Note 2 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies:
Cash and Cash Equivalents:
All highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase are considered to be cash equivalents. All of the Company’s cash equivalents have liquid markets and high credit ratings. The Company maintains its cash in bank deposit and other accounts, the balances of which, at times and at September 30, 2012, exceed federally insured limits.
Use of estimates:
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Significant estimates inherent in the preparation of the accompanying financial statements include the fair value of stock options and warrants granted to employees, consultants, directors, investors, licensors, placement agents and underwriters.
Additionally, the Company provides a valuation allowance for deferred income tax assets when it is considered more likely than not that all or a portion of such deferred income tax assets will not be realized.
The Company’s share-based compensation cost is measured at grant date, using the Black-Scholes option pricing model to estimate the fair value of the award, and is recognized as expense over the employee’s or director’s requisite service period on a straight-line basis. The Company accounts for stock options and warrants granted to non-employees on a fair value basis which is estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The initial non-cash charge to operations for non-employee options and warrants with vesting are revalued at the end of each reporting period until vested and recognized as consulting expense over the related vesting period.
Research and development:
Research and development expenses include personnel and facility-related expenses, third party contracted services including clinical trial costs, manufacturing and process development costs, research costs and other consulting services. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. In instances where the Company enters into agreements with third parties for clinical trials, manufacturing and process development, research and other consulting activities, costs are expensed as services are performed. Amounts due under such arrangements may be either fixed fee or fee for service, and may include upfront payments, monthly payments, and payments upon the completion of milestones or receipt of deliverables.
The Company’s accruals for clinical trials are based on estimates of the services received and pursuant to contracts with the respective clinical trial centers and clinical research organizations. In the normal course of business, the Company contracts with third parties to perform various clinical trial activities in the ongoing development of potential products. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation and variation from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. Payments under the contracts depend on factors such as the achievement of certain events, the successful enrollment of patients, and the completion of portions of the clinical trial or similar conditions. The objective of the Company’s accrual policy is to match the recording of expenses in its financial statements to the actual services received. As such, expense accruals related to clinical trials are recognized based on the estimate of the degree of completion of the event or events specified in the specific clinical study or trial contract.
The Company’s income tax expense consists of current and deferred income tax expense or benefit. Current income tax expense or benefit is the amount of income taxes expected to be payable or refundable for the current year. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates
expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Valuation allowances are established when it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
Loss per common share:
Basic net loss per common share excludes dilution and is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per common share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the earnings of the entity unless inclusion of such shares would be anti-dilutive. Since the Company has only incurred losses, basic and diluted net loss per share is the same. The number of potentially dilutive securities (options and warrants) excluded from the diluted loss per share calculation for the nine-month periods ended September 30, 2012 and 2011 was 3,133,606 and 2,916,981 respectively.