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v2.4.0.6
Note 6. Fair Value Measurements
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2012
Fair Value Disclosures [Text Block]
NOTE 6 - FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS

ASC 820-10 defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants.  A fair value measurement assumes that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability occurs in the principal market for the asset or liability or, in the absence of a principal market, the most advantageous market for the asset or liability.  The price in the principal (or most advantageous) market used to measure the fair value of the asset or liability shall not be adjusted for transaction costs.  An orderly transaction is a transaction that assumes exposure to the market for a period prior to the measurement date to allow for marketing activities that are usual and customary for transactions involving such assets and liabilities; it is not a forced transaction. Market participants are buyers and sellers in the principal market that are independent, knowledgeable, and both able and willing to transact.

ASC 820-10 requires the use of valuation techniques that are consistent with the market approach, the income approach, and/or the cost approach.  The market approach uses prices and other relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable assets and liabilities.  The income approach uses valuation techniques to convert future amounts, such as cash flows or earnings, to a single present amount on a discounted basis.  The cost approach is based on the amount that currently would be required to replace the service capacity of an asset (replacement cost).  Valuation techniques should be consistently applied.  Inputs to valuation techniques refer to the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.  Inputs may be observable or unobservable.  Observable inputs reflect the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on market data obtained from independent sources.  Unobservable inputs reflect the reporting entity’s own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on the best information available in the circumstances.  In that regard, ASC 820-10 establishes a fair value hierarchy for valuation inputs that gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs.  The fair value hierarchy is as follows:

Level 1 – Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Corporation has the ability to access at the measurement date.

Level 2 – Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly.  Level 2 inputs include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active; inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability; and inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means.

Level 3 – Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability for which there is little, if any, market activity at the measurement date.  Unobservable inputs reflect the Corporation’s own assumptions about what market participants would use to price the asset or liability.  The inputs are developed based on the best information available in the circumstances, which might include the Corporation’s own financial data such as internally developed pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies, as well as instruments for which the fair value determination requires significant management judgment.

Financial assets (there were no financial liabilities) measured at fair value on a recurring basis at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011 include available-for-sale securities, which are all valued using Level 2 inputs, and mortgage servicing rights, amounting to $888,317 at March 31, 2012 and $727,240 at December 31, 2011, which are valued using Level 3 inputs.  Financial assets (there were no financial liabilities) measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011 include other real estate owned, as well as impaired loans approximating $16,881,793 at March 31, 2012 and $18,996,979 at December 31, 2011 all of which are valued using Level 3 inputs.

There were no financial instruments measured at fair value that moved to a lower level in the fair value hierarchy during the periods presented due to the lack of observable quotes in inactive markets for those instruments at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011.

The table below presents a reconciliation and income statement classification of gains and losses for mortgage servicing rights, which are measured at fair value on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3), for the three month period ended March 31, 2012 and year ended December 31, 2011:

   
March 31, 2012
   
December 31, 2011
 
             
Balance at beginning of period
  $ 727,240     $ 1,114,126  
Gains or losses, including realized and unrealized:
               
Disposals – amortization based on loan payments and payoffs
    (52,453 )     (240,662 )
Purchases, issuances, and settlements
    101,396       168,342  
Other changes in fair value
    112,134       (314,566 )
Balance at end of period
  $ 888,317     $ 727,240  

A description of the valuation methodologies used for instruments measured at fair value, as well as the general classification of such instruments pursuant to the valuation hierarchy, follows.

In general, fair value is based upon quoted market prices, where available.  If such quoted market prices are not available, fair value is based upon internally developed models that primarily use, as inputs, observable market-based parameters.  Valuation adjustments may be made to ensure that financial instruments are recorded at fair value. These adjustments may include amounts to reflect counterparty credit quality, the Corporation’s creditworthiness, among other things, as well as unobservable parameters.  Any such valuation adjustments are applied consistently over time.  The Corporation’s valuation methodologies may produce a fair value calculation that may not be indicative of net realizable value or reflective of future fair values. While management believes the Corporation’s valuation methodologies are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments could result in a different estimate of fair value at the reporting date.

Securities Available-for-Sale

Where quoted prices are available in an active market, securities are classified within Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy.  Level 1 securities would typically include government bonds and exchange traded equities.  If quoted market prices are not available, then fair values are estimated using pricing models, quoted prices of securities with similar characteristics, or discounted cash flows.  Examples of such instruments, which would generally be classified within Level 2 of the valuation hierarchy, include corporate and municipal bonds, mortgage-backed securities, and asset-backed securities.  In certain cases where there is limited activity or less transparency around inputs to the valuation, securities are classified within Level 3 of the valuation hierarchy.  The Corporation did not have any securities classified as Level 1 or Level 3 at March 31, 2012 or December 31, 2011.  There were no gains or losses relating to securities available-for-sale included in earnings before income taxes that were attributable to changes in fair values of securities held at March 31, 2012 or December 31, 2011.

Impaired Loans

The Corporation does not record impaired loans at fair value on a recurring basis.  However, periodically, a loan is considered impaired and is reported at the fair value of the underlying collateral, less estimated costs to sell, if repayment is expected solely from the collateral.  Collateral values are estimated using level 2 inputs, including recent appraisals and Level 3 inputs based on customized discounting criteria.  Due to the significance of the level 3 inputs, impaired loans fair values have been classified as level 3.

Other Real Estate Owned

The Corporation values other real estate owned at the estimated fair value of the underlying collateral less expected selling costs.  Such values are estimated primarily using appraisals and reflect a market value approach.  Due to the significance of the Level 3 inputs, other real estate owned has been classified as Level 3.  In accordance with the provisions of ASC 360-10, other real estate owned was written down to its estimated fair value of $1,799,500, resulting in impairment charges of $169,000 which are included in earnings for the three month period ended March 31, 2012.

Certain other financial assets and financial liabilities are measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis; that is, the instruments are not measured at fair value on an ongoing basis but are subject to fair value adjustments in certain circumstances, for example, when there is evidence of impairment.  Financial assets and financial liabilities, excluding impaired loans and other real estate owned, measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis were not significant at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011.