Share Based Compensation
Effective June 1, 2006, the Company adopted the FASB accounting guidance for fair value recognition provisions of the “Accounting for Share-Based Payment” using the modified prospective method. This standard requires the Company to measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for equity share options granted based on the grant-date fair value of the options. The cost is recognized as compensation expense over the vesting period of the options. Under the modified prospective method $146,315 and $75,859 compensation cost is included in operating expenses for the three months ended November 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively and $342,312 and $75,859 for the six months ended November 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively. These amounts included both the compensation cost of stock options granted prior to but not yet vested as of June 1, 2006 and compensation cost for all options granted subsequent to May 31, 2006. In accordance with the modified prospective application transition method, prior period results are not restated. Incremental compensation cost for a modification of the terms or conditions of an award is measured by comparing the fair value of the modified award with the fair value of the award immediately before the modification. No tax benefit was recorded as of May 31, 2012 in connection with these compensation costs due to the uncertainty regarding ultimate realization of certain net operating loss carryforwards. The Company has also implemented the SEC interpretations in Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) for “Share-Based Payments,” in connection with the adoption of FASB accounting guidance.
The Board of Directors adopted and the stockholders approved the 2003 Stock Option Plan on October 2003 and it was amended in October 2005. The plan was adopted to recognize the contributions made by the Company’s employees, officers, consultants, and directors, to provide those individuals with additional incentive to devote themselves to the Company’s future success, and to improve the Company’s ability to attract, retain and motivate individuals upon whom the Company’s growth and financial success depends. Under the plan, stock options may be granted as approved by the Board of Directors or the Compensation Committee. There are 900,000 shares reserved for grants of options under the plan, of which 88,800 have been issued and 800 were exercised. The Company has issued 271,784 stock options as standalone grants, of which 400 were exercised. Stock options vest pursuant to individual stock option agreements. No options granted under the plan are exercisable after the expiration of ten years (or less in the discretion of the Board of Directors or the Compensation Committee) from the date of the grant. The plan will continue in effect until terminated or amended by the Board of Directors.
The accounting guidance requires the use of a valuation model to calculate the fair value of each stock-based award. The Company uses the Black-Scholes model to estimate the fair value of stock options granted based on the following assumptions:
Expected Term or Life. The expected term or life of stock options granted issued represents the expected weighted average period of time from the date of grant to the estimated date that the stock option would be fully exercised. The weighted average expected option term was determined using a combination of the “simplified method” for plain vanilla options as allowed by the accounting guidance. The “simplified method” calculates the expected term as the average of the vesting term and original contractual term of the options.
Expected Volatility. Expected volatility is a measure of the amount by which the Company’s stock price is expected to fluctuate. Expected volatility is based on the historical daily volatility of the price of our common shares. The Company estimated the expected volatility of the stock options at grant date.
Risk-Free Interest Rate. The risk-free interest rate is based on the implied yield on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with remaining terms equivalent to the expected term of our stock-based awards.
As of November 30, 2012, there were 2,642,191 stock options outstanding. At November 30, 2012, the aggregate unrecognized compensation cost of unvested options, as determined using a Black-Scholes option valuation model was approximately $276,236 (net of estimated forfeitures) will be recognized ratably through July 31, 2014. The remaining amount of options will be valued once they vest upon the future events. During the six months ended November 30, 2012, the Company granted 400,000 stock options and 26,736 options expired.
The fair value of the options is estimated on the date of the grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model with the following assumptions:
| || ||Six Months Ended |
November 30, 2012
| ||Six Months Ended |
November 30, 2011
| ||From Inception |
November 30, 2012
|Dividends per year|| ||0|| ||0|| ||0|
|Volatility percentage|| ||97.5%|| ||97.5%|| ||90%-112%|
|Risk free interest rate|| ||3.47%|| ||3.47%|| ||2.07%-5.11%|
|Expected life (years)|| ||7.0-10.0|| ||5.0-9.0|| ||3-10|
|Weighted Average Fair Value|| ||$1.07|| ||$1.10|| ||$2.41|