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10-Q - YASHENG GROUP 10-Q - Yasheng Groupyasheng_10q-15346.htm
EX-31.1 - CERTIFICATION OF CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER PURSUANT TO SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 RULE 13A-14(A) OR 15D-14(A) - Yasheng Groupexhibit_31-1.htm
EX-32.2 - CERTIFICATION OF CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER PURSUANT TO 18 U.S.C. 1350, AS ADOPTED PURSUANT TO SECTION 906 OF THE SARBANES-OXLEY ACT OF 2002 - Yasheng Groupexhibit_32-2.htm
EX-31.2 - CERTIFICATION OF CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER PURSUANT TO SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 RULE 13A-14(A) OR 15D-14(A) - Yasheng Groupexhibit_31-2.htm
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EX-99.1 - SUMMARY OF YASHENG LABOR CONTRACT - Yasheng Groupexhibit_99-1.htm
EX-32.1 - CERTIFICATION OF CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER PURSUANT TO 18 U.S.C. 1350, AS ADOPTED PURSUANT TO SECTION 906 OF THE SARBANES-OXLEY ACT OF 2002 - Yasheng Groupexhibit_32-1.htm
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2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2012
Notes to Financial Statements  
(a) Accounting standards

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis to reflect the financial position and results of operations of the Company in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

(b) Fiscal year

The Company’s fiscal year ends on the 31st of December of each calendar year.

(c) Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. All material intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.

(d) Use of estimates

The Company’s discussion and analysis of its financial condition and results of operations are based upon its consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires the Company to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an on-going basis, the Company evaluates its estimates based on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

(e) Revenue recognition

We mainly sell food products.  We recognize revenue when title and risk of loss are transferred to our customers.  This generally happens upon delivery of our products.

(f) Shipping and handling costs

The Company records outward freight, purchasing and receiving costs in selling expenses; inspection costs and warehousing costs are recorded as general and administrative expenses.

(g) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, demand deposits held by banks, and securities with maturities of three months or less. The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are composed primarily of investments in money market accounts stated at cost, which approximates fair value.

(h) Inventories

Inventories are recorded using the weighted average method and are valued at the lower of cost or market.

(i) Accounts receivable, net

The carrying amount of accounts receivable is reduced by a valuation allowance that reflects the Company’s best estimate of the amounts that will not be collected. In addition to reviewing delinquent accounts receivable, the Company considers many factors in estimating its general allowance, including aging analysis, historical bad debt records, customer credit analysis and any specific known troubled accounts.

(j) Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Amortization of leasehold improvements is calculated on a straight-line basis over the life of the asset or the term of the lease, whichever is shorter. Major renewals and betterments are capitalized and depreciated; maintenance and repairs that do not extend the life of the respective assets are charged to expense as incurred. Upon disposal of assets, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is included in income. Depreciation related to property and equipment used in production is reported in cost of sales.

Long-term assets of the Company are reviewed annually to assess whether the carrying value has become impaired, according to the guidelines established in Statement of Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 144, "Accounting for the Impairment of Disposal of Long-Lived Assets." The Company also evaluates the periods of amortization to determine whether subsequent events and circumstances warrant revised estimates of useful lives. No impairment of assets was recorded in the periods reported.

(k) Intangible assets

Intangible assets consist of land use rights and are recorded at cost. Under PRC’s current property rights regime, use rights for specified periods (e.g., 40 to 70 years) can be obtained from the state through the up-front payment of land use fees. The fees are determined by the location, type and density of the proposed development. This separation of land ownership and use rights allows the trading of land use rights while maintaining state ownership of land. The Company has over 250,000 acres of agriculture land that are utilized for grazing, cultivation, and reclamation, of which 50,000 acres are under cultivation using the latest scientific technologies to produce a wide variety of agricultural products.

(l) Impairment of long-lived assets

The carrying amounts of long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is evaluated by a comparison of the carrying amount of assets to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the assets. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amounts of the assets exceed the fair value of the assets. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less cost to sell.

(m) Investments

Investments consist primarily of less than 20% equity positions in non-marketable securities and are recorded at lower of cost or market.

(n) Foreign currency translation

The accompanying financial statements are presented in United States (US) dollars. The functional currency is the Renminbi (“RMB”). The financial statements are translated into US dollars from RMB at year-end exchange rates for assets and liabilities, and weighed average exchange rates for revenues and expenses. Capital accounts are translated at their historical exchange rates when the capital transactions occurred.

 

Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency translation are recorded in a separate component of shareholders’ equity. Foreign currency translation adjustments are included in accumulated other comprehensive income in the consolidated statements of shareholders’ equity for the years presented.

 

RMB is not freely convertible into the currency of other nations. All such exchange transactions must take place through authorized institutions. There is no guarantee the RMB amounts could have been, or could be, converted into US dollars at rates used in translation.

(o) Income taxes

As an agricultural enterprise, the Company and all of its agricultural subsidiaries are exempted from enterprise income taxes with approval from the Gansu Provincial Bureau of Local Taxation. The only non-agricultural subsidiary, Baiyin Cement Plant, has suffered net loss for the years shown and therefore has no applicable taxable income. Because of the uncertainty of future profits, no deferred tax assets have been set up at this time.

(p) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are computed using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share are computed using the weighted average number of common and, if dilutive, potential common shares outstanding during the year. The Company has no potentially dilutive shares for the periods shown.

(q) Economic and Political Risks

The Company faces a number of risks and challenges as a result of having primary operations and markets in the PRC. Changing political climates in the PRC could have a significant effect on the Company's business.

(r) Advertising expense

The Company records advertising expenses in the period incurred.

(s) Comprehensive income

Comprehensive income is defined as the change in equity of a company during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances excluding transactions resulting from investments from owners and distributions to owners. Accumulated other comprehensive income, as presented on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets, consists of mainly the cumulative foreign currency translation adjustment.

Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance

Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance

 

On July 1, 2011, we adopted guidance issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) on disclosure requirements related to fair value measurements. The guidance requires the disclosure of roll-forward activities on purchases, sales, issuance, and settlements of the assets and liabilities measured using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3 fair value measurements). Adoption of this new guidance did not have a material impact on our financial statements.

 

On January 1, 2012, we adopted guidance issued by the FASB on accounting and disclosure requirements related to fair value measurements. The guidance limits the highest-and-best-use measure to nonfinancial assets, permits certain financial assets and liabilities with offsetting positions in market or counterparty credit risks to be measured at a net basis, and provides guidance on the applicability of premiums and discounts. Additionally, the guidance expands the disclosures on Level 3 inputs by requiring quantitative disclosure of the unobservable inputs and assumptions, as well as description of the valuation processes and the sensitivity of the fair value to changes in unobservable inputs. Adoption of this new guidance did not have a material impact on our financial statements.

Recent Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted

In December 2011, the FASB issued guidance enhancing disclosure requirements about the nature of an entity’s right to offset and related arrangements associated with its financial instruments and derivative instruments. The new guidance requires the disclosure of the gross amounts subject to rights of set-off, amounts offset in accordance with the accounting standards followed, and the related net exposure. The new guidance will be effective for us beginning July 1, 2013. Other than requiring additional disclosures, we do not anticipate material impacts on our financial statements upon adoption.

 

In September 2011, the FASB issued guidance on testing goodwill for impairment. The new guidance provides an entity the option to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If an entity determines that this is the case, it is required to perform the currently prescribed two-step goodwill impairment test to identify potential goodwill impairment and measure the amount of goodwill impairment loss to be recognized for that reporting unit (if any). If an entity determines that the fair value of a reporting unit is greater than its carrying amount, the two-step goodwill impairment test is not required. The new guidance will be effective for us beginning July 1, 2012.

 

In June 2011, the FASB issued guidance on presentation of comprehensive income. The new guidance eliminates the current option to report other comprehensive income and its components in the statement of changes in stockholders’ equity. Instead, an entity will be required to present either a continuous statement of net income and other comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements. This portion of the guidance will be effective for us beginning July 1, 2012 and will require financial statement presentation changes only. The new guidance also required entities to present reclassification adjustments out of accumulated other comprehensive income by component in both the statement in which net income is presented and the statement in which other comprehensive income is presented. However, in December 2011, the FASB issued guidance which indefinitely defers the guidance related to the presentation of reclassification adjustments.

(u) Value added tax (VAT)

Value added tax is a consumption tax levied on value added. While the standard VAT rate in PRC is 17%, the Company's agricultural subsidiaries enjoy a reduced VAT rate of 4%.