctions, including civil money penalties and compliance can be enforced by the Federal Reserve Board, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Office of the Comptroller of Currency, the National Credit Union Administration, HUD or the CFPB.
New FHA Title I program guidelines became effective on June 1, 2010 and provide Ginnie Mae the ability to securitize manufactured home FHA Title I loans. These guidelines were intended to allow lenders to obtain new capital, which can then be used to fund new loans for our customers. Home-only loans have languished for several years and these changes were meant to broaden home-only financing availability for prospective homeowners. However, we are aware of only a small number of loans currently being securitized under the Ginnie Mae program.

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The Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 requires the GSEs to facilitate a secondary market for mortgages on housing for very low, low and moderate-income families in under-served markets, including manufactured housing. On January 30, 2017, the Federal Housing Finance Agency issued a final rule specifying the scope of GSE activities that are eligible to receive credit for compliance with the "Duty to Serve" rule after January 2018. On December 18, 2017, Both GSEs published their final Underserved Markets Plans for activities for the years beginning January 1, 2018, and continuing through 2020. Both GSE plans include initiatives to facilitate increased purchases of real property mortgages with manufactured homes under their existing single-family programs beginning in 2018 and small-scale pilot programs for home-only loans secured by manufactured housing beginning in 2019.
Our sale of insurance products is subject to various state insurance laws and regulations which govern allowable charges and other insurance practices. Standard Casualty's insurance operations are regulated by the state insurance boards where it underwrites its policies. Underwriting, premiums, investments and capital reserves (including dividend payments to stockholders) are subject to the rules and regulations of these state agencies.
In 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (collectively, the "Health Reform Law"), was passed into law. As enacted, the Health Reform Law reforms, among other things, certain aspects of health insurance. The Health Reform Law could continue to increase our healthcare costs, adversely impacting the Company's earnings.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act"). The Tax Act makes broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code that affect the Company and include, but are not limited to: (1) reducing the U.S. federal corporate tax rate, (2) allowing bonus depreciation for full expensing of qualified property and (3) eliminating the manufacturing deduction. The Tax Act reduces the federal corporate tax rate to 21% for our fiscal year ending March 30, 2019. As a result of these changes, our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, had a blended corporate tax rate of 31.54%, which is based on the tax rate before and after the Tax Act and the number of days in the fiscal year.
On January 25, 2018, HUD announced a top-to-bottom review of its manufactured housing rules as part of a broader effort to identify regulations that may be ineffective, overly burdensome, or excessively costly given the critical need for affordable housing. If certain changes are made, the Company may be able to more effectively serve buyers of affordable homes.
Governmental authorities have the power to enforce compliance with applicable regulations, and violations may result in the payment of fines, the entry of injunctions or both. Although we believe that our operations are in substantial compliance with the requirements of all applicable laws and regulations, these requirements have generally become more stringent in recent years. Accordingly, we are unable to predict the ultimate cost of compliance with all applicable laws and enforcement policies.
Seasonality
The housing industry is subject to seasonal fluctuations based on new home buyer purchasing patterns. Cavco's Company-owned retail stores typically experience decreased home buyer traffic during holidays and popular vacation periods. Still, diversification among Cavco's product lines and operations have served to partially offset the extent of seasonal fluctuations. Demand for our core single-family new home products typically peaks each spring and summer before declining in the winter, consistent with the overall housing industry, although this pattern was partially interrupted during the winter of fiscal years 2018 and 2017, when the Company produced a limited number of disaster-relief homes for the Federal Emergency Management Agency ("FEMA"). Demand patterns for park model RVs, cabins and homes used primarily for retirement seasonal living partially offset the general housing seasonality.

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The Company's mortgage subsidiary experiences minimal seasonal fluctuation in its mortgage origination activities as a result of the time needed for loan application approval processes and subsequent home loan closing activities. The mortgage subsidiary realizes no seasonal impacts from its mortgage servicing operations. Revenue for the home insurance subsidiary is not substantially impacted by seasonality as it recognizes revenue from policy sales ratably over each policy's term year. However, the insurance subsidiary is subject to adverse effects from excessive policy claims that may occur during periods of inclement weather, including seasonal spring storms or fall hurricane activity in Texas where most of its policies are underwritten. Where applicable, losses from catastrophic events are somewhat limited by reinsurance contracts in place as part of the Company's loss mitigation structure.
In August 2017, Hurricane Harvey produced the largest recorded rain volume for a single weather event in U.S. history, resulting in historic flooding and widespread property damage, primarily in southeast Texas. Although our insurance subsidiary does not write policies for manufactured home residents in gulf coast counties or in flood plains, the enormity of this event caused high homeowners' insurance claim volume inland and in non-flood plain areas. The insurance subsidiary's catastrophic reinsurance contracts served to limit financial exposure to a pre-established retention amount of $1.5 million; however, these contracts also carried the requirement for the Company to pay additional premiums in order to reinstate reinsurance coverage for the remainder of calendar year 2017, further adding to costs incurred as a result of the hurricane.
In September 2017, Hurricane Irma caused significant property damage in Florida. The insurance subsidiary conducts no operations in Florida and was not adversely affected by this storm.
It has been widely reported that the overall economic toll in the affected hurricane market areas is substantial. There has been somewhat increased consumer demand for replacement of homes lost as a result of these events, which we expect to continue for several quarters. This may include demand for additional disaster-relief manufactured home orders from federal and state agencies. The Company has initially participated by producing a limited number of disaster-relief homes for FEMA. These homes were built in factories located in unaffected regions of the country, primarily during the winter months, which lessened disruptions to existing order demand from our core customer base.
Employees
We have approximately 4,500 employees. We believe that our relationship with our employees is good.
Available Information
We make available free of charge through our Internet site, www.cavco.com, our periodic and current filings, as well as any amendments to such filings, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ("Exchange Act").

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Our business involves a number of risks and uncertainties. You should carefully consider the following risks, together with the information provided elsewhere in this Annual Report. The items described below are not the only risks facing us. Additional risks that are currently unknown to us or that we currently consider to be immaterial may also impair our business or adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.
We operate in an industry that is currently experiencing a prolonged and significant downturn
Beginning in mid-1999, the manufactured housing industry experienced a prolonged and significant downturn. This downturn resulted in part from the fact that, beginning in 1999, consumer lenders in the sector began to tighten underwriting standards and curtailed credit availability in response to higher than anticipated rates of loan defaults and significant losses upon the repossession and resale of the manufactured homes securing defaulted loans. From 2004 to 2007, the industry's downturn was exacerbated by the aggressive financing methods available to customers of developers and marketers of standard site-built homes, which had the effect of diverting potential manufactured housing buyers to more expensive site-built homes. Beginning in 2008, the global credit crisis and general deterioration of economic conditions have extended the depressed market conditions in which our industry operates. These factors have resulted in low wholesale shipment levels and underutilized manufacturing and retail locations. However, while the industry continues to operate at generally low levels, industry shipment numbers have been increasing over the past eight years.
While there has been modest growth in our industry, the availability of consumer financing for the retail purchase of manufactured homes continues to be constrained. Restrictive underwriting guidelines, irregular appraisal processes, higher interest rates compared to site-built homes, regulatory burdens, a limited number of institutional lending to manufactured home buyers and limited secondary market availability for manufactured home loans are significant constraints to industry growth. We are working directly with other industry participants to broaden the market for manufactured home loans. However, if our attempts are ineffective, we may be required to take steps to mitigate the unfavorable industry conditions, such as the closure of facilities or consolidation of existing operations. These steps could impair our ability to conduct our business in a manner consistent with past practice and could make it more difficult for us to expand our operations if and when industry conditions improve. Furthermore, some of these steps could lead to fixed asset, goodwill or other impairment charges.
We may not be able to successfully integrate past acquisitions, including the recent acquisition of Lexington Homes, or any future acquisition to attain the anticipated benefits. Past acquisitions may adversely impact the Company's liquidity
On April 3, 2017, the Company purchased Lexington Homes, which operates a manufacturing facility in Lexington, Mississippi. This transaction provides additional home production capabilities and increased distribution into new Southern markets.
We may consider other strategic acquisitions if such opportunities arise. Prior acquisitions and any other acquisitions that we may consider in the future involve a number of risks, including the diversion of our management's attention from our existing business for those transactions that we complete, or possible adverse effects on our operating results during the integration process and on our liquidity. In addition, we may not be able to successfully or profitably integrate, operate, maintain and manage the operations or employees of past acquisitions, Lexington Homes or potential future acquisitions. We also may not be able to maintain uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies, which may lead to financial losses.

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Our involvement in vertically integrated lines of business, including manufactured housing consumer finance, commercial finance and insurance, exposes the Company to certain risks
CountryPlace offers conforming mortgages, non-conforming mortgages and home-only loans to purchasers of factory-built homes sold by Company-owned retail sales centers and independent retailers, builders, communities and developers. CountryPlace is an approved seller/servicer with Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, is approved by HUD to originate FHA-insured mortgages under its Direct Endorsement program and is approved to issue Ginnie Mae mortgage-backed securities. Most loans originated through CountryPlace are sold to investors. CountryPlace also provides various loan servicing functions for non-affiliated entities under contract. CountryPlace has expanded its home-only lending programs, partially with the support of independent third party financiers. Home-only loans originated will either be sold outright or grouped and sold as a pool of loans or held for investment.
If CountryPlace's customers are unable to repay their loans, CountryPlace may be adversely affected. CountryPlace makes loans to borrowers that it believes are creditworthy based on its underwriting guidelines. However, the ability of these customers to repay their loans may be affected by a number of factors, including, but not limited to: national, regional and local economic conditions; changes or weakness in specific industry segments; natural hazard risks affecting the region in which the borrower resides; and employment, financial or unexpected life circumstances.
If customers do not repay their loans, CountryPlace may repossess or foreclose on the secured property in order to liquidate its loan collateral and minimize losses. The homes and land securing the loans are subject to fluctuating market values, and proceeds realized from liquidating repossessed or foreclosed property are highly susceptible to adverse movements in collateral values. Home price depreciation and elevated levels of unemployment may result in additional defaults and exacerbate actual loss severities upon collateral liquidation beyond those normally experienced by CountryPlace.
Some of the loans CountryPlace has originated or may originate in the future may not have a liquid market, or the market may contract rapidly and the loans may become illiquid. Although CountryPlace offers loan products and prices its loans at levels that it believes are marketable at the time of credit application approval, market conditions for its loans may deteriorate rapidly and significantly. CountryPlace's ability to respond to changing market conditions is bound by credit approval and funding commitments it makes in advance of loan completion. In this environment, it is difficult to predict the types of loan products and characteristics that may be susceptible to future market curtailments and tailor our loan offerings accordingly. As a result, no assurances can be given that the market value of our loans will not decline in the future, or that a market will continue to exist for loan products.
CountryPlace sells loans through GSE-related programs and whole-loan purchasers and finances certain loans with long-term credit facilities secured by the respective loans. In connection with these activities, CountryPlace provides to the GSEs, whole-loan purchasers and lenders representations and warranties related to the loans sold or financed. These representations and warranties generally relate to the ownership of the loans, the validity of the liens securing the loans, the loans' compliance with the criteria for inclusion in the sale transactions, including compliance with underwriting standards or loan criteria established by buyers and CountryPlace's ability to deliver documentation in compliance with applicable laws. Generally, representations and warranties may be enforced at any time over the life of the loan. Upon a breach of a representation, CountryPlace may be required to repurchase the loan or to indemnify a party for incurred losses. Repurchase demands and claims for indemnification payments are reviewed on a loan-by-loan basis to validate if there has been a breach requiring repurchase or indemnification. CountryPlace manages the risk of repurchase through underwriting and quality assurance practices and by servicing the mortgage loans to investor standards. CountryPlace maintains a reserve for these contingent repurchase and indemnification obligations.
Standard Casualty and Standard Insurance Agency specialize in the manufactured housing industry, primarily serving the Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Georgia markets. In Texas, the policies are written through one affiliated managing general agent, which produces all premiums through local agents, most of which are manufactured home retailers. All insurance policies outside the state of Texas are written on a direct basis through local agents. Property and casualty insurance companies are subject to certain risk-based capital requirements as specified by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners. Under those requirements, the amount of capital and surplus maintained by a property and casualty insurance company is determined based on its various risk factors.

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Certain of Standard Casualty's premiums and benefits are assumed from and ceded to other insurance companies under various reinsurance agreements. The ceded reinsurance agreements provide Standard Casualty with increased capacity to write larger risks. Standard Casualty remains obligated for amounts ceded in the event that the reinsurers do not meet their obligations. Substantially all of Standard Casualty's assumed reinsurance is with one entity. Further, Standard Casualty's policies in force may be subject to numerous risks, including geographic concentration, adverse selection, home deterioration, unusual weather events, and regulation. Although claim amounts are recoverable by Standard Casualty through reinsurance for catastrophic losses up to policy maximums, significant losses may be realized and our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Tightened credit standards, curtailed lending activity by home-only lenders and increased government lending regulations have contributed to a constrained consumer financing market
Consumers who buy our manufactured homes have historically secured retail financing from third-party lenders. Home-only financing is at times more difficult to obtain than financing for site-built homes. The availability, terms and costs of retail financing depend on the lending practices of financial institutions, governmental policies and economic and other conditions, all of which are beyond our control.
Since 1999, home-only lenders have tightened the credit underwriting standards for loans to purchase manufactured homes, which has reduced lending volumes and negatively impacted our revenue. Most of the national lenders who have historically provided home-only loans have exited the manufactured housing sector of the home loan industry. Retail sales of manufactured housing could be adversely affected if remaining retail lenders curtail industry lending activities or exit the industry altogether.
Changes in laws or other events that adversely affect liquidity in the secondary mortgage market could hurt our business. The GSEs and the FHA play significant roles in insuring or purchasing home mortgages and creating or insuring investment securities that are either sold to investors or held in their portfolios. These organizations provide significant liquidity to the secondary market. Any new federal laws or regulations that restrict or curtail their activities, or any other events or conditions that alter the roles of these organizations in the housing finance market could affect the ability of our customers to obtain mortgage loans or could increase mortgage interest rates, fees, and credit standards, which could reduce demand for our homes and/or the loans that we originate and adversely affect our results of operations.
Overall, the rules established under Dodd-Frank have caused some lenders to curtail underwriting such loans, and some investors are reluctant to own or participate in owning such loans because of the uncertainty of potential litigation and other costs. As a result, some prospective buyers of manufactured homes may be unable to secure the financing necessary to complete purchases. In addition, compliance with the law and ongoing rule implementation has caused lenders to incur additional costs to implement new processes, procedures, controls and infrastructure required to comply with the regulations. Compliance may constrain lenders' ability to profitably price certain loans. Failure to comply with these regulations, changes in these or other regulations, or the imposition of additional regulations, could affect our earnings, limit our access to capital and have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
For further information, see Government Regulation in Part 1 of this Annual Report.



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The availability of wholesale financing for industry retailers is limited due to a reduced number of floor plan lenders and reduced lending limits
Manufactured housing retailers generally finance their inventory purchases with wholesale floor plan financing provided by lending institutions. The availability of wholesale financing is significantly affected by the number of floor plan lenders and their lending limits. Since 1999, a substantial number of wholesale lenders have exited the industry or curtailed their floor plan operations. As a result, the Company's independent retailers have relied primarily on 21st Mortgage Corporation and smaller national and regional lending institutions that have specialized in providing wholesale floor plan financing to manufactured housing retailers. Floor plan financing providers could further reduce their levels of floor plan lending. Reduced availability of floor plan lending negatively affects the inventory levels of our independent retailers, the number of retail sales center locations and related wholesale demand, and adversely affects the availability of and access to capital on an ongoing basis.
Our participation in certain financing programs for the purchase of our products by industry distributors and consumers may expose us to additional risk of credit loss, which could adversely impact the Company's liquidity and results of operations
We are exposed to risks associated with the creditworthiness of certain independent retailers, builders, developers, community owners, inventory financing partners and home buyers, many of whom may be adversely affected by the volatile conditions in the economy and financial markets. These conditions could result in financial instability or other adverse effects. The consequences of such adverse effects could include delinquencies by customers who purchase our product under special financing initiatives, and deterioration of collateral values. In addition, we may incur losses if our collateral cannot be recovered or liquidated at prices sufficient to recover recorded commercial loan notes receivable balances. The realization of any of these factors may adversely affect our cash flow, profitability and financial condition.

Our results of operations could be adversely affected by significant warranty and construction defect claims on factory-built housing
In the ordinary course of our business, we are subject to home warranty and construction defect claims. We record a reserve for estimated future warranty costs relating to homes sold, based upon our assessment of historical experience factors. Construction defect claims may arise during a significant period of time after product completion. Although we maintain general liability insurance and reserves for such claims, based on our assessments, which to date have been adequate, there can be no assurance that warranty and construction defect claims will remain at current levels or that such reserves will continue to be adequate. A large number of warranty and construction defect claims exceeding our current levels could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We have contingent repurchase obligations related to wholesale financing provided to industry retailers
In accordance with customary business practice in the manufactured housing industry, we have entered into repurchase agreements with various financial institutions and other credit sources who provide floor plan financing to industry retailers, which provide that we will be obligated, under certain circumstances, to repurchase homes sold to retailers in the event of a default by a retailer in its obligation to such credit sources. Under these agreements, we have agreed to repurchase homes at declining prices over the term of the agreement (which in most cases is 18 to 36 months). Our obligation under these repurchase agreements ceases upon the purchase of the home by the retail customer. The maximum amount of our contingent obligations under such repurchase agreements was approximately $55.6 million as of March 31, 2018, before reduction for the resale value of the homes. We may be required to honor contingent repurchase obligations in the future and may incur additional expense as a consequence of these repurchase agreements.

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Our operating results could be affected by market forces and declining housing demand
As a participant in the homebuilding industry, we are subject to market forces beyond our control. These market forces include employment levels, employment growth, interest rates, consumer confidence, inflation, land availability and development costs, apartment and rental housing vacancy levels, inflation, deflation and the health of the general economy. Unfavorable changes in any of the above factors or other issues could have an adverse effect on our revenue and earnings.
We have incurred net losses in certain prior periods and there can be no assurance that we will generate income in the future
Since becoming a stand-alone public company, we have generated net income each complete fiscal year, except for fiscal year 2010, in which we incurred net losses attributable in substantial part to the downturn affecting the manufactured housing industry, which is discussed in detail above. The likelihood that we will generate net income in the future must be considered in light of the difficulties facing the manufactured housing industry as a whole, economic conditions, the competitive environment in which we operate and the other risks and uncertainties discussed in this section of the Annual Report. There can be no assurance that we will generate net income in the future.
A write-off of all or part of our goodwill could adversely affect our operating results and net worth
As of March 31, 2018, 11% of our total assets consisted of goodwill, all of which is attributable to our factory-built housing operations. In accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other ("ASC 350"), we test goodwill annually for impairment. If goodwill has become impaired, we charge the impairment as an expense in the period in which the impairment occurred. See Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies" and Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Our goodwill could be impaired if developments affecting our manufacturing operations or the markets in which we produce manufactured homes lead us to conclude that the cash flows we expect to derive from our manufacturing operations will be substantially reduced. A write off of all or part of our goodwill could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
The cyclical and seasonal nature of the manufactured housing industry causes our revenues and operating results to fluctuate, and we expect this cyclicality and seasonality to continue in the future
The manufactured housing industry is highly cyclical and seasonal and is influenced by many national and regional economic and demographic factors, including the availability of consumer financing for home buyers, the availability of wholesale financing for retailers, seasonality of demand, consumer confidence, interest rates, demographic and employment trends, income levels, housing demand, general economic conditions, including inflation and recessions, and the availability of suitable home sites.
As a result of the foregoing economic, demographic and other factors, our revenues and operating results fluctuate, and we expect them to continue to fluctuate in the future. Moreover, we have experienced and could again experience operating losses during cyclical downturns in the manufactured housing market.
Our liquidity and ability to raise capital may be limited
We may need to obtain debt or additional equity financing in the future. The Company has securitized bond debt outstanding with call dates in January and July 2019. It is anticipated that we will purchase or refinance these facilities prior to their call dates. The type, timing and terms of the financing selected by us will depend on, among other things, our cash needs, the availability of other financing sources and prevailing conditions in the financial markets. There can be no assurance that any of these sources will be available to us at any time or that they will be available on satisfactory terms.

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The manufactured housing industry is highly competitive, and increased competition may result in lower revenue
The manufactured housing industry is highly competitive. Competition at both the manufacturing and retail levels is based upon several factors, including price, product features, reputation for service and quality, merchandising, terms of retailer promotional programs and the terms of retail customer financing. Numerous companies produce manufactured homes in our markets. In addition, our homes compete with repossessed homes that are offered for sale in our markets. Certain of our manufacturing competitors also have their own retail distribution systems and consumer finance and insurance operations. In addition, there are many independent manufactured housing retail locations in most areas where we have retail operations. We believe that where wholesale floor plan financing is available, it is relatively easy for new retailers to enter into our markets as competitors. In addition, our products compete with other forms of low- to moderate-cost housing, including new and existing site-built homes, apartments, townhouses and condominiums. If we are unable to compete effectively in this environment, our factory-built housing revenue could be reduced.
If we are unable to establish or maintain relationships with independent distributors who sell our homes, our revenue could decline
During fiscal year 2018, approximately 83% of our wholesale sales of manufactured homes were to independent distributors. As is common in the industry, independent distributors may also sell homes produced by competing manufacturers. We may not be able to establish relationships with new independent distributors or maintain good relationships with independent distributors that sell our homes. Even if we do establish and maintain relationships with independent distributors, these distributors are not obligated to sell our homes exclusively and may choose to sell our competitors' homes instead. The independent distributors with whom we have relationships can cancel these relationships on short notice. In addition, these distributors may not remain financially solvent, as they are subject to industry, economic, demographic and seasonal trends similar to those faced by us. If we do not establish and maintain relationships with solvent independent distributors in one or more of our markets, revenue in those markets could decline.
Our business and operations are concentrated in certain geographic regions, which could be impacted by market declines
Our operations are concentrated in certain states, most notably Texas, California, Florida, Arizona and Oregon. Due to the concentrated nature of our operations, there could be instances where these regions are negatively impacted by economic, natural or population changes that could, in turn, negatively impact the results of the business, more than other companies that are more geographically dispersed.
The Company operates 20 homebuilding facilities located in the Northwest, Southwest, South, Southeast, Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions. We have a significant presence in Texas with factories in the cities of Austin, Ft. Worth, Seguin and Waco. Further, of our 39 Company-owned sales centers, 31 are located in Texas.
Loan contracts secured by collateral that is geographically concentrated could experience higher rates of delinquencies, default and foreclosure losses than loan contracts secured by collateral that is more geographically dispersed. CountryPlace has loan contracts secured by factory-built homes located in 29 states, including Texas, Florida, New Mexico and Arizona.
Standard Casualty and Standard Insurance Agency specialize in the manufactured housing industry, primarily serving the Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Georgia markets.
A decline in the economic conditions in the United States and especially the economies of Texas, California, Florida, Arizona and/or Oregon could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

20


Our results of operations can be adversely affected by labor shortages and the pricing and availability of raw materials
The homebuilding industry has from time to time experienced labor shortages and other labor related issues. A number of factors may adversely affect the labor force available to us and our subcontractors in one or more of our markets, including high employment levels, construction market conditions and government regulation, which include laws and regulations related to workers' health and safety, wage and hour practices and immigration. An overall labor shortage or a lack of skilled or unskilled labor could cause significant increases in costs or delays in construction of homes, which could have a material adverse effect upon our revenue and results of operations.
Our results of operations can be affected by the pricing and availability of raw materials. Although we attempt to increase the sales prices of our homes in response to higher materials costs, such increases may lag behind the escalation of materials costs. Sudden increases in price and lack of availability of raw materials can be caused by natural disaster, regulation or other market forces, as has occurred in recent years. Although we have not experienced any production halts, severe or prolonged shortages of some of our most important building materials, which include wood and wood products, gypsum wallboard, steel, insulation, and other petroleum-based products, have occurred. There can be no assurance that sufficient supplies of these and other raw materials will continue to be available to us.
If the manufactured housing industry is not able to secure favorable local zoning ordinances, our revenue could decline and our business could be adversely affected
Manufactured housing communities and individual home placements are subject to local zoning ordinances and other local regulations relating to utility service and construction of roadways. In the past, property owners often have resisted the adoption of zoning ordinances permitting the location of manufactured homes in residential areas, which we believe has restricted the growth of the industry. Manufactured homes may not achieve widespread acceptance and localities may not adopt zoning ordinances permitting the development of manufactured home communities. If the manufactured housing industry is unable to secure favorable local zoning ordinances, our revenue could decline and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
The loss of any of our executive officers could reduce our ability to execute our business strategy and could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations
We are dependent to a significant extent upon the efforts of our executive officers. The loss of the services of one or more of our executive officers could impair our ability to execute our business strategy and have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition and results of operations. We currently have no key person life or other insurance for our executive officers.
Certain provisions of our organizational documents could delay or make more difficult a change in control of our Company
Certain provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws could delay or make more difficult transactions involving a change of control of our Company, and may have the effect of entrenching our current management or possibly depressing the market price of our common stock. For example, our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws authorize blank series preferred stock, establish a staggered board of directors and impose certain procedural and other requirements for stockholder proposals. Furthermore, the fact that income taxes could be imposed as a result of ownership changes occurring in conjunction with a distribution may have the effect of delaying or making more difficult certain transactions involving a change of control of our Company.

21


Volatility of stock price
The price of our common stock may fluctuate widely, depending upon a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include: the perceived prospects of our business and the manufactured housing industry as a whole; differences between our actual financial and operating results and those expected by investors and analysts; changes in analysts' recommendations or projections; changes affecting the availability of financing in the wholesale and consumer lending markets; actions or announcements by competitors; changes in the regulatory environment in which we operate; significant sales of shares by a principal stockholder; actions taken by stockholders that may be contrary to Board of Director recommendations; and changes in general economic or market conditions. In addition, stock markets generally experience significant price and volume volatility from time to time which may adversely affect the market price of our common stock for reasons unrelated to our performance.
Deterioration in economic conditions and turmoil in financial markets could reduce our earnings and financial condition
Deterioration in global, national, regional or local economic conditions and turmoil in financial markets could have a negative impact on our business. Among other things, unfavorable changes in employment levels, job growth, consumer confidence and income, inflation, deflation, foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates may further reduce demand for our products, which could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Unprecedented contraction in the credit markets and the financial services industry have occurred in recent years, characterized by the bankruptcy, failure or consolidation of various financial institutions and extraordinary intervention from the federal government. These factors could have an adverse effect on the availability of financing to our customers, causing our revenues to decline.
The cost of operations could be adversely impacted by increased costs of healthcare benefits provided to employees
Enacted in 2010, the Health Reform Law reforms, among other things, certain aspects of health insurance. The Health Reform Law could continue to increase our healthcare costs, adversely impacting the Company's earnings.
A prolonged delay by Congress and the President to approve budgets or continuing appropriation resolutions to facilitate the operations of the federal government could delay the completion of home sales and/or cause cancellations, and thereby negatively impact our deliveries and revenues
Congress and the President may not timely approve budgets or appropriation legislation to facilitate the operations of the federal government. As a result, many federal agencies have historically and may again cease or curtail some activities. The affected activities include Internal Revenue Service verification of loan applicants' tax return information and approvals by the FHA and other government agencies to fund or insure mortgage loans under programs that these agencies operate. As a number of our home buyers use these programs to obtain financing to purchase our homes, and many lenders, including CountryPlace, require ongoing coordination with these and other governmental entities to originate home loans, a prolonged delay in the performance of their activities could prevent prospective qualified buyers of our homes from obtaining the loans they need to complete such purchases, which could lead to delays or cancellations of home sales. These and other affected governmental bodies could cause interruptions in various aspects of our business and investments. Depending on the length of disruption, such factors could have a material adverse impact on our consolidated financial statements.

22


Information technology failures or data security breaches could harm our business
We use enterprise-grade information technology and computer resources to carry out important operational activities and to maintain our business records. Although secured in commercial data centers, our computer systems, including our back-up systems, are subject to damage or interruption from power outages, computer and telecommunications failures, computer viruses, security breaches (through cyber-attacks from computer hackers and sophisticated organizations), catastrophic events such as fires, tornadoes and hurricanes and human error. Given the unpredictability of the timing, nature and scope of information technology disruptions, if our computer systems and our backup systems are damaged, breached, or cease to function properly, we could potentially be subject to production downtimes, operational delays, the compromising of confidential or otherwise protected information (including information about our home buyers and business partners), destruction or corruption of data, security breaches, other manipulation or improper use of our systems and networks or financial losses from remedial actions, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows, competitive position, financial condition or results of operations.

We are subject to extensive regulation affecting the production and sale of manufactured housing, which could adversely affect our profitability
We are subject to a variety of federal, state and local laws and regulations affecting the production and sale of manufactured housing. Please refer to the section above under the heading "Government Regulation" for a description of many of these laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with such laws and regulations could expose us to a wide variety of sanctions, including closing one or more manufacturing facilities. Regulatory matters affecting our operations are under regular review by governmental bodies and we cannot predict what effect, if any, new laws and regulations would have on us or the manufactured housing industry. Failure to comply with applicable laws or regulations or the passage in the future of new and more stringent laws, may adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

23


ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
The following table sets forth certain information with respect to our core properties:
Location
 
Date of
Commencement
of Operations
 
Owned /
Leased
 
Square
Feet
Active manufacturing facilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Millersburg, Oregon
 
1995
 
Owned
 
169,000

Woodburn, Oregon
 
1976
 
Owned
 
221,000

Nampa, Idaho
 
1957
 
Owned
 
171,000

Riverside, California
 
1960
 
Owned
 
107,000

Goodyear, Arizona
 
1993
 
Leased
 
250,000

Phoenix, Arizona
 
1978
 
Owned
 
79,000

Austin, Texas
 
1981
 
Owned
 
181,000

Fort Worth, Texas
 
1993
 
Owned
 
121,000

Seguin, Texas
 
2006
 
Owned
 
129,000

Waco, Texas
 
1971
 
Owned
 
132,000

Montevideo, Minnesota (2 plants)
 
1982
 
Owned
 
305,000

Nappanee, Indiana
 
1971
 
Owned
 
341,000

Lafayette, Tennessee
 
1996
 
Owned
 
149,000

Lexington, Mississippi
 
2004
 
Leased
 
119,800

Martinsville, Virginia
 
1969
 
Owned
 
132,000

Rocky Mount, Virginia
 
1995
 
Owned
 
137,000

Douglas, Georgia
 
1988
 
Owned
 
142,000

Ocala, Florida (1)
 
1984
 
Owned
 
91,000

Plant City, Florida
 
1981
 
Owned
 
87,000

Component and supply facilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Martinsville, Virginia
 
1972
 
Owned
 
192,000

Nappanee, Indiana
 
1971
 
Leased
 
77,000

Inactive manufacturing facilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lexington, Mississippi
 
 
 
Leased
 
109,300

Plant City, Florida
 
 
 
Owned
 
94,000

Administrative and other locations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Phoenix, Arizona
 
 
 
Leased
 
11,000

Addison, Texas
 
 
 
Leased
 
24,000

New Braunfels, Texas
 
 
 
Owned
 
9,000

Nappanee, Indiana
 
 
 
Leased
 
18,000

(1)This facility was purchased by the Company during fiscal year 2018.


24


We own the land on which the manufacturing facilities are located, except for the Goodyear, Arizona plant, which is currently leased through June 30, 2021 with options to extend; and the Lexington, Mississippi plants, with the active plant currently leased through October 31, 2025, at which time the Company would take ownership of the property, and the inactive plant leased on a month-to-month basis with an option to purchase. We also own substantially all of the machinery and equipment used at these factories. In addition to our production facilities, we own an office building and land in New Braunfels, Texas, which houses Standard Casualty's operations, as well as ten properties upon which six of our active retail centers are located. The remaining active sales centers and a claims office are leased under operating leases with lease terms generally ranging from monthly to five years. Our Company-owned retail centers generally range in sizes up to nine acres. We lease office space in Addison, Texas for CountryPlace operations and Palm Harbor administrative support services, pursuant to a lease that expires in 2023. Our current Phoenix, Arizona home office lease continues on a month-to-month basis, while the Company has executed a lease for a new home office location in Phoenix. The new 92 month lease will commence upon move-in. In Nappanee, Indiana, the Company also leases a supply facility expiring in August 2019, with options to extend, and an administrative office, which is on a month-to-month basis. We believe that all of these facilities are adequately maintained and suitable for the purposes for which they are used.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are party to certain legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course and are incidental to our business. Certain of the claims pending against us in these proceedings allege, among other things, breach of contract, breach of express and implied warranties, construction defects, deceptive trade practices, unfair insurance practices, product liability and personal injury. Although litigation is inherently uncertain, based on past experience and the information currently available, management does not believe that the currently pending and threatened litigation or claims will have a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated financial position, liquidity or results of operations. However, future events or circumstances, currently unknown to management, will determine whether the resolution of pending or threatened litigation or claims will ultimately have a material effect on our consolidated financial position, liquidity or results of operations in any future reporting periods.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

25


SUPPLEMENTAL ITEM: EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT (See Item 10 of Part III of this Report)
The following is a listing of our executive officers as of May 30, 2018, as such term is defined under the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Officers are generally elected by the Board of Directors at its meeting immediately following our annual stockholders' meeting, with each officer serving until a successor has been elected and qualified. There is no family relationship between these officers.
Name
 
Age
 
Positions with Cavco or Business Experience
Joseph H. Stegmayer
 
67
 
Chairman of the Board, President and Chief Executive Officer since June 2003; Director and Officer of certain of Cavco's major subsidiaries, including Palm Harbor Homes, Inc. and Fleetwood Homes, Inc; President of Centex Manufactured Housing Group, LLC from September 2000 to June 2003; President - Retail Operations and Chief Financial Officer of Champion Enterprises, Inc. from January 1998 to September 2000; President, Vice Chairman and Chairman of the Executive Committee of Clayton Homes, Inc. from 1993 to January 1998
 
 
 
 
 
Daniel L. Urness
 
50
 
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer since April 2015; Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer from January 2006 to April 2015; Director and Officer of certain of Cavco's major subsidiaries, including Palm Harbor Homes, Inc. and Fleetwood Homes, Inc; Interim Chief Financial Officer of the Company from August 2005 to January 2006; Corporate Controller from May 2005 to August 2005; Financial Consultant from June 2002 to May 2005; Controller from May 1999 to June 2002; Manager and staff with Deloitte & Touche, LLP from September 1993 to May 1999
 
 
 
 
 
Charles E. Lott
 
70
 
President of Fleetwood Homes, Inc. since August 2009; President and Vice President - Housing Group of Fleetwood Enterprises, Inc. from April 2005 to August 2009; Mr. Lott has worked for Fleetwood Enterprises and subsequently Fleetwood Homes for all but six years of his nearly 50-year career in the manufactured housing industry
 
 
 
 
 
Steven K. Like
 
61
 
Senior Vice President since April 2015; Vice President from February 2009 to April 2015; Director of Standard Casualty Company and affiliated agencies and Officer of certain of Cavco's subsidiaries; Executive Vice President and General Counsel- Patriot Homes from 1995 to February 2009; Partner at Warrick & Boyn, LLP from 1981-1995

26


PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The Company's common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market ("Nasdaq") under the symbol CVCO. The following table sets forth, for each of the periods indicated, the reported high and low sale prices per share on the Nasdaq for the Company's common stock.
 
Sales Price
 
High
 
Low
Year ended March 31, 2018
 
 
 
Fourth Quarter
$
182.58

 
$
140.60

Third Quarter
157.80

 
139.50

Second Quarter
150.00

 
123.10

First Quarter
134.45

 
107.05

Year ended April 1, 2017
 
 
 
Fourth Quarter
$
121.70

 
$
93.65

Third Quarter
105.75

 
88.65

Second Quarter
110.67

 
90.63

First Quarter
102.53

 
85.56

As of May 25, 2018, the Company had 664 stockholders of record and approximately 9,300 beneficial holders of its common stock, based upon information in securities position listings by registered clearing agencies upon request of the Company's transfer agent.
In the past two fiscal years, we have not paid any dividends on our common stock. The payment of dividends to our stockholders is subject to the discretion of our board of directors and various factors may prevent us from paying dividends. Such factors include our cash requirements and liquidity and the requirements of state corporate and other laws.
Equity Compensation Plan Table
Information concerning equity compensation plans is included in Part III, Item 12, "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters" in this Annual Report.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
We have a stock repurchase program, under which a total of $10.0 million may be used to repurchase our outstanding common stock. The repurchases may be made in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions in compliance with applicable state and federal securities laws and other legal requirements. The level of repurchase activity is subject to market conditions and other investment opportunities. The repurchase program does not obligate us to acquire any particular amount of common stock and may be suspended or discontinued at any time. The repurchase program will be funded using our available cash. No repurchases have been made under this program to date.

27


Performance Graph
The following graph compares the yearly change in the cumulative total stockholder return on Cavco common stock during the five fiscal years ended March 31, 2018 with that of the Nasdaq Composite Index and the Nasdaq US Small Cap Home Construction Index. The comparison assumes $100 (with reinvestment of all dividends) was invested on March 30, 2013 in Cavco common stock and in each of the foregoing indices.
CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
 
3/30/2013
3/29/2014
3/28/2015
4/2/2016
4/1/2017
3/31/2018
Cavco Industries, Inc.
$
100

$
165

$
158

$
196

$
245

$
365

Nasdaq Composite Index
$
100

$
127

$
150

$
150

$
181

$
216

Nasdaq US Small Cap Home Construction Index
$
100

$
92

$
93

$
73

$
92

$
119



chart-65cb89125efa07646f2a01.jpg


28


ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following table presents selected consolidated financial data regarding Cavco for the fiscal years indicated. The data set forth below should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, the information presented in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The selected financial data set forth below may not be indicative of our future performance.
 
Year Ended
 
March 31,
2018
 
April 1,
2017
 
April 2,
2016
 
March 28,
2015
 
March 29,
2014
 
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Income Statement Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenue
$
871,235

 
$
773,797

 
$
712,352

 
$
566,659

 
$
533,339

Cost of sales
690,555

 
615,760

 
567,907

 
440,523

 
413,856

Net income attributable to Cavco common stockholders
$
61,502

 
$
37,955

 
$
28,541

 
$
23,817

 
$
16,238

Net income per share attributable to Cavco common stockholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
6.82

 
$
4.23

 
$
3.21

 
$
2.69

 
$
1.97

Diluted
$
6.68

 
$
4.17

 
$
3.15

 
$
2.64

 
$
1.94

Weighted average shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
9,024,437

 
8,976,064

 
8,889,731

 
8,854,359

 
8,262,688

Diluted
9,201,706

 
9,105,743

 
9,046,347

 
9,015,779

 
8,379,024

Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
674,780

 
$
607,316

 
$
553,835

 
$
502,582

 
$
469,239

Total current liabilities
176,329

 
140,216

 
125,089

 
101,471

 
98,993

Total securitized financings and other
59,812

 
57,991

 
61,171

 
66,960

 
70,052

Total stockholders’ equity
457,106

 
394,408

 
353,226

 
320,154

 
290,433

The selected financial data set forth above includes the accounts of Cavco and its consolidated subsidiaries, as of their respective acquisition dates, CRG Holdings, LLC, Fleetwood (Fleetwood includes Palm Harbor, Fairmont Homes, Chariot Eagle, CountryPlace, Standard Casualty, and their subsidiaries) and Lexington Homes.

29


ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report includes "forward-looking statements," within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, Section 21E of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In general, all statements included or incorporated in this Annual Report that are not historical in nature are forward-looking. These may include statements about our plans, strategies and prospects under the headings "Business," and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." Forward-looking statements are often characterized by the use of words such as "believes," "estimates," "expects," "projects," "may," "will," "intends," "plans," or "anticipates," or by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions. Forward-looking statements are typically included, for example, in discussions regarding the manufactured housing and site-built housing industries; our financial performance and operating results; and the expected effect of certain risks and uncertainties on our business, financial condition and results of operations, economic conditions and consumer confidence, our operational and legal risks, how we may be affected by governmental regulations and legal proceedings, the expected effect of certain risks and uncertainties on our business, the availability of favorable consumer and wholesale manufactured home financing, market interest rates and our investments, and the ultimate outcome of our commitments and contingencies.
All forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. As a result, our actual results or performance may differ materially from anticipated results or performance. Also, forward-looking statements are based upon management's estimates of fair values and of future costs, using currently available information. Therefore, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied in those statements. Factors that could cause such differences to occur include, but are not limited to, those discussed under Item 1A, "Risk Factors," and elsewhere in this Annual Report. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update any forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. For all of these reasons, you should not place any reliance on any such forward-looking statements included in this Annual Report.
Introduction
The following should be read in conjunction with the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements and the related Notes that appear in Part IV of this Report. References to "Note" or "Notes" refer to the Notes to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
Overview
Headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona, the Company designs and produces factory-built homes primarily distributed through a network of independent and Company-owned retailers. We are one of the largest producers of manufactured homes in the United States, based on reported wholesale shipments, marketed under a variety of brand names, including Cavco Homes, Fleetwood Homes, Palm Harbor Homes, Fairmont Homes, Friendship Homes, Chariot Eagle and Lexington Homes. The Company is also a leading builder of park model RVs, vacation cabins and systems-built commercial structures, as well as modular homes built primarily under the Nationwide Homes brand. Cavco's mortgage subsidiary, CountryPlace, is an approved Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac seller/servicer, a Ginnie Mae mortgage-backed securities issuer that offers conforming mortgages, non-conforming mortgages and home-only loans to purchasers of factory-built homes. Our insurance subsidiary, Standard Casualty, provides property and casualty insurance primarily to owners of manufactured homes.
Company Growth
From its inception in 1965, Cavco traditionally served affordable housing markets in the southwestern United States principally through manufactured home production. During the period from 1997 to 2000, Cavco was purchased by and became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Centex Corporation, which operated the Company until 2003, when Cavco became a stand-alone publicly-held Company traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the ticker symbol CVCO.

30


Beginning in 2007, the overall housing industry experienced a multi-year decline, which included the manufactured housing industry. Since this downturn, Cavco strategically expanded its factory operations and related business initiatives primarily through the acquisition of industry competitor operations. This development has enabled the Company to more broadly participate in the overall housing industry recovery.
In 2009, the Company acquired certain manufactured housing assets and liabilities of Fleetwood. The assets purchased included seven operating production facilities as well as idle factories. During fiscal year 2011, the Company acquired certain manufactured housing assets and liabilities of Palm Harbor Homes, Inc., a Florida corporation. The assets purchased included five operating production facilities as well as idle factories, 49 operating retail locations, a manufactured housing finance company and a homeowners insurance company. These acquisitions expanded the Company's presence across the United States.
In 2015, the Company purchased the business and operating assets of Chariot Eagle, a Florida-based manufacturer of park model RVs and manufactured homes, as well as certain assets and liabilities of Fairmont Homes. These transactions provided additional home production capabilities, grew the Company's offering of park model RV product lines and further strengthened our market position in the Southeast, Midwest, the western Great Plains states and several provinces in Canada.
On April 3, 2017, the Company purchased Lexington Homes, which operates a manufacturing facility in Lexington, Mississippi. This transaction was accounted for as a business combination and provides additional home production capabilities, further expanding our distribution into new Southern markets.
The Company operates 20 homebuilding facilities located in Millersburg and Woodburn, Oregon; Nampa, Idaho; Riverside, California; Phoenix and Goodyear, Arizona; Austin, Fort Worth, Seguin and Waco, Texas; Montevideo, Minnesota (2); Nappanee, Indiana; Lafayette, Tennessee; Lexington, Mississippi; Martinsville and Rocky Mount, Virginia; Douglas, Georgia; Plant City and Ocala, Florida. The majority of the homes produced are sold to and distributed by independently owned retailers located primarily throughout the United States and Canada. In addition, our homes are sold through 39 Company-owned U.S. retail locations.
We regularly review our product offerings throughout the combined organization and strive to improve product designs, production methods and marketing strategies. The supportive market response to the past and recent acquisitions has been encouraging and we believe that these expansions provide positive long-term strategic benefits for the Company. We plan to focus on developing synergies among all operations, which continue to have organic growth potential.
Company Outlook
We maintain a conservative cost structure in an effort to build added value into our homes. We have placed a consistent focus on developing synergies among all operations. In addition, the Company has worked diligently to maintain a solid financial position. Our balance sheet strength and position in cash and cash equivalents should help us avoid liquidity problems and enable us to act effectively as market opportunities present themselves.
With manufacturing facilities strategically positioned across the United States, we utilize local market research to design homes to meet the demands of our customers. We have the ability to customize floor plans and designs to fulfill specific needs and interests. By offering a full range of homes from entry-level models to large custom homes with the ability to engineer designs in-house, we can accommodate virtually any customer request. In addition to homes built to the federal HUD code, we construct modular homes that conform to state and local codes, park model RVs and cabins and light commercial buildings at many of our manufacturing facilities.

31


We employ a concerted effort to identify niche market opportunities where our diverse product lines and custom building capabilities provide us with a competitive advantage. Our green building initiatives involve the creation of an energy efficient envelope and higher utilization of renewable materials. These homes provide environmentally-friendly maintenance requirements, typically lower utility costs, specially designed ventilation systems and sustainability. Cavco also builds homes designed to use alternative energy sources, such as solar and wind. From bamboo flooring and tankless water heaters to solar-powered homes, our products are diverse and tailored to a wide range of consumer interests. Innovation in housing design is a forte of the Company and we continue to introduce new models at competitive price points with expressive interiors and exteriors that complement home styles in the areas in which they are located.
Based on the relatively low cost associated with manufactured home ownership, our products have traditionally competed with rental housing's monthly payment affordability. Rental housing activity is reported to have continued to increase in recent years. As a result, tenant housing vacancy rates appear to have declined, causing a corresponding rise in associated rental rates. These rental market factors may cause some renters to become interested buyers of affordable-housing alternatives, including manufactured homes.
Further, with respect to the general rise in demand for rental housing, we have realized a larger proportion of orders from developers and community owners for new manufactured homes intended for use as rental housing. The Company is responsive to the unique product and related requirements of these home buyers and values the opportunity to provide homes that are well suited for these purposes.
The backlog of sales orders at March 31, 2018 varied among our factories, but in total was $179.0 million compared to $88.8 million at April 1, 2017. Retailers may cancel orders prior to production without penalty. Accordingly, until the production of a particular home has commenced, we do not consider our order backlog to be firm orders.
The Company participates in certain commercial loan programs with members of the Company's independent wholesale distribution chain. Under these programs, the Company provides a significant amount of the funds that independent financiers then lend to distributors to finance retail inventories of our products. In addition, the Company has entered into direct commercial loan arrangements with distributors, communities and developers under which the Company provides funds for financing homes (see Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements). While a large portion of our commercial loans receivable balance was received in the current fiscal year, we expect to continue to expand and grow these lending programs. The Company's involvement in commercial loans has increased the availability of manufactured home financing to distributors and users of our products. We believe that our participation in wholesale financing is helpful to retailers, communities and developers and allows our homes additional opportunities for exposure to potential home buyers. These initiatives support the Company's ongoing efforts to expand our distribution base in all of our markets with existing and new customers. However, the initiatives expose the Company to risks associated with the creditworthiness of certain customers and business partners, including independent retailers, developers, communities and inventory financing partners.
Restrictive underwriting guidelines, irregular appraisal processes, higher interest rates compared to site-built homes, regulatory burdens, a limited number of institutions lending to manufactured home buyers and limited secondary market availability for manufactured home loans have been significant constraints to industry growth. We are working directly with other industry participants to develop manufactured home consumer financing loan portfolios to attract industry financiers interested in furthering or expanding lending opportunities in the industry. Additionally, we continue to invest in community-based lending initiatives that provide home-only financing to new residents of certain manufactured home communities. Our mortgage subsidiary has developed and invests in home-only lending programs to grow sales of homes through traditional distribution points as well. We believe that growing our participation in home-only lending may provide additional sales growth opportunities for our factory-built housing operations.

32


We are also working through industry trade associations to encourage favorable legislative and GSE action to address the mortgage financing needs of potential buyers of affordable homes. Federal law requires the GSEs to issue a regulation to implement the "Duty to Serve" requirements specified in the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, as amended by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008. FNMA and FHLMC released their final Underserved Markets Plan that describes, with specificity, the actions they will take over a three-year period to fulfill the "Duty to Serve" obligation. These plans became effective on January 1, 2018. Each of the three-year plans is intended to establish steps to ensure home-only loans can be purchased in bulk prior to proceeding with a pilot program to purchase these loans. Expansion of the secondary market for home-only lending through the GSEs could provide further demand for housing, as lending options would likely become more available to home buyers. Although some limited progress has been made in the area, meaningful positive impact in the form of increased home orders has yet to be realized.
On January 25, 2018, HUD announced a top-to-bottom review of its manufactured housing rules as part of a broader effort to identify regulations that may be ineffective, overly burdensome, or excessively costly given the critical need for affordable housing. If certain changes are made, the Company may be able to more effectively serve buyers of affordable homes.
The insurance subsidiary is subject to adverse effects from excessive policy claims that may occur during periods of inclement weather, including seasonal spring storms or fall hurricane activity in Texas where most of its policies are underwritten. Where applicable, losses from catastrophic events are somewhat limited by reinsurance contracts in place as part of the Company's loss mitigation structure.
During the second fiscal quarter of fiscal 2018, Hurricane Harvey produced the largest recorded rain volume for a single weather event in U.S. history, resulting in historic flooding and widespread property damage, primarily in southeast Texas, causing high homeowners' insurance claim volume. The substantial economic toll in the affected market areas was widely reported. Increased consumer demand for replacement of homes lost as a result of these events may continue for several quarters. This may include demand for additional disaster-relief manufactured home orders from federal and state agencies. The Company initially participated by producing a limited number of disaster-relief homes for FEMA during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year 2018.
Results of Operations
Fiscal Year 2018 Compared to Fiscal Year 2017
Net Revenue.
Net revenue consisted of the following for fiscal years 2018 and 2017, respectively (dollars in thousands):
 
Year Ended
 
 
 
 
 
March 31,
2018
 
April 1,
2017
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Net revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Factory-built housing
$
815,519

 
$
720,971

 
$
94,548

 
13.1
%
Financial services
55,716

 
52,826

 
2,890

 
5.5
%
 
$
871,235

 
$
773,797

 
$
97,438

 
12.6
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total homes sold
14,537

 
13,820

 
717

 
5.2
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net factory-built housing revenue per home sold
$
56,100

 
$
52,169

 
$
3,931

 
7.5
%
Factory-built housing segment revenue increased. Rising material and labor input costs have resulted in higher home sales prices. Additionally, sales volume increased, which has been driven by greater demand for our products. The increase also includes approximately $14.8 million of home sales revenue recognized from early commercial loan payoffs received under Cavco's wholesale lending programs. Additionally, the current fiscal year includes 12 months of Lexington Homes operations, which was purchased by the Company on April 3, 2017.

33


Net factory-built housing revenue per home sold is a volatile metric dependent upon several factors. A primary factor is the price disparity between sales of homes to independent retailers, builders, communities and developers ("Wholesale") and sales of homes to consumers by Company-owned retail centers ("Retail"). Wholesale sales prices are primarily comprised of the home and the cost to ship the home from a homebuilding facility to the home-site. Retail home prices include these items and retail markup, as well as items that are largely subject to home buyer discretion, including, but not limited to, installation, utility connections, site improvements, landscaping and additional services. Changes to the proportion of home sales among these distribution channels between reporting periods impacts the overall net revenue per home sold. For the twelve months ending March 31, 2018, the Company sold 12,137 homes Wholesale and 2,400 Retail versus 11,142 homes Wholesale and 2,678 homes Retail in the comparable prior year period. Further, fluctuations in net factory-built housing revenue per home sold are the result of changes in product mix, which results from home buyer tastes and preferences as they select home types/models, as well as optional home upgrades when purchasing the home. These selections vary regularly based on consumer interests, local housing preferences and economic circumstances. Our product prices are also periodically adjusted for the cost and availability of raw materials included in, and labor used to produce, each home. For these reasons, we have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, volatility in overall net factory-built housing revenue per home sold.
Financial services segment revenue increased primarily from higher home loan sales volume, higher premium revenue from a greater number of insurance policies in force and greater interest income on loans held for investment, offset by lower interest income earned on securitized loan portfolios that continue to amortize.
Gross Profit. 
Gross profit consisted of the following for fiscal years 2018 and 2017, respectively (in thousands):
 
Year Ended
 
 
 
 
 
March 31,
2018
 
April 1,
2017
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Gross profit:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Factory-built housing
$
149,015

 
$
130,221

 
$
18,794

 
14.4
%
Financial services
31,665

 
27,816

 
3,849

 
13.8
%
 
$
180,680

 
$
158,037

 
$
22,643

 
14.3
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross profit as % of net revenue:
20.7
%
 
20.4
%
 
N/A

 
0.3
%
The increase in factory-built housing gross profit was the result of higher home sales volume, product price increases in response to rising material and labor costs and a $3.4 million favorable dispute settlement resolution in the third fiscal quarter.
Financial services gross profit benefited from fewer weather-related insurance claims and higher home loan sales volume, offset by lower net interest income earned on securitized loan portfolios that continue to amortize.

34


Selling, General and Administrative Expenses.
Selling, general and administrative expenses consisted of the following for fiscal years 2018 and 2017, respectively (in thousands):
 
Year Ended
 
 
 
 
 
March 31,
2018
 
April 1,
2017
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Selling, general and administrative expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Factory-built housing
$
91,058

 
$
86,017

 
$
5,041

 
5.9
 %
Financial services
15,849

 
15,214

 
635

 
4.2
 %
 
$
106,907

 
$
101,231

 
$
5,676

 
5.6
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses as % of net revenue:
12.3
%
 
13.1
%
 
N/A

 
(0.8
)%
Factory-built housing selling, general and administrative expenses increased from higher salary and incentive compensation expense from improved earnings on increased home sales and the acquisition of Lexington Homes.
Selling, general and administrative expenses for financial services increased primarily from higher salary and incentive compensation costs related to improved earnings.
As a percentage of net revenue, selling, general and administrative expenses benefited from broader utilization of overhead costs.
Interest Expense.
Interest expense was $4.4 million in both fiscal year 2018 and 2017.
Interest expense consists primarily of debt service on the CountyPlace securitized financings of manufactured home loans and interest related to the capital lease treatment for a lease of manufacturing facilities and land entered into as part of the Lexington Homes acquisition during fiscal year 2018. While essentially flat year over year, decreases in bond interest expense on securitized portfolios that continue to amortize were nearly offset by increases in interest expense from secured credit facilities and the new capital lease obligation interest expense at Lexington Homes.
Other Income, net
For fiscal years 2018 and 2017, Other income, net was $9.1 million and $2.9 million, respectively, an increase of $6.2 million or 213.8%.
Other income, net, consists primarily of gains on corporate investments and property, plant and equipment, partnership income and interest income earned on commercial loans receivable in the factory-built housing segment. The increase was primarily from $3.9 million in investment gains realized on the sale of corporate investments over the prior year, and additionally from partnership income and higher interest income earned on commercial loans receivable in the factory-built housing segment.

35


Income Before Income Taxes.
Income before income taxes consisted of the following for fiscal years 2018 and 2017, respectively (in thousands):
 
Year Ended
 
 
 
 
 
March 31,
2018
 
April 1,
2017
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Income before income taxes:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Factory-built housing
$
66,636

 
$
46,840

 
$
19,796

 
42.3
%
Financial services
11,887

 
8,441

 
3,446

 
40.8
%
 
$
78,523

 
$
55,281

 
$
23,242

 
42.0
%
In addition to the above, income from operations includes $1.8 million of income from operations from early commercial loan payoffs received under Cavco's wholesale lending programs.
Income Tax Expense.
Income tax expense was $17.0 million, resulting in an effective tax rate of 21.7% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 compared to income tax expense of $17.3 million and an effective rate of 31.3% for the fiscal year ended April 1, 2017. The current fiscal year benefited from the Tax Act, which made broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code. In connection with lower federal income tax liability related to the Tax Act and requisite revaluation of the net deferred income tax balance, the Company recorded a net income tax benefit of $4.8 million. Additionally, the Company recognized benefits of $2.1 million from the current year adoption of accounting standards that required excess tax benefits on stock option exercises to be recorded as a reduction of income tax expense instead of equity, as was previously required.

Fiscal Year 2017 Compared to Fiscal Year 2016
Net Revenue. 
Net revenue consisted of the following for fiscal years 2017 and 2016, respectively (dollars in thousands):
 
Year Ended
 
 
 
 
 
April 1,
2017
 
April 2,
2016
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Net revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Factory-built housing
$
720,971

 
$
655,148

 
$
65,823

 
10.0
 %
Financial services
52,826

 
57,204

 
(4,378
)
 
(7.7
)%
 
$
773,797

 
$
712,352

 
$
61,445

 
8.6
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total homes sold
13,820

 
12,339

 
1,481

 
12.0
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenue per home sold
$
52,169

 
$
53,096

 
$
(927
)
 
(1.7
)%
Factory-built housing segment revenue increased, driven primarily from higher home sales volume. We had improvement across all of our housing product lines, which was supported from growing market demand. In addition, the manufactured housing industry in general and the Company specifically participated in the production of a limited number of disaster relief units, which further supplemented industry and Company shipment growth. The fiscal year 2017 also contains one additional month of Fairmont Homes operations versus fiscal year 2016, as Fairmont Homes was purchased by the Company on May 1, 2015.

36


Net factory-built housing revenue per home sold is a volatile metric dependent upon several factors. Changes to the proportion of home sales among our various distribution channels between reporting periods impacts the overall net revenue per home sold. For the twelve months ending April 1, 2017, the Company sold 11,142 homes Wholesale and 2,678 Retail versus 9,953 homes Wholesale and 2,386 homes Retail in the comparable prior year period. Further, fluctuations in net factory-built housing revenue per home sold are the result of changes in product mix, which results from home buyer tastes and preferences as they select home types/models, as well as optional home upgrades when purchasing the home.
Financial services segment revenue decreased primarily from changes made to the recognition of certain ceded insurance commissions that took effect in fiscal year 2017 and lower interest income earned on securitized loan portfolios that continue to amortize, offset by increased higher home loan sales volume and premium revenue from a greater number of insurance policies in force.
Gross Profit. 
Gross profit consisted of the following for fiscal years 2017 and 2016, respectively (in thousands):
 
Year Ended
 
 
 
 
 
April 1,
2017
 
April 2,
2016
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Gross profit:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Factory-built housing
$
130,221

 
$
116,896

 
$
13,325

 
11.4
%
Financial services
27,816

 
27,549

 
267

 
1.0
%
 
$
158,037

 
$
144,445

 
$
13,592

 
9.4
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross profit as % of net revenue:
20.4
%
 
20.3
%
 
N/A

 
0.1
%
The increase in factory-built housing gross profit was the result of higher home sales volume.
Gross profit increased for financial services mainly as a result of fewer weather-related insurance claims overall and higher home loan sales volume, offset by lower net interest income earned on securitized loan portfolios that continue to amortize.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses.
Selling, general and administrative expenses consisted of the following for fiscal years 2017 and 2016, respectively (in thousands):
 
Year Ended
 
 
 
 
 
April 1,
2017
 
April 2,
2016
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Selling, general and administrative expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Factory-built housing
$
86,017

 
$
83,335

 
$
2,682

 
3.2
 %
Financial services
15,214

 
14,768

 
446

 
3.0
 %
 
$
101,231

 
$
98,103

 
$
3,128

 
3.2
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses as % of net revenue:
13.1
%
 
13.8
%
 
N/A

 
(0.7
)%
Factory-built housing selling, general and administrative expenses increased from higher salary and incentive compensation expense from improved earnings on increased home sales.
Selling, general and administrative expenses for financial services increased primarily from higher salary and incentive compensation costs related to improved earnings.

37


As a percentage of net revenue, selling, general and administrative expenses declined from increased utilization on higher net revenue.
Interest Expense.
Interest expense was $4.4 million in both fiscal year 2017 and 2016. Interest expense consisted primarily of debt service on the CountyPlace securitized and other financings of manufactured home loans and interest related to the capital lease treatment for a lease of manufacturing facilities and land entered into as part of the Fairmont acquisition during the first quarter of fiscal year 2016. On September 20, 2016, the Company purchased the assets under the capital lease, terminating the lease arrangement. While essentially flat year over year, for the year ended April 1, 2017, there were modest increases related to changes to the purchase discount market-based valuation adjustment on securitized financings, partially offset by the continued principal reductions of those financings and lower capital lease interest from the termination of the lease.
Other Income, net
Other income, net was $2.9 million and $2.0 million for fiscal years 2017 and 2016, respectively. The majority of Other income, net was attributable to interest income earned on commercial loans receivable in the factory-built housing segment and also represents gains and losses on corporate investments and property, plant and equipment. Other income, net increased for the fiscal year ended April 1, 2017 compared to the prior year mainly from realized gains on corporate investments and the sale of certain retail location assets.
Income Before Income Taxes.
Income before income taxes consisted of the following for fiscal years 2017 and 2016, respectively (in thousands):
 
Year Ended
 
 
 
 
 
April 1,
2017
 
April 2,
2016
 
$ Change
 
% Change
Income before income taxes:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Factory-built housing
$
46,840

 
$
35,440

 
$
11,400

 
32.2
 %
Financial services
8,441

 
8,588

 
(147
)
 
(1.7
)%
 
$
55,281

 
$
44,028

 
$
11,253

 
25.6
 %
Liquidity and Capital Resources
We believe that cash and cash equivalents at March 31, 2018, together with cash flow from operations, will be sufficient to fund our operations and provide for growth for the next 12 months and into the foreseeable future. We maintain cash in U.S. Treasury money market funds and money market funds, some of which are in excess of federally insured limits. We expect to continue to evaluate potential acquisitions of, or strategic investments in, businesses that are complementary to our Company. Such transactions may require the use of cash and have other impacts on the Company's liquidity and capital resources in the event of such a transaction. The recent acquisition of Lexington Homes did not have a significant impact on our liquidity or capital resources. Because of the Company's sufficient cash position, the Company has not historically sought external sources of liquidity, with the exception of certain credit facilities for our home-only lending programs. However, depending on our operating results and strategic opportunities, we may need to seek additional or alternative sources of financing. There can be no assurance that such financing would be available on satisfactory terms, if at all. If this financing were not available, it could be necessary for us to reevaluate our long-term operating plans to make more efficient use of our existing capital resources. The exact nature of any changes to our plans that would be considered depends on various factors, such as conditions in the factory-built housing industry and general economic conditions outside of our control.

38


The following is a summary of our cash flows for fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively (in thousands):
 
Year Ended
 
 
 
 

March 31,
2018
 
April 1,
2017
 
April 2,
2016
 
Current Fiscal Year Change
 
Prior Fiscal Year Change
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of fiscal year
$
132,542

 
$
97,766

 
$
96,597

 
$
34,776

 
$
1,169

Net cash provided by operating activities
58,771

 
44,794

 
43,543

 
13,977

 
1,251

Net cash used in investing activities
(4,671
)
 
(7,062
)
 
(38,227
)
 
2,391

 
31,165

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
124

 
(2,956
)
 
(4,147
)
 
3,080

 
1,191

Cash and cash equivalents at end of fiscal year
$
186,766

 
$
132,542

 
$
97,766

 
$
54,224

 
$
34,776

Projected cash to be provided by or used in operations in the coming year is largely dependent on sales volume. Net cash provided by operating activities increased during the year ended March 31, 2018, compared to the year ended April 1, 2017, primarily as a result of cash generated by operating income before non-cash charges from increased home sale volume and profitability compared to the prior year and principal payments on commercial loan receivables, partially offset by increased inventory from greater consumer demand and higher accounts payable and accrued liabilities, including wages, customer deposits and volume rebate accruals. Additionally, net cash was provided by increases in consumer lending activity, as discussed below.
Consumer loan originations increased $9.7 million to $126.4 million during the year ended March 31, 2018, from $116.7 million during the year ended April 1, 2017. This increase is primarily a result of increased home lending activity related to home sales growth in the operating regions of CountryPlace. Proceeds from the sale of consumer loans provided $119.3 million in cash, compared to $104.4 million in the previous year, a net increase of $14.9 million. The primary reason for the increase relates to the timing of loan origination and related sales, partially offset by an increase in consumer loans held for investment of $10.1 million.
Net cash provided by operating activities increased during the year ended April 1, 2017, compared to April 2, 2016 was primarily the result of cash generated by operating income before non-cash charges, higher accounts payable and accrued liabilities, including factory warranties, wages and unearned insurance premiums. These increases were partially offset by increases in accounts receivable from greater home sales activity.
Consumer loan originations increased $17.4 million to $116.7 million during the year ended April 1, 2017, from $99.3 million during the year ended April 2, 2016. This increase is primarily a result of increased home lending activity related to home sales growth in the operating regions of CountryPlace. Proceeds from the sale of consumer loans provided $104.4 million in cash, compared to $101.1 million in the previous year, a net increase of $3.3 million. The primary reason for the increase relates to the timing of loan origination and related sales, partially offset by an increase in consumer loans held for investment of $5.0 million.
With respect to consumer lending for the purchase of manufactured housing, states may classify manufactured homes for both legal and tax purposes as personal property rather than real estate. As a result, financing for the purchase of manufactured homes is characterized by shorter loan maturities and higher interest rates. Unfavorable changes in these factors and the current adverse trend in the availability and terms of financing in the industry may have material negative effects on our results of operations and financial condition. See Item IA, "Risk Factors."

39


Cavco has entered into commercial loan agreements with certain distributors of our products under which the Company provides funds for Wholesale purchases. In addition, the Company has entered into direct commercial loan arrangements with distributors, communities and developers under which the Company provides funds for financing homes and invested in community-based lending initiatives that provide home-only financing to new residents of certain manufactured home communities (see Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements). Further, the Company has invested in and developed home-only loan pools and lending programs to attract third-party financier interest and to grow sales of new homes through traditional distribution points as well.
Cash used for investing activities for the year ended March 31, 2018 included the purchases of property, plant and equipment, payments for Lexington Homes and purchases of investments, partially offset by proceeds from investment sales. Cash used for investing activities in fiscal year 2017 consisted of the purchase of property, plant and equipment and investments in publicly-traded securities, offset by proceeds from investment sales. Cash used for investing activities in fiscal 2016 consisted of the net asset purchase of two subsidiaries, in addition to purchases of property, plant and equipment and investments in publicly-traded securities, offset by proceeds from investment sales.
Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended March 31, 2018 was primarily from advances on secured credit facilities, offset by payments on securitized financings. Net cash used in financing activities for fiscal 2017 was from payments made on securitized financings, offset by proceeds from secured credit facilities and tax benefits from stock option exercises. Net cash used in financing activities for fiscal 2016 was primarily from payments made on securitized financings, offset by proceeds from other secured financing and tax benefits from stock option exercises.
Financings. As of March 31, 2018, there were two classes of securitized bond debt outstanding: one totaling $20.5 million with a coupon rate of 5.20% with a call date in January 2019, and one totaling $22.6 million with a coupon rate of 5.846% with a call date in July 2019. It is anticipated that we will purchase or refinance these facilities prior to their call dates.
CountryPlace's securitized debt is subject to provisions that require certain levels of overcollateralization. Overcollateralization is equal to CountryPlace's equity in the bonds. Failure to satisfy these provisions could cause cash, which would normally be distributed to CountryPlace, to be used for repayment of the principal of the related Class A bonds until the required overcollateralization level is reached. During periods when the overcollateralization is below the specified level, cash collections from the securitized loans in excess of servicing fees payable to CountryPlace and amounts owed to the Class A bondholders, trustee and surety, are applied to reduce the Class A debt until such time the overcollateralization level reaches the specified level. Therefore, failure to meet the overcollateralization requirement could adversely affect the timing of cash flows received by CountryPlace. However, principal payments of the securitized debt, including accelerated amounts, is payable only from cash collections from the securitized loans and no additional sources of repayment are required or permitted. As of March 31, 2018, the 2005-1 and 2007-1 securitized portfolios were within the required overcollateralization level.
In addition, we have entered into secured credit facilities with independent third party banks for a total of $15.0 million, of which $3.2 million is available, with one year draw periods and maturity dates of ten years after the expiration of the draw periods. The proceeds are used to originate and hold consumer home-only loans secured by manufactured homes, which are pledged as collateral to the facilities. The maximum advance for loans under this program is 80% of the outstanding collateral principal balance, with the Company providing the remaining funds. One of the facilities has a floating interest rate during a one year draw period in which we have the option to convert all or a portion of the loan to a fixed rate. During the draw period, the facility bears interest at an annual rate of the average one month LIBOR rates plus 3.50%. Upon conversion, converted balances bear interest at an annual rate of 10 year U.S. Treasury bonds plus 2.75%. We exercised the early conversion option on all outstanding amounts under this facility prior to March 31, 2018. Payments are based on a 20 year amortization schedule with a balloon payment due upon maturity. The other facility has a fixed interest rate of 4.75%. Payments are interest only with a balloon payment due upon maturity.

40


Contractual Obligations and Commitments
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations at March 31, 2018 to make future payments under our debt obligations and lease agreements. This table excludes long-term obligations for which there is no definite commitment period.
 
Payments Due by Period
 
Total
 
Less than
1 Year
 
1-3
Years
 
3-5
Years
 
After 5
Years
 
(in thousands)
Debt obligations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Securitized financings and other borrowings, including interest
$
60,904

 
$
28,129

 
$
22,195

 
$
2,668

 
$
7,912

Operating lease obligations
12,726

 
3,429

 
4,951

 
2,659

 
1,687

Capital lease obligations
1,317

 
136

 
839

 
146

 
196

Total contractual obligations
$
74,947

 
$
31,694

 
$
27,985

 
$
5,473

 
$
9,795

(1)
Interest is calculated by applying contractual interest rates to month-end balances. The timing of these estimated payments fluctuates based upon various factors, including estimated loan portfolio prepayment and default rates.
Additionally, the Company has contingent commitments at March 31, 2018, consisting of contingent repurchase obligations, letters of credit and remaining construction contingent commitments. For additional information related to these contingent obligations, see Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Company is contingently liable under terms of repurchase agreements with financial institutions providing inventory financing for independent retailers of its products. The maximum amount for which the Company was liable under such agreements approximated $55.6 million at March 31, 2018, without reduction for the resale value of the homes. Although the repurchase obligations outstanding have a finite life, these commitments are continually replaced as we continue to sell manufactured homes to retailers under repurchase and other recourse agreements with lending institutions which have provided wholesale floor plan financing to retailers.
The Company maintains an irrevocable letter of credit of $7.0 million to provide assurance that the Company will fulfill its reinsurance obligations. This letter of credit is secured by certain of the Company's investments. While the current letters of credit have finite lives, they are subject to renewal based on their underlying requirements.
The Company has a commitment to fund construction-period mortgages up to $16.0 million at March 31, 2018. The total loan contract amount, less cumulative advances, represents an off-balance sheet contingent commitment of CountryPlace to fund future advances.
Critical Accounting Policies
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Management bases its estimates and judgments on historical experience and on various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. See "Forward-Looking Statements" above.
Management believes the following accounting policies are critical to our operating results or may affect significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of its Consolidated Financial Statements and should be read in conjunction with the Notes to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.

41


Factory-Built Housing Revenue Recognition. Revenue from homes sold to independent retailers is generally recognized when the home is shipped, at which time title passes to the independent retailer and collectability is reasonably assured. Homes sold to independent retailers are generally either paid for prior to shipment or floor plan financed by the independent retailer through standard industry arrangements, which can include repurchase agreements. Manufacturing sales financed under repurchase agreements are reduced by a provision for estimated repurchase obligations (see Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements). Revenue from homes sold under commercial loan programs involving funds provided by the Company is either deferred until such time that payment for the related commercial loan receivable is received by the Company or recognized when the home is shipped, depending on the nature of the program and borrower (see Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for discussion of commercial loans receivable). Retail sales by Company-owned retail locations are generally recognized when the customer has entered into a legally binding sales contract, the home is delivered and permanently located at the customer's site, accepted by the customer, title has transferred and funding is reasonably assured.
Financial Services Revenue Recognition. Premium amounts collected on policies issued and assumed by Standard Casualty are amortized on a straight-line basis into net revenue over the life of the policy. Premiums earned are net of reinsurance ceded. Policy acquisition costs are also amortized as cost of sales over the life of the policy.
Upon acquisition of the securitized loan portfolio ("Acquisition Date"), management evaluated consumer loans receivable held for investment by CountryPlace to determine whether there was evidence of deterioration of credit quality and if it was probable that CountryPlace would be unable to collect all amounts due according to the loans' contractual terms. The Company also considered expected prepayments and estimated the amount and timing of undiscounted expected principal, interest and other cash flows. The Company determined the excess of the loan pool's scheduled contractual principal and contractual interest payments over the undiscounted cash flows expected as of the Acquisition Date as an amount that is not accreted into interest income (the non-accretable difference). The cash flow expected to be collected in excess of the carrying value of the acquired loans is accreted into interest income over the remaining life of the loans (referred to as accretable yield). Interest income on consumer loans receivable is recognized as net revenue (see Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements).
For loans originated by CountryPlace and held for sale, loan origination fees and gains or losses on sales are recognized as net revenue upon title transfer of the loans. CountryPlace provides third-party servicing of mortgages and earns servicing fees each month based on the aggregate outstanding balances. Servicing fees are recognized as net revenue when earned.
Effective April 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) ("ASU 2014-09"), which outlines a comprehensive five-step model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The standard requires entities to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. For more detailed information on ASU 2014-09, see Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Warranties. We provide the retail home buyer a one-year limited warranty covering defects in material or workmanship in home structure, plumbing and electrical systems. We record a liability for estimated future warranty costs relating to homes sold, based upon our assessment of historical experience factors. Factors we use in the estimation of the warranty liability include the estimated amount of homes still under warranty including homes in retailer inventories, homes purchased by consumers still within the one-year warranty period, the timing in which work orders are completed and the historical average costs incurred to service a home.

42


Reserve for Repurchase Commitments. Manufactured housing companies customarily enter into repurchase and other recourse agreements with lending institutions that have provided wholesale floor plan financing to retailers. A significant portion of our sales are made to retailers pursuant to repurchase agreements with lending institutions. These agreements generally provide that we will repurchase our new products from the lending institutions in the event such product is repossessed upon a retailer's default. Our obligation under these repurchase agreements ceases upon the purchase of the home by the retail customer.
The Company applies FASB ASC 460, Guarantees and FASB ASC 450-20, Loss Contingencies ("ASC 450-20"), to account for its liability for repurchase commitments. Additionally, subsequent to the inception of the repurchase commitment, the Company evaluates the likelihood that it will be called on to perform under the inventory repurchase commitments. If it becomes probable that a retailer will default and an ASC 450-20 loss reserve should be recorded, then such contingent liability is recorded equal to the estimated loss on repurchase.
Retailer Volume Rebates. The Company's manufacturing operations sponsor volume rebate programs under which certain sales to retailers, builders and developers can qualify for cash rebates generally based on the level of sales attained during a twelve-month period. Volume rebates are accrued at the time of sale and are recorded as a reduction of net revenue.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets. The Company periodically evaluates the carrying value of long-lived assets to be held and used and when events and circumstances warrant such a review. The carrying value of long-lived assets is considered impaired when the anticipated undiscounted cash flow from such assets is less than its carrying value. In that event, a loss is recognized based on the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value of the long-lived assets. Fair value is determined primarily using the anticipated cash flows discounted at a rate commensurate with the risk involved. Losses on long-lived assets to be disposed of are determined in a similar manner, except that the fair values are based primarily on independent appraisals and preliminary or definitive contractual arrangements less costs to dispose. The Company recorded no impairment charges on long-lived assets during fiscal years 2018, 2017 or 2016.
Income Taxes and Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on temporary differences between the financial statement amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect in the years in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company periodically evaluates the deferred tax assets based on the requirements established in FASB ASC 740, Income Taxes, which requires the recording of a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The determination of the need for or amount of any valuation allowance involves significant management judgment and is based upon the evaluation of both positive and negative evidence, including estimates of anticipated taxable profits in various jurisdictions with which the deferred tax assets are associated. At March 31, 2018, the Company evaluated its historical profits earned and forecasted taxable profits and determined that, except for certain state net operating loss deferred tax assets, all other deferred tax assets would be utilized in future periods.
Goodwill and Other Intangibles. We test goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles annually for impairment. Our analysis depends upon a number of judgments, estimates and assumptions. Accordingly, such testing is subject to uncertainties, which could cause the fair value to fluctuate from period to period.
As of March 31, 2018, all of our goodwill is attributable to our factory-built housing reporting unit. We performed our annual goodwill impairment analysis as of March 31, 2018 in accordance with ASU No. 2011-08, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Testing Goodwill for Impairment. The analysis determined that the fair value of the reporting unit was greater than the carrying value and thus no further procedures were considered necessary.
In the event that we are not able to achieve expected cash flow levels, or other factors indicate that goodwill is impaired, we may need to write off all or part of our goodwill, which would adversely affect our operating results and net worth. See Item 1A, "Risk Factors."

43


Accretable Yield on Consumer Loans Receivable and Securitized Financings. The Company acquired consumer loans receivable and securitized financings during the first quarter of fiscal 2012 as a part of the Palm Harbor transaction. Acquired consumer loans receivable held for investment and securitized financings were acquired at fair value, which resulted in a discount, and subsequently are accounted for in a manner similar to FASB ASC 310-30, Loans and Debt Securities Acquired with Deteriorated Credit Quality to accrete the discount.
The Company considers expected prepayments and default rates and estimates the amount and timing of undiscounted expected principal, interest and other cash flows for consumer loans receivable held for investment to determine the expected cash flows on securitized financings and the contractual payments. The amount of contractual principal and contractual interest payments due on the securitized financings in excess of all cash flows expected as of the Acquisition Date cannot be accreted into interest expense (the non-accretable difference). The remaining amount is accreted into interest expense over the remaining life of the obligation (referred to as accretable yield). For additional information, see Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Off Balance Sheet Arrangements
See Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of our off-balance sheet commitments.
Other Matters
Related Party Transactions. The Company recorded a gain of $1.9 million on the sale of equity securities to a related party in which the Company owns a 10% minority ownership interest. The arm's length transaction occurred at market rates.
Impact of Inflation. Material and labor inflation during fiscal year 2018 has had an adverse impact on our profitability. We can give no assurance that this trend will not continue or worsen in the future. Additionally, sudden increases in specific costs, such as the increases in material and labor, as well as price competition, can affect our ability to efficiently increase our selling prices and may adversely impact our results of operations.
Income Taxes. On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation, making broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code that affect the Company. These changes include, but are not limited to: (1) reducing the U.S. federal corporate tax rate, (2) allowing bonus depreciation for full expensing of qualified property and (3) eliminating the manufacturing deduction. The Tax Act reduces the federal corporate tax rate to 21% for our fiscal year ending March 30, 2019. As a result of these changes, our fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, had a blended corporate tax rate of 31.54%, which is based on the tax rate before and after the Tax Act and the number of days in the fiscal year.
In addition, on December 22, 2017, the SEC staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 ("SAB 118") that allows us to record provisional amounts during a measurement period not to extend beyond one year of the enactment date. The Company is currently analyzing the impact of the various provisions of the Tax Act. The ultimate impact may differ from the provisional amounts recorded. The Company expects to complete our analysis within the measurement period in accordance with SAB 118.
Recently Issued or Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of recently issued or adopted accounting pronouncements.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Market risk is the risk of loss arising from adverse changes in market prices and interest rates. We may from time to time be exposed to interest rate risk inherent in our financial instruments, but are not currently subject to foreign currency or commodity price risk. We manage our exposure to these market risks through our regular operating and financing activities.

44


Our operations are interest rate sensitive. As overall manufactured housing demand can be adversely affected by increases in interest rates, a significant increase in wholesale or mortgage interest rates may negatively affect the ability of retailers and home buyers to secure financing. Higher interest rates could unfavorably impact our revenues, gross margins and net earnings.
CountryPlace is exposed to market risk related to the accessibility and terms of long-term financing of its loans. In the past, CountryPlace accessed the asset-backed securities market to provide term financing of its home-only and non-conforming mortgage originations. At present, independent asset-backed and mortgage-backed securitization markets are not readily available to CountryPlace and other manufactured housing lenders. Accordingly, CountryPlace has not continued to securitize its loan originations as a means to obtain long-term funding.
We are also exposed to market risks related to our consumer and commercial loan notes receivables, as well as our securitized financings balances. For fixed and step rate instruments, changes in interest rates do not change future earnings and cash flows. However, changes in interest rates could affect the fair value of these instruments. Assuming the level of these instruments as of March 31, 2018, is held constant, a 1% unfavorable change in average interest rates would adversely impact the fair value of these instruments, as follows (in thousands):
 
Change in Fair Value
Consumer loans receivable
$
3,390

Commercial loans receivable
$
312

Securitized financings
$
1,261

In originating loans for sale, CountryPlace issues interest rate lock commitments ("IRLCs") to prospective borrowers and third-party originators. These IRLCs represent an agreement to extend credit to a loan applicant, whereby the interest rate on the loan is set prior to loan closing or sale. These IRLCs bind CountryPlace to fund the approved loan at the specified rate regardless of whether interest rates or market prices for similar loans have changed between the commitment date and the closing date. As such, outstanding IRLCs are subject to interest rate risk and related loan sale price risk during the period from the date of the IRLC through the earlier of the loan sale date or IRLC expiration date. The loan commitments generally range between 30 and 180 days; however, borrowers are not obligated to close the related loans. As a result, CountryPlace is subject to fallout risk related to IRLCs, which is realized if approved borrowers choose not to close on the loans within the terms of the IRLCs. As of March 31, 2018, CountryPlace had outstanding IRLCs with a notional amount of $13.8 million and are recorded at fair value in accordance with FASB ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging. The estimated fair values of IRLCs are based on quoted market values and are recorded in other assets in the consolidated balance sheets. The fair value of IRLCs is based on the value of the underlying loan adjusted for: (i) estimated cost to complete and originate the loan and (ii) the estimated percentage or IRLCs that will result in closed loans. The initial and subsequent changes in the value of IRLCs are a component of current income. Assuming CountryPlace’s level of IRLCs is held constant, a 1% increase in average interest rates would decrease the fair value of CountryPlace’s obligations by approximately $226,000.
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Reference is made to the Consolidated Financial Statements, the Reports thereon, the Notes thereto, and the supplementary data commencing on page F-1 of this report, which Consolidated Financial Statements, Reports, Notes and data are incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
None.

45


ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
We carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in the Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)). Based upon that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of the end of the period covered in this report, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective.
Management's Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting
The management of Cavco Industries, Inc. (the "Company") is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f). Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the Company's assets; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, and that the Company's receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and directors; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the Company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, the Company's controls and procedures may not prevent or detect misstatements. A control system, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the controls system are met. Because of the inherent limitations in all controls systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, have been detected.
Management assessed the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on the criteria in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework). Based on management's evaluation under the criteria in Internal Control—Integrated Framework, management concluded that the Company's internal control over financial reporting was effective as of March 31, 2018.
The effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of March 31, 2018, has been audited by RSM US LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which appears herein.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There have been no changes in our internal controls over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) that occurred during the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2018, which have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

46


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Cavco Industries, Inc.

Opinion on the Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited Cavco Industries, Inc. and subsidiaries' (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of March 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of March 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013.
 
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of March 31, 2018 and April 1, 2017, and the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income, stockholders' equity and cash flows for each of the three fiscal years in the period ended March 31, 2018, and the related notes and our report dated May 30, 2018 expressed an unqualified opinion.
 
Basis for Opinion
The Company's management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting in the accompanying Management's Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
 
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 

47


Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ RSM US LLP
 
Phoenix, Arizona
 
May 30, 2018
 

48


ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION
The Company is moving its home office location to 3636 North Central Avenue, Suite 1200, Phoenix, Arizona 85012 in July 2018.
PART III
ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
For a description of the directors of the Company and other information called for by this Item 10, see "Election of Directors," and "General - Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance" in the Company's Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which is incorporated herein by reference. Also see the information relating to executive officers of the Company that follows Item 4 of Part I of this Report, which is incorporated in this Item 10 by reference.
The Company has a Code of Ethics that applies to all directors, officers and employees of the Company. A copy of the Company's Code of Ethics is located on the Company's website at www.cavco.com or will be mailed, at no charge, upon request submitted to James P. Glew, Secretary, Cavco Industries, Inc., 1001 North Central Avenue, Suite 800, Phoenix, Arizona, 85004. If the Company makes any amendment to, or grants any waivers of, a provision of the Code of Ethics that applies to its principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller where such amendment or waiver is required to be disclosed under applicable SEC rules, the Company intends to disclose such amendment or waiver and the reasons therefore on its Internet website at www.cavco.com.
ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
For a description of the Company's executive compensation, see "Election of Directors," and "Compensation Discussion and Analysis" (other than the "Compensation Committee Report") in the Company's Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
For a description of the security ownership of management and certain beneficial owners, see "Stock Ownership" in the Company's Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
The following table sets forth information as of March 31, 2018, with respect to our compensation plans and individual compensation arrangements under which our equity securities were authorized for issuance to directors, officers, employees, consultants and certain other persons and entities in exchange for the provision to us of goods or services.
Plan Category
Number of
Securities to be
Issued Upon
Exercise of
Outstanding
Options,
Warrants, and
Rights (a)
 
Weighted-
Average Exercise
Price of
Outstanding
Options,
Warrants, and
Rights
 
Number of Securities
Remaining Available for
Future Issuance Under
Equity Compensation
Plans (Excluding
Securities Reflected in
Column (a))
Equity compensation plans approved by stockholders
418,205

 
$
79.73

 
343,037

Equity compensation plans not approved by stockholders

 

 

Total
418,205

 
$
79.73

 
343,037


49


ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
For a description of certain relationships and related transactions of the Company, see "Compensation Discussion and Analysis-Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation" of the Company's Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES
For a description of principal accounting fees and services, see "Audit Fees" and "Ratification of Appointment of Independent Auditor" in the Company's Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which is incorporated herein by reference.

50


PART IV
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedules
Financial Statements are listed in the Index to Consolidated Financial Statements on page F-1 of this report.
All schedules have been omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is included in the Consolidated Financial Statements or Notes thereto.
Exhibits
The documents listed below are being filed or have previously been filed on behalf of the Company and are incorporated herein by reference from the documents indicated and made a part hereof. Exhibits not identified as previously filed are filed herewith.
Copies of any of the exhibits referred to below will be furnished at no cost to security holders who make a written request to James P. Glew, Secretary, Cavco Industries, Inc., 1001 North Central Avenue, Suite 800, Phoenix, Arizona, 85004 or via the Company website (www.cavco.com).

51


 
Exhibit
Number
Exhibit
 
Filed/Furnished Herewith or
Incorporated by Reference
 
Exhibit 3.1 to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2004
 
Exhibit 3.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2006
 
Exhibit 3.2 to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2004
 
Exhibit 10.6 to the Registration Statement on Form 10/A (File No. 000-08822) filed by Cavco on April 23, 2003, as amended by Form 10/A dated May 21, 2003, Form 10/A dated May 30, 2003, Form 10/A dated June 17, 2003, and Form 10/A dated June 20, 2003
 
Exhibit 10.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2010
 
Exhibit A to the Corporation's Definitive Proxy Statement for its 2005 Annual Meeting of Stockholders filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 23, 2005, and incorporated by reference herein (this Exhibit is filed as an Exhibit to the Company's Registration Statement on Form S-8 (No. 333-132925), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 3, 2006)
 
Exhibit 10.2 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2010
 
Exhibit 10.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended September 26, 2015
 
Exhibit 10.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2007
 
Exhibit 10.18 to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2008
 
Exhibit 10.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2012
 
Exhibit 10.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended July 2, 2016
 
Exhibit 10.1 to the Periodic Report on Form 8-K filed on July 5, 2011
 
Periodic Report on Form 8-K filed on June 9, 2015
 
Periodic Report on Form 8-K filed on June 30, 2016
 
Periodic Report on Form 8-K filed on June 8, 2017
 
Filed herewith
 
Filed herewith
 
Filed herewith
 
Filed herewith
 
Furnished herewith
*
Management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement
**
These certifications are not "filed" for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or otherwise subject to the liability of that section. These certifications are not to be deemed incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, unless Cavco specifically incorporates them by reference.

52


SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 
 
CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
 
 
 
Date:
May 30, 2018
/s/ Joseph H. Stegmayer
 
 
Joseph H. Stegmayer – Chairman,
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
 
 
(Principal Executive Officer)
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

Signature
 
Title
Date
 
 
 
 
/s/ Joseph H. Stegmayer
 
Chairman, President and
May 30, 2018
Joseph H. Stegmayer
 
Chief Executive Officer
 
 
 
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Daniel L. Urness
 
Executive Vice President, Treasurer and
May 30, 2018
Daniel L. Urness
 
Chief Financial Officer
 
 
 
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ William C. Boor
 
Director
May 30, 2018
William C. Boor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Steven G. Bunger
 
Director
May 30, 2018
Steven G. Bunger
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ David A. Greenblatt
 
Director
May 30, 2018
David A. Greenblatt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Jack Hanna
 
Director
May 30, 2018
Jack Hanna
 
 
 

53


CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 

F-1


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Cavco Industries, Inc.
  
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Cavco Industries, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the Company) as of March 31, 2018 and April 1, 2017, and the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income, stockholders' equity and cash flows for each of the three fiscal years in the period ended March 31, 2018, and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements (collectively, the financial statements). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of March 31, 2018 and April 1, 2017, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three fiscal years in the period ended March 31, 2018, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
 
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of March 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013, and our report dated May 30, 2018 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
 
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

/s/ RSM US LLP
 
 
 
We have served as the Company's auditor since 2015.
 
 
 
Phoenix, Arizona
 
May 30, 2018
 


F-2


CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
March 31,
2018
 
April 1,
2017
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
186,766

 
$
132,542

Restricted cash, current
11,228

 
11,573

Accounts receivable, net
35,043

 
29,448

Short-term investments
11,866

 
11,289

Current portion of consumer loans receivable, net
31,096

 
31,115

Current portion of commercial loans receivable, net
5,481

 
7,932

Inventories
109,152

 
93,855

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
27,961

 
29,806

Deferred income taxes, current

 
9,204

Total current assets
418,593

 
356,764

Restricted cash
1,264

 
724

Investments
33,573

 
30,256

Consumer loans receivable, net
63,855

 
64,686

Commercial loans receivable, net
11,120

 
17,901

Property, plant and equipment, net
63,355

 
56,964

Goodwill and other intangibles, net
83,020

 
80,021

Total assets
$
674,780

 
$
607,316

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
23,785

 
$
24,010

Accrued liabilities
126,500

 
109,789

Current portion of securitized financings and other
26,044

 
6,417

Total current liabilities
176,329

 
140,216

Securitized financings and other
33,768

 
51,574

Deferred income taxes
7,577

 
21,118

Stockholders' equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $.01 par value; 1,000,000 shares authorized; No shares issued or outstanding

 

Common stock, $.01 par value; 40,000,000 shares authorized; Outstanding 9,044,858 and 8,994,968 shares, respectively
90

 
90

Additional paid-in capital
246,197

 
244,791

Retained earnings
209,381

 
148,141

Accumulated other comprehensive income
1,438

 
1,386

Total stockholders' equity
457,106

 
394,408

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
$
674,780

 
$
607,316

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

F-3


CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)

 
Year Ended
 
March 31,
2018
 
April 1,
2017
 
April 2,
2016
Net revenue
$
871,235

 
$
773,797

 
$
712,352

Cost of sales
690,555

 
615,760

 
567,907

Gross profit
180,680

 
158,037

 
144,445

Selling, general and administrative expenses
106,907

 
101,231

 
98,103

Income from operations
73,773

 
56,806

 
46,342

Interest expense
(4,397
)
 
(4,443
)
 
(4,363
)
Other income, net
9,147

 
2,918

 
2,049

Income before income taxes
78,523

 
55,281

 
44,028

Income tax expense
(17,021
)
 
(17,326
)
 
(15,487
)
Net income
$
61,502

 
$
37,955

 
$
28,541

 
 
 
 
 
 
Comprehensive income:
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
$
61,502

 
$
37,955

 
$
28,541

Reclassification adjustment for net gains realized in income
(1,538
)
 
(372
)
 
(283
)
Applicable income taxes
574

 
149

 
99

Net change in unrealized appreciation of investments
1,249

 
493

 
1,607

Applicable income taxes
(233
)
 
(173
)
 
(638
)
Comprehensive income
$
61,554

 
$
38,052

 
$
29,326

 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income per share:
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
6.82

 
$
4.23

 
$
3.21

Diluted
$
6.68

 
$
4.17

 
$
3.15

Weighted average shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
9,024,437

 
8,976,064

 
8,889,731

Diluted
9,201,706

 
9,105,743

 
9,046,347


See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

F-4


CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
(Dollars in thousands)
 
Stockholders' Equity
 
 
 
 
 
Additional paid-in capital
 
Retained earnings
 
Accumulated other comprehensive income
 
Total
 
Common Stock
 
 
 
 
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
 
 
 
Balance, March 28, 2015
8,859,199

 
$
89

 
$
237,916

 
$
81,645

 
$
504

 
$
320,154

Net income

 

 

 
28,541

 

 
28,541

Reclassification adjustment for net gains realized in income, net

 

 

 

 
(184
)
 
(184
)
Unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities, net

 

 

 

 
969

 
969

Stock option exercises and associated tax benefits
68,790

 

 
1,984

 

 

 
1,984

Stock-based compensation

 

 
1,762

 

 

 
1,762

Balance, April 2, 2016
8,927,989

 
89

 
241,662

 
110,186

 
1,289

 
353,226

Net income

 

 

 
37,955

 

 
37,955

Reclassification adjustment for net gains realized in income, net

 

 

 

 
(223
)
 
(223
)
Unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities, net

 

 

 

 
320

 
320

Stock option exercises and associated tax benefits
66,979

 
1

 
1,004

 

 

 
1,005

Stock-based compensation

 

 
2,125

 

 

 
2,125

Balance, April 1, 2017
8,994,968

 
90

 
244,791

 
148,141

 
1,386

 
394,408

Net income

 

 

 
61,502

 

 
61,502

Cumulative effect of implementing ASU 2016-09

 

 

 
52

 

 
52

Cumulative effect of implementing ASU 2018-02

 

 

 
(314
)
 
314

 

Reclassification adjustment for net gains realized in income, net

 

 

 

 
(964
)
 
(964
)
Unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities, net

 

 

 

 
702

 
702

Stock option exercises and associated tax benefits
49,890

 

 
(915
)
 

 

 
(915
)
Stock-based compensation

 

 
2,321

 

 

 
2,321

Balance, March 31, 2018
9,044,858

 
$
90

 
$
246,197

 
$
209,381

 
$
1,438

 
$
457,106


See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

F-5


CAVCO INDUSTRIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Dollars in thousands)
 
Year Ended
 
March 31,
2018
 
April 1,
2017
 
April 2,
2016
OPERATING ACTIVITIES
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
$
61,502

 
$
37,955

 
$
28,541

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
4,026

 
3,687

 
3,922

Provision for credit losses
422

 
792

 
408

Deferred income taxes
(4,258
)
 
278

 
(940
)
Stock-based compensation expense
2,321

 
2,125

 
1,762

Non-cash interest income, net
(1,011
)
 
(1,161
)
 
(1,681
)
Incremental tax benefits from option exercises

 
(2,398
)
 
(1,279
)
Gain on sale of property, plant and equipment and assets held for sale
(77
)
 
(62
)
 
(15
)
Gain on investments and sale of loans
(14,544
)
 
(7,179
)
 
(5,836
)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
Restricted cash
(275
)
 
(1,682
)
 
100

Accounts receivable
(4,118
)
 
(372
)
 
3,332

Consumer loans receivable originated
(126,404
)