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EXCEL - IDEA: XBRL DOCUMENT - China Precision Steel, Inc.Financial_Report.xls
10-Q - QUARTERLY REPORT - China Precision Steel, Inc.form10q.htm
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v2.4.0.6
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
3 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2012
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and Cash Equivalents – TheCompany considers all highly liquid debt instruments purchased with maturity period of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The carrying amounts reported in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets for cash and cash equivalents approximate their fair value.

Accounts Receivable

Accounts Receivable – Credit periods vary substantially across industries, segments, types and size of companies in the PRC where we operate our business. Because of the niche products that we process, our customers are usually also niche players in their own respective segment, who then sell their products to end product manufacturers. The business cycle is relatively long, as well as the credit periods. The Company offers credit to its customers for periods of 60 days, 90 days, 120 days and 180 days. We generally offer longer credit terms to long-standing recurring customers with good payment histories and sizable operations. Accounts receivable are recorded at the time revenue is recognized and are stated net of allowance for doubtful accounts.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts – The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts based on its assessment of the collectability of the accounts receivable. Management determines the collectability of outstanding accounts by maintaining regular communication with such customers and obtaining confirmation of their intent to fulfill their obligations to the Company. Management also considers past collection experience, our relationship with customers and the impact of current economic conditions on our industry and market. However, we note that the continuation or intensification of the current global economic crisis may have negative consequences on the business operations of our customers and adversely impact their ability to meet their financial obligations. To reserve for potentially uncollectible accounts receivable, management has made a 50% provision for all accounts receivable that are over 180 days past due and full provision for all accounts receivable over 1 year past due. From time to time, we will review these credit periods, along with our collection experience and the other factors discussed above, to evaluate the adequacy of our allowance for doubtful accounts, and to make changes to the allowance, if necessary. If our actual collection experience or other conditions change, revisions to our allowances may be required, including a further provision which could adversely affect our operating income, or write back of provision when estimated uncollectible accounts are actually collected. At September 30, 2012 and June 30, 2012, the Company had $4,655,538 and $3,231,613 of allowances for doubtful accounts, respectively.

 

Bad debts are written off for past due balances over two years or when it becomes known to management that such amount is uncollectible. There was a provision for accounts receivable bad debts of $1,373,000 and $nil recognizedfor the three months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

Inventories

Inventories – Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using the weighted average method.Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchases, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs of conversion of inventories include fixed and variable production overheads, taking into account the stage of completion.

Intangible Assets and Amortization

Intangible Assets and Amortization – Intangible assets represent land use rights in China acquired by the Company and are stated at cost less amortization and impairment, if any. Amortization of land-use rights is calculated on the straight-line method, based on the period over which the right is granted by the relevant authorities in China.

Advances to Suppliers

Advances to Suppliers – In order to ensure a steady supply of raw materials, the Company is required from time to time to make cash advances to its suppliers when placing purchase orders, for a guaranteed minimum delivery quantity at future times when raw materials are required. The advance is seen as a deposit to suppliers and guarantees our access to raw materials during periods of shortages and market volatility, and is therefore considered an important component of our operations. Contracted raw materials are priced at prevailing market rates when the advance purchase contracts are entered into. Advances to suppliers are shown net of an allowance which represents potentially unrecoverable cash advances at each balance sheet date. Such allowances are based on an analysis of past raw materials receipt experience and the credibility of each supplier according to its size and background. In general, we do not provide allowances against advances paid to those PRC state-owned companies as there is minimal risk of default. Our allowances for advances to suppliers are subjective critical estimates that have a direct impact on reported net earnings, and are reviewed quarterly at a minimum to reflect changes from our historic raw materials receipt experience and to ensure the appropriateness of the allowance in light of the circumstances present at the time of the review. It is reasonably possible that the Company’s estimate of the allowance will change, such as in the case when the Company becomes aware of a supplier’s inability to deliver the contracted raw materials or meet its financial obligations. As of September 30, 2012 and June 30, 2012, the Company had made allowances of advances to suppliers of $4,675,112 and $4,623,323, respectively.

 

Allowances for advances to suppliers are written off when all efforts to collect the materials or recover the cash advances have been unsuccessful, or when it has become known to the management that there is no intention by the suppliers to deliver the contracted raw materials or refund the cash advances. To date, we have not written off any advances to suppliers.

Property, Plant and Equipment

Property, Plant and Equipment – Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. The cost of an asset comprises its purchase price and any directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to its present working condition and location for its intended use.

 

Depreciation is computed on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the related assets for financial reporting purposes. The estimated useful lives for significant property and equipment are as follows:

 

  Buildings   10 years  
  Plant and machinery   10 years  
  Motor vehicles   5 years  
  Office equipment   5 years  

 

Repairs and maintenance costs are normally charged to the statement of operations in the year in which they are incurred. In situations where it can be clearly demonstrated that the expenditure has resulted in an increase in the future economic benefits expected to be obtained from the use of the asset, the expenditure is capitalized as an additional cost of the asset.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets – The Company accounts for impairment of property, plant and equipment and amortizable intangible assets in accordance with ASC Topic No. 360 “Property, Plant and Equipment” (“ASC 360”), which requires the Company to evaluate a long-lived asset for recoverability when there is an event or circumstance that indicates the carrying value of the asset may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized when the carrying amount of a long-lived asset or asset group is not recoverable (when carrying amount exceeds the gross, undiscounted cash flows from use and disposition) and is measured as the excess of the carrying amount over the asset’s (or asset group’s) fair value. We primarily use the income valuation approach to determine the fair value of our long-lived assets, with fair value being the price that would be received from selling an asset in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

Capitalized Interest

Capitalized Interest – The Company capitalizes interest cost on borrowings incurred during the new construction or upgrade of qualified assets. Capitalized interest is added to the cost of the underlying assets and is amortized over the useful lives of the assets. During the three months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, the Company capitalized $nil interest to construction-in-progress.

Construction-in-Progress

Construction-in-Progress – Plant and production lines currently under development are accounted for as construction-in-progress. Construction-in-progress is recorded at acquisition cost, including land rights cost, development expenditure, professional fees and the interest expenses capitalized during the course of construction for the purpose of financing the project. Upon completion and readiness for use of the project, the cost of construction-in-progress is to be transferred to property, plant and equipment.

Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets – A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will only be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company. It can also be a present obligation arising from past events that is not recognized because it is not probable that outflow of economic resources will be required or the amount of obligation cannot be measured reliably.

 

A contingent liability is not recognized but is disclosed in the notes to the financial statements. When a change in the probability of an outflow occurs so that outflow is probable, the contingency is then recognized as a provision.

 

A contingent asset is a possible asset that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain events not wholly within the control of the Company.

 

Contingent assets are not recognized but are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements when an inflow of economic benefits is probable. When inflow is virtually certain, an asset is recognized.

Advances from Customers

Advances from Customers – Advances from customers represent advance cash receipts from customers and for which goods have not been delivered or services have not been rendered at each balance sheet date. Advances from customers for goods to be delivered or services to be rendered in the subsequent period are carried forward as deferred revenue.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition – Revenue from the sale of goods and services is recognized on the transfer of risks and rewards of ownership, which generally coincides with the time when the goods are delivered to customers and the title has passed and services have been rendered. Revenue is reported net of all VAT taxes. Other income is recognized when it is earned.

Functional Currency and Translating Financial Statements

Functional Currency and Translating Financial Statements – The Company’s principal country of operations is the PRC. Our functional currency is Chinese Renminbi; however, the accompanying consolidated financial statements have been expressed in United States Dollars (“USD”). The consolidated balance sheets have been translated into USD at the exchange rates prevailing at each balance sheet date. The consolidated statements of operations and cash flows have been translated using the weighted-average exchange rates prevailing during the periods of each statement. The registered equity capital denominated in the functional currency is translated at the historical rate of exchange at the time of capital contribution. All translation adjustments resulting from the translation of the financial statements into the reporting currency are dealt with as other comprehensive income in stockholders’ equity.

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income – Accumulated other comprehensive income represents the change in equity of the Company during the periods presented from foreign currency translation adjustments.

Taxation

Taxation – Taxation on overseas profits has been calculated on the estimated assessable profits for the year at the rates of taxation prevailing in the country in which the Company operates.

 

United States

 

China Precision Steel, Inc. is subject to United States federal income tax at a tax rate of 34%. No provision for income taxes in the United States has been made as China Precision Steel, Inc. had no taxable income in fiscal years 2012 and 2011.

 

BVI

 

PSHL and Blessford International were incorporated in the British Virgin Islands and, under the current laws of the British Virgin Islands, are not subject to income taxes.

 

PRC

 

Provision for the PRC enterprise income tax is calculated at the prevailing rate based on the estimated assessable profits less available tax relief for losses brought forward. The Company does not accrue taxes on unremitted earnings from foreign operations as it is the Company’s intention to invest these earnings in the foreign operations indefinitely.

 

Enterprise income tax

 

On March 16, 2007, the National People’s Congress of China passed The Enterprise Income Tax Law (the “New EIT Law”), and on December 6, 2007, the State Council of China passed the Implementing Rules for the EIT Law (“Implementing Rules”) which took effect on January 1, 2008. The New EIT Law and Implementing Rules impose a unified enterprise income tax (“EIT”) of 25% on all domestic-invested enterprises and foreign invested entities (“FIEs”), unless they qualify under certain limited exceptions. Therefore, nearly all FIEs are subject to the new tax rate alongside other domestic businesses rather than benefiting from the old FIE tax laws, and its associated preferential tax treatments, beginning January 1, 2008.

 

Despite these changes, the EIT Law gives the FIEs established before March 16, 2007 (“Old FIEs”) a five-year grandfather period during which they can continue to enjoy their existing preferential tax treatments, commonly referred to as “tax holidays”, until these holidays expire. As an Old FIE, Chengtong’s tax holiday of a 50% reduction in the 25% statutory rates expired on December 31, 2008 and it is currently subject to the 25% statutory rates since January 1, 2009; Shanghai Blessford’s full tax exemption from the enterprise income tax expired on December 31, 2009, and it is subject to a 50% reduction for the three subsequent years expiring on December 31, 2012. Subsequent to the expiry of their tax holidays, Chengtong and Shanghai Blessford will be subject to enterprise income taxes at 25% or the prevailing statutory rates. The discontinuation of any such special or preferential tax treatment or other incentives would have an adverse effect on any organization’s business, fiscal condition and current operations in China.

 

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statements carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets, including tax loss and credit carry forwards, and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Deferred income tax expense represents the change during the period in the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities. The components of the deferred tax assets and liabilities are individually classified as current and non-current based on their characteristics. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

 

The Company follows the provisions of the ASC Topic No. 740 “Accounting for Income Taxes” and “Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes – an interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109” (“ASC 740”). ASC 740 requires the recognition of tax benefits or expenses based on the estimated future tax effects of temporary differences between the financial statements and tax bases of its assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities primarily relate to tax basis differences on unrealized gains on corporate equities, stock-based compensation, amortization periods of certain intangible assets and differences between the financial statements and tax bases of assets acquired.

 

The Company recognizes that virtually all tax positions in the PRC are not free of some degree of uncertainty due to tax law and policy changes in the PRC. However, the Company cannot reasonably quantify political risk factors and thus must depend on guidance issued by current officials in the PRC.

 

Based on all known facts and circumstances and current tax law, the Company believes that the total amount of unrecognized tax benefits as of September 30, 2012 is not material to its results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. The Company also believes that the total amount of unrecognized tax benefits as of September 30, 2012, if recognized, would not have a material effect on its effective tax rate. The Company further believes that there are no tax positions for which it is reasonably possible, based on current Chinese tax law and policy, that the unrecognized tax benefits will significantly increase or decrease over the next 12 months producing, individually or in the aggregate, a material effect on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

 

Value added tax

 

The Provisional Regulations of the People’s Republic of China Concerning Value Added Tax promulgated by the State Council came into effect on January 1, 1994. Under these regulations and the Implementing Rules of the Provisional Regulations of the People’s Republic of China Concerning Value Added Tax, value added tax is imposed on goods sold in or imported into the PRC and on processing, repair and replacement services provided within the PRC.

 

Value added tax payable in the PRC is charged on an aggregated basis at a rate of 13% or 17% (depending on the type of goods involved) on the full price collected for the goods sold or, in the case of taxable services provided, at a rate of 17% on the charges for the taxable services provided, but excluding, in respect of both goods and services, any amount paid in respect of value added tax included in the price or charges, and less any deductible value added tax already paid by the taxpayer on purchases of goods and services in the same financial year.

 

The revised People’s Republic of China Tentative Regulations on Value Added Tax became effective on January 1, 2009 with the issuance of Order of the State Council No. 538. With the implementation of this VAT reform, input VAT associated with the purchase of fixed assets is now deductible against output VAT.

Retirement Benefit Costs

Retirement Benefit Costs – According to the PRC regulations on pension, Chengtong and Shanghai Blessford contribute to a defined contribution retirement scheme organized by municipal government in the province in which Chengtong and Shanghai Blessford were registered and all qualified employees are eligible to participate in the scheme. Contributions to the scheme are calculated at 37% of the employees’ salaries above a fixed threshold amount and the employees contribute 11%, while Chengtong and Shanghai Blessford contribute the balance contribution of 26%. The Group has no other material obligation for the payment of retirement benefits beyond the annual contributions under this scheme.

 

For the three months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, the Company’s pension cost charged to the statements of operations under the plan amounted to $64,741 and $69,338, respectively, all of which have been paid to the National Social Security Fund.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

Fair Value of Financial Instruments – The carrying amounts of certain financial instruments, including cash, accounts receivable, other receivables, short-term loans, accounts payable, accrued expenses, and other payables approximate their fair values as at September 30 and June 30, 2012 because of the relatively short-term maturity of these instruments. The Company considers the carrying amount of long-term loans to approximate their fair values based on the interest rates of the instruments and the current market rate of interest.

Use of Estimates

Use of Estimates – The preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.