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DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS, HISTORY AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT POLICIES
12 Months Ended
Apr. 30, 2012
DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS, HISTORY AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT POLICIES [Text Block]
1.

DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS, HISTORY AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT POLICIES

   
 

Basis of Presentation – The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Royal Mines and Minerals Corp’s (the “Company”) fiscal year-end is April 30.

   
 

Description of Business – The Company is considered an exploration stage company. The Company's primary objectives are to 1) commercially extract and refine precious metals from its own and other’s leachable assets, 2) use its lixiviation processes to convert specific ore bodies and fly ash landfills/monofills into valuable assets, and 3) joint venture, acquire and develop mining projects in North America. The Company has not yet realized significant revenues from its primary objectives.

   
 

History – The Company was incorporated on December 14, 2005 under the laws of the State of Nevada. On June 13, 2007, the Company incorporated a wholly-owned subsidiary, Royal Mines Acquisition Corp., in the state of Nevada.

   
 

On October 5, 2007, Centrus Ventures Inc. (Centrus) completed the acquisition of Royal Mines Inc. (“Royal Mines”). The acquisition of Royal Mines was completed by way of a “triangular merger” pursuant to the provisions of the Agreement and Plan of Merger dated September 24, 2007 (the “First Merger Agreement”) among Centrus, Royal Mines Acquisition Corp. (“Centrus Sub”), a wholly owned subsidiary of Centrus, Royal Mines and Kevin B. Epp, the former sole executive officer and director of Centrus. On October 5, 2007, under the terms of the First Merger Agreement, Royal Mines was merged with and into Centrus Sub, with Centrus Sub continuing as the surviving corporation (the “First Merger”).

   
 

On October 6, 2007, a second merger was completed pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger dated October 6, 2007 (the “Second Merger Agreement”) between Centrus and its wholly owned subsidiary, Centrus Sub, whereby Centrus Sub was merged with and into Centrus, with Centrus continuing as the surviving corporation (the “Second Merger”). As part of the Second Merger, Centrus changed its name from “Centrus Ventures Inc.” to “Royal Mines And Minerals Corp.”(“the Company”). Other than the name change, no amendments were made to the Articles of Incorporation.

   
 

Under the terms and conditions of the First Merger Agreement, each share of Royal Mines’ common stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the completion of the First Merger was converted into one share of Centrus’ common stock. As a result, a total of 32,183,326 shares of Centrus common stock were issued to former stockholders of Royal Mines. In addition, Mr. Epp surrendered 23,500,000 shares of Centrus common stock for cancellation in consideration of payment by Centrus of $0.001 per share for an aggregate consideration of $23,500. As a result, upon completion of the First Merger, the former stockholders of Royal Mines owned approximately 69.7% of the issued and outstanding common stock.

   
 

As such, Royal Mines is deemed to be the acquiring enterprise for financial reporting purposes. All acquired assets and liabilities of Centrus were recorded at fair value on the date of the acquisition, as required by the purchase method of accounting, and the tangible net liabilities were debited against equity of the Company. There are no continuing operations of Centrus from the date of acquisition.

   
 

Going Concern - As of April 30, 2012, the Company has incurred cumulative net losses of approximately $13,030,822 from operations and has negative working capital of $811,139. The Company is still in the exploration stage and has not fully commenced its mining and minerals processing operations, raising substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern.

   
 

The ability of the Company to continue as a going concern is dependent on the Company raising additional sources of capital and the successful execution of the CompanyÂ?s objectives. The Company will seek additional sources of capital through the issuance of debt or equity financing, but there can be no assurance the Company will be successful in accomplishing its objectives. The financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of assets and liabilities that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern.

Use of Estimates - The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Cash and Cash Equivalents - The Company considers all investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be a cash equivalent.

Property and Equipment - Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is provided principally on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which are generally 3 to 10 years. The cost of repairs and maintenance is charged to expense as incurred. Expenditures for property betterments and renewals are capitalized. Upon sale or other disposition of a depreciable asset, cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is reflected in the statement of operations.

The Company periodically evaluates whether events and circumstances have occurred that may warrant revision of the estimated useful life of fixed assets or whether the remaining balance of fixed assets should be evaluated for possible impairment. The Company uses an estimate of the related undiscounted cash flows over the remaining life of the fixed assets in measuring their recoverability.

Mineral Property Rights – Costs of acquiring mining properties are capitalized upon acquisition. Mine development costs incurred either to develop new ore deposits, to expand the capacity of mines, or to develop mine areas substantially in advance of current production are also capitalized once proven and probable reserves exist and the property is a commercially mineable property. Costs incurred to maintain current production or to maintain assets on a standby basis are charged to operations. Costs of abandoned projects are charged to operations upon abandonment. The Company evaluates the carrying value of capitalized mining costs and related property and equipment costs, to determine if these costs are in excess of their recoverable amount whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. Evaluation of the carrying value of capitalized costs and any related property and equipment costs would be based upon expected future cash flows and/or estimated salvage value in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 360-10-35-15, Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets .

Exploration Costs – Mineral exploration costs are expensed as incurred.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets – The Company reviews and evaluates long-lived assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the related carrying amounts may not be recoverable. The assets are subject to impairment consideration under ASC 360-10-35-17, Measurement of an Impairment Loss , if events or circumstances indicate that their carrying amount might not be recoverable. As of April 30, 2012 exploration progress is on target with the Company’s exploration and evaluation plan and no events or circumstances have happened to indicate the related carrying values of the properties may not be recoverable. When the Company determines that an impairment analysis should be done, the analysis will be performed using the rules of ASC 930-360-35, Asset Impairment , and 360-10-15-3 through 15-5, Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets .

Various factors could impact our ability to achieve forecasted production schedules. Additionally, commodity prices, capital expenditure requirements and reclamation costs could differ from the assumptions the Company may use in cash flow models used to assess impairment. The ability to achieve the estimated quantities of recoverable minerals from exploration stage mineral interests involves further risks in addition to those factors applicable to mineral interests where proven and probable reserves have been identified, due to the lower level of confidence that the identified mineralized material can ultimately be mined economically.

Material changes to any of these factors or assumptions discussed above could result in future impairment charges to operations.

Asset Retirement Obligation - The Company follows ASC 410, Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations , which requires that an asset retirement obligation (“ARO”) associated with the retirement of a tangible long-lived asset be recognized as a liability in the period in which it is incurred and becomes determinable, with an offsetting increase in the carrying amount of the associated asset. The cost of the tangible asset, including the initially recognized ARO, is depleted, such that the cost of the ARO is recognized over the useful life of the asset. The ARO is recorded at fair value, and accretion expense is recognized over time as the discounted liability is accreted to its expected settlement value. The fair value of the ARO is measured using expected future cash flow, discounted at the Company’s credit-adjusted risk-free interest rate. To date, no significant asset retirement obligation exists. Accordingly, no liability has been recorded.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments - Fair value accounting establishes a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:

  Level 1

Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities;

  Level 2

Quoted prices in markets that are not active, or inputs that are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability; and

  Level 3

Prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (supported by little or no market activity).

The Company’s financial instruments consist of mineral property purchase obligations. These obligations are classified within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy as their fair value is determined using interest rates which approximate market rates. The Company is not exposed to significant interest or credit risk arising from these financial instruments.

Revenue Recognition – The Company recognizes revenues and the related costs when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery and acceptance has occurred or service has been rendered, the price is fixed or determinable, and collection of the resulting receivable is reasonably assured. Revenue from licensing our technology is recognized over the term of the license agreement. Costs and expenses are recognized during the period in which they are incurred.

Research and Development - All research and development expenditures are expensed as incurred.

Earnings (Loss) Per Share - The Company follows ASC 260, Earnings Per Share, and ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, which establish standards for the computation, presentation and disclosure requirements for basic and diluted earnings per share for entities with publicly held common shares and potential common stock issuances. Basic earnings (loss) per share are computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. In computing diluted earnings per share, the weighted average number of shares outstanding is adjusted to reflect the effect of potentially dilutive securities, such as stock options and warrants. Common stock equivalent shares are excluded from the computation if their effect is antidilutive. Common stock equivalents, which include stock options and warrants to purchase common stock, on April 30, 2012 and 2011 that were not included in the computation of diluted earnings per share because the effect would be antidilutive were 109,095,129 and 102,317,340, respectively.

Income Taxes - The Company accounts for its income taxes in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes , which requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and tax credit carry-forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

For acquired properties that do not constitute a business as defined in ASC 805-10-55-4, Definition of a Business , deferred income tax liability is recorded on GAAP basis over income tax basis using statutory federal and state rates. The resulting estimated future federal and state income tax liability associated with the temporary difference between the acquisition consideration and the tax basis is computed in accordance with ASC 740-10-25-51, Acquired Temporary Differences in Certain Purchase Transactions that are Not Accounted for as Business Combinations , and is reflected as an increase to the total purchase price which is then applied to the underlying acquired assets in the absence of there being a goodwill component associated with the acquisition transactions.

Expenses of Offering - The Company accounts for specific incremental costs directly related to a proposed or actual offering of securities as a direct charge against the gross proceeds of the offering.

Stock-Based Compensation – The Company accounts for share based payments in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation , which requires all share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized in the financial statements based on the grant date fair value of the award. In accordance with ASC 718-10-30-9, Measurement Objective – Fair Value at Grant Date , the Company estimates the fair value of the award using a valuation technique. For this purpose, the Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Company believes this model provides the best estimate of fair value due to its ability to incorporate inputs that change over time, such as volatility and interest rates, and to allow for actual exercise behavior of option holders. Compensation cost is recognized over the requisite service period which is generally equal to the vesting period. Upon exercise, shares issued will be newly issued shares from authorized common stock.

ASC 505, "Compensation-Stock Compensation", establishes standards for the accounting for transactions in which an entity exchanges its equity instruments to non employees for goods or services. Under this transition method, stock compensation expense includes compensation expense for all stock-based compensation awards granted on or after January 1, 2006, based on the grant-date fair value estimated in accordance with the provisions of ASC 505.

Reclassifications – The Company reclassified $16,200 of Loans payable – related party and $30,244 of Accrued interest – related party as of April 30, 2010 to Accrued liabilities to conform to the current presentation. The reclassification had no effect on the Company’s financial condition, results of operation, or cash flows.

Recent Accounting Standards – From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) that are adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, management believes that the impact of recently issued standards did not or will not have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, or cash flows upon adoption.

 

In May 2011, the FASB issued additional guidance regarding fair value measurement and disclosure requirements. The most significant change relates to Level 3 fair value measurements and requires disclosure of quantitative information about unobservable inputs used, a description of the valuation processes used, and a qualitative discussion about the sensitivity of the measurements. The guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning on or after December 15, 2011. The Company does not expect adoption of the additional fair value measurement and disclosure requirements to have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations.

   
 

In June 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-12, Comprehensive Income, Presentation of Comprehensive Income. Under the amendments, an entity has the option to present the total of comprehensive income, the components of net income, and the components of other comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements. This guidance is effective for the Company for the fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2011. The Company does not expect adoption of the additional fair value measurement and disclosure requirements to have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations.