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10-Q - FORM 10-Q FOR THE PERIOD ENDED NOVEMBER 30, 2012 - AEHR TEST SYSTEMSaehr_10q.htm
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2. STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION
6 Months Ended
Nov. 30, 2012
Stock-Based Compensation  
STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION

 

2.  STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION

 

Stock-based compensation expense consists of expenses for stock options and employee stock purchase plan, or ESPP, shares. Stock-based compensation cost is measured at each grant date, based on the fair value of the award using the Black-Scholes option valuation model, and is recognized as expense over the employee’s requisite service period.  This model was developed for use in estimating the value of publicly traded options that have no vesting restrictions and are fully transferable.  The Company’s employee stock options have characteristics significantly different from those of publicly traded options.  All of the Company’s stock based compensation is accounted for as an equity instrument.  See Notes 9 and 10 in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for fiscal 2012 filed on August 28, 2012 for further information regarding the stock option plan and the ESPP.


The following table summarizes compensation costs related to the Company’s stock-based compensation for the three and six months ended November 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively (in thousands):

 

    Three Months Ended     Six Months Ended  
    November 30,     November 30,  
    2012     2011     2012     2011  
Stock-based compensation in the form of employee stock options and ESPP shares, included in:                        
Cost of sales   $ 7     $ 27     $ 17     $ 46  
Selling, general and administrative     66       95       156       188  
Research and development     26       50       53       103  
Total stock-based compensation   $ 99     $ 172     $ 226     $ 337  


As of November 30, 2012, stock-based compensation costs of $67,000 were capitalized as part of inventory.  There was no stock-based compensation costs capitalized as part of inventory at November 30, 2011.


During the three months ended November 30, 2012 and 2011, the Company recorded stock-based compensation related to stock options of $83,000 and $134,000, respectively.  During the six months ended November 30, 2012 and 2011, the Company recorded stock-based compensation related to stock options of $192,000 and $289,000, respectively.


As of November 30, 2012, the total unrecognized stock-based compensation cost related to unvested stock-based awards under the Company’s 1996 Stock Option Plan and 2006 Equity Incentive Plan was approximately $1,016,000, which is net of estimated forfeitures of $3,000.  This cost will be amortized over the remaining service period of the underlying options.  The weighted average period is approximately 3.1 years.


During the three months ended November 30, 2012 and 2011, the Company recorded stock-based compensation related to the ESPP of $16,000 and $38,000, respectively.  During the six months ended November 30, 2012 and 2011, the Company recorded stock-based compensation related to the ESPP of $34,000 and $48,000, respectively.


As of November 30, 2012, the total compensation cost related to options to purchase the Company’s common stock under the ESPP but not yet recognized was approximately $28,000.  This cost will be amortized on a straight-line basis over a weighted average period of approximately 0.7 years.


Valuation Assumptions


Valuation and Amortization Method.  The Company estimates the fair value of stock options granted using the Black-Scholes option valuation model and a single option award approach.  The fair value under the single option approach is amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards, which is generally the vesting period.

 

Expected Term.  The Company’s expected term represents the period that the Company’s stock-based awards are expected to be outstanding and was determined based on historical experience, giving consideration to the contractual terms of the stock-based awards, vesting schedules and expectations of future employee behavior as evidenced by changes to the terms of its stock-based awards.

 

Expected Volatility.  Volatility is a measure of the amounts by which a financial variable such as stock price has fluctuated (historical volatility) or is expected to fluctuate (expected volatility) during a period.  The Company uses the historical volatility for the past five years, which matches the expected term of most of the option grants, to estimate expected volatility. Volatility for each of the ESPP’s four time periods of six months, twelve months, eighteen months, and twenty-four months is calculated separately and included in the overall stock-based compensation cost recorded.


Dividends.  The Company has never paid any cash dividends on its common stock and does not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.  Consequently, the Company uses an expected dividend yield of zero in the Black-Scholes option valuation model.


Risk-Free Interest Rate.  The Company bases the risk-free interest rate used in the Black-Scholes option valuation model on the implied yield in effect at the time of option grant on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with a remaining term equivalent to the expected term of the stock awards including the ESPP.


Estimated Forfeitures.  When estimating forfeitures, the Company considers voluntary termination behavior as well as analysis of actual option forfeitures.


Fair Value.  The fair value of the Company’s stock options granted to employees for the three and six months ended November 30, 2012 and 2011 were estimated using the following weighted average assumptions in the Black-Scholes option valuation model.

 

    Three Months Ended     Six Months Ended  
    November 30,     November 30,  
    2012     2011     2012     2011  
Option Plan Shares                        
Expected Term (in years)     5       5       5       5  
Volatility     0.93       0.81       0.91       0.81  
Expected Dividend   $ 0.00     $ 0.00     $ 0.00     $ 0.00  
Risk-free Interest Rates     0.64 %     1.01 %     0.72 %     1.51 %
Estimated Forfeiture Rate     0.25 %     0.25 %     0.25 %     0.25 %
Weighted Average Grant Date Fair Value   $ 0.57     $ 0.57     $ 0.79     $ 0.78  

 

The fair values of the ESPP shares granted for the three and six months ended November 30, 2011 were estimated using the following weighted-average assumptions:

 

    Three Months Ended     Six Months Ended  
    November 30, 2011     November 30, 2011  
Employee Stock Purchase Plan Shares            
Expected Term (in years)     0.5-2.0       0.5-2.0  
Volatility     0.79-0.98       0.79-0.98  
Expected Dividend   $ 0.00     $ 0.00  
Risk-free Interest Rates     0.1%-1.1 %     0.1%-1.1 %
Estimated Forfeiture Rate     0 %     0 %
Weighted Average Grant Date Fair Value   $ 0.40     $ 0.40  

 

There were no ESPP shares granted for the three and six months ended November 30, 2012.

 

The following table summarizes the stock option transactions during the three and six months ended November 30, 2012 (in thousands, except per share data):

          Outstanding Options  
                Weighted        
          Number     Average     Aggregate  
    Available     of     Exercise     Intrinsic  
    Shares     Shares     Price     Value  
Balances, May 31, 2012     839       2,957     $ 2.40     $ 587  
                                 
Options granted     (439 )     439     $ 1.28          
Options terminated     402       (402 )   $ 4.48          
Plan shares expired     (180 )     --                  
Options exercised     --       (101 )   $ 0.67          
                                 
Balances, August 31, 2012     622       2,893     $ 2.00     $ 340  
                                 
Additional shares reserved     1,185       --                  
Options granted     (180 )     180     $ 0.81          
Options terminated     91       (91 )   $ 3.92          
                                 
Balances, November 30, 2012     1,718       2,982     $ 1.87     $ 167  
                                 
Options fully vested and expected to                                
vest at November 30, 2012             2,923     $ 1.87     $ 163  
                                 
Options exercisable at November 30, 2012             1,603     $ 2.50     $ 51  

 

The options outstanding and exercisable at November 30, 2012 were in the following exercise price ranges (in thousands, except per share data):

    Options Outstanding   Options Exercisable
    at November 30, 2012   at November 30, 2012
Range of Exercise Prices   Number Outstanding Shares   Weighted Average Remaining Contractual Life (Years)   Weighted Average Exercise Price   Number Exercisable Shares   Weighted Average Remaining Contractual Life (Years)   Weighted Average Exercise Price   Aggregate Intrinsic Value
$0.59-$0.97     1,135     4.54   $ 0.75     638     3.07   $ 0.82      
$1.10-$2.52     1,606     4.29   $ 1.57     724     2.93   $ 1.79      
$6.00-$9.30     127     0.57   $ 8.34     127     0.57   $ 8.34      
$9.94-$9.94     114     0.56   $ 9.94     114     0.56   $ 9.94      
$0.59-$9.94     2,982     4.08   $ 1.87     1,603     2.63   $ 2.5   $ 51

 

The total intrinsic value of options exercised during the three and six months ended November 30, 2012 was $0 and $42,000, respectively.  The total intrinsic value of options exercised during the three and six months ended November 30, 2011 was $0.  The weighted average remaining contractual life of the options exercisable and expected to be exercisable at November 30, 2012 was 4.1 years.