Significant Accounting Policies And Basis Of Presentation
|6 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2011
|Significant Accounting Policies And Basis Of Presentation|
|Significant Accounting Policies And Basis Of Presentation||
2. Significant Accounting Policies and Basis of Presentation
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
The Company has prepared its unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP") for interim financial information. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of (i) the Company, (ii) its wholly owned subsidiaries, (iii) all less than wholly owned subsidiaries that the Company controls, and (iv) variable interest entities where the Company is the primary beneficiary. All material intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated, and net income not attributable to the Company has been allocated to noncontrolling interests, when material.
In the opinion of management, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all normal recurring adjustments that the Company considers necessary for the fair presentation of its results of operations and cash flows for the interim periods covered, and of the financial position of the Company at the date of the interim unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet. The operating results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for the entire year. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to instructions, rules and regulations prescribed by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). While the Company believes that the disclosures are adequate to make the information not misleading, these interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the 2010 annual consolidated financial statements and notes included in its Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 7, 2011.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of income and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
The unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets include various financial instruments (primarily cash and cash equivalents, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities, notes and loans payable, deferred revenue, and other obligations). Fair value is the price that would be received from the sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability assuming an orderly transaction in the most advantageous market at the measurement date. U.S. GAAP establishes a hierarchical disclosure framework which prioritizes and ranks the level of observability of inputs used in measuring fair value. These tiers include:
Additional information regarding fair value is disclosed in Note 5.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and receivables. The majority of cash is swept nightly into a money market fund invested in U.S. Treasuries. While the Company maintains its cash and cash equivalents with financial institutions with high credit ratings, it often maintains those deposits in federally insured financial institutions in excess of federally insured (FDIC) limits. When necessary, the Company performs credit evaluations of its customers' financial condition and records allowances to provide for estimated credit losses. Accounts receivable are due from both domestic and international customers (see Note 4).
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The cash and cash equivalents balances at June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010, consisted of cash deposited in money market mutual funds invested in U.S. Treasuries, and interest bearing and non-interest bearing depository accounts with commercial banks. The Company's restricted cash balances (included in other assets) as of June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010 were $13.6 million and $0.1 million, respectively (see Note 3).
Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount and are often subject to late payment penalties. Management develops its estimate of an allowance for uncollectible receivables based on the Company's experience with specific customers, aging of outstanding invoices, its understanding of customers' current economic circumstances and its own judgment as to the likelihood that the Company will ultimately receive payment. The Company writes off its accounts receivable when balances ultimately are deemed uncollectible.
The functional currency of the Company's foreign subsidiaries is generally their local currency, except (i) in situations where the subsidiary conducts its business primarily in the U.S. dollar, and (ii) for countries that have "highly inflationary" economies, which in both cases the functional currency is deemed to be the reporting currency (or U.S. dollar). Assets and liabilities of its foreign subsidiaries are translated to U.S. dollars based on exchange rates at the end of the reporting period. Income and expense items are translated at the weighted average exchange rates prevailing during the reporting period. Translation adjustments are accumulated in a separate component of stockholders' equity. Transaction gains or losses are classified as other (expense) income, net in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Internally Developed Software
The Company capitalizes the costs of acquiring and developing software to meet its internal needs. Capitalization of costs associated with software obtained or developed for internal use commences when both the preliminary project stage is completed and management has authorized funding for the project, based on a determination that it is probable that the project will be completed and used to perform the function intended. Capitalized costs include only (i) external direct cost of materials and services consumed in developing or obtaining internal-use software and (ii) payroll and payroll-related costs for employees who are directly associated with, and devote time to, the development. Capitalization of such costs ceases when the project is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. Internal use software costs are amortized once the software is placed in service using the straight-line method over periods ranging from three to seven years.
Deferred Financing Costs
Direct and incremental costs incurred in connection with securing debt financing are deferred and are amortized as additional interest expense using the effective interest method over the term of the related debt.
The Company capitalizes interest costs incurred during the period when an asset is under construction or is being prepared for its intended use. Capitalized interest costs will be depreciated over the useful lives of assets to which such costs are allocated, beginning when the assets are placed in service.
Inventory consists primarily of finished goods, although the Company at times also maintains an inventory of raw materials from third-party manufacturers. The Company outsources manufacturing of subscriber equipment primarily to a third-party manufacturer and purchases accessories from a variety of third-party suppliers. The Company's cost of inventory includes an allocation of overhead (including salaries and benefits of employees directly involved in bringing inventory to its existing condition), scrap and freight. Inventories are valued using the average cost method, and are carried at the lower of cost or market value.
The Company has a manufacturing agreement with a supplier to manufacture subscriber equipment, which contains minimum monthly purchase requirements. Pursuant to the agreement, the Company may be required to purchase excess raw materials if the materials are not used in production within the periods specified in the agreement. The supplier will then repurchase such materials from the Company at the same price paid by the Company, as required for the production of the devices. As of June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010, the Company had $0.9 million and $1.1 million, respectively, of those materials, and the amounts were included in inventory on the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation at fair value. The Company expenses the estimated fair value of stock-based awards over the requisite service period. Stock option compensation cost is determined at the grant date using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The fair value of an award that is ultimately expected to vest is expensed on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period and is classified in the statement of operations in a manner consistent with the classification of the employee's or non-employee director's salary or other compensation. Stock-based awards to consultants are expensed at their fair value according to the terms of their agreements and are classified in selling, general and administrative expenses in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Non-employee directors elected to receive a portion of their 2011 annual compensation in the form of equity awards, in an aggregate of approximately 0.1 million stock options and 0.1 million restricted stock units ("RSUs"). These stock options and RSUs were granted in January 2011 and vest over a one-year period with 25% vesting on the last day of each calendar quarter. The estimated aggregate grant-date fair value of the stock options was approximately $0.3 million. The estimated aggregate grant-date fair value of the RSUs was approximately $0.7 million. The Company is recognizing the expense for these awards ratably over the one-year service period.
The Company also granted stock options to acquire an aggregate of approximately 0.2 million and 1.8 million shares of its common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the "Common Stock") to its employees in the three and six months ended June 30, 2011, respectively. Employee stock options generally vest over a four-year period with 25% vesting on the first anniversary of the grant date and the remainder vesting ratably on a quarterly basis thereafter. The estimated aggregate grant-date fair values of the employee stock options granted during the three and six month periods ended June 30, 2011 were approximately $0.6 million and $6.5 million, respectively.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
The Company's current satellite constellation is being depreciated using the straight-line method over 5 years from the date of the Acquisition.
Repairs and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred.
The Company assesses its long-lived assets for impairment when indicators of impairment are present. Recoverability of assets is measured by comparing the carrying amounts of the assets to the future undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the assets. Any impairment loss would be measured as the excess of the assets' carrying amount over their fair value. Fair value is based on market prices, when available, an estimate of market value or various other valuation techniques.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill is the excess of the acquisition cost of a business over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired. Impairment testing for goodwill is performed annually on October 1, or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist. If the fair value of goodwill is less than the carrying amount of goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized.
Intangible Assets Not Subject to Amortization
A portion of the Company's intangible assets are spectrum and regulatory authorizations and trade names, which are indefinite-lived intangible assets. The Company evaluates the useful life determination for these assets each reporting period to determine whether events and circumstances continue to support an indefinite useful life. The Company tests its indefinite-lived intangible assets for potential impairment annually or more frequently if indicators of impairment exist. If the fair value of the indefinite-lived asset is less than the carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognized.
Intangible Assets Subject to Amortization
The Company's intangible assets that have finite lives (primarily customer relationships, core developed technology, intellectual property and software) are amortized over their useful lives and reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. If any indicators are present, the Company tests for recoverability by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to the net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the asset. If those net undiscounted cash flows do not exceed the carrying amount (i.e., the asset is not recoverable), the Company then determines the fair value of the asset and records an impairment loss, if any. The Company evaluates the useful lives for these intangible assets each reporting period to determine whether events and circumstances warrant a revision in their remaining useful lives.
The Company's only component of other comprehensive income for all periods presented is the currency translation adjustment for its foreign subsidiaries. Comprehensive income was $11.8 million and $3.2 million for the three months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, respectively; and $20.2 million and $1.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
Asset Retirement Obligations
Liabilities arising from legal obligations associated with the retirement of long-lived assets are required to be measured at fair value and recorded as a liability. Upon initial recognition of a liability for retirement obligations, a company must record an asset, which is depreciated over the life of the asset to be retired.
Under certain circumstances, each of the U.S. government, The Boeing Company ("Boeing") and Motorola Solutions, Inc., formerly known as Motorola, Inc. ("Motorola"), has the right to require the de-orbit of the Company's satellite constellation. In the event the Company was required to effect a mass de-orbit, pursuant to the amended and restated operations and maintenance agreement (the "Amended and Restated O&M Agreement") by and between the Company and Boeing, the Company would be required to pay Boeing $16.8 million, plus an amount equivalent to the premium for de-orbit insurance coverage (estimated at $2.5 million as of June 30, 2011). The Company has concluded that each of the foregoing de-orbit rights meets the definition of an asset retirement obligation. However, the Company currently does not believe that it is likely the U.S. government, Boeing or Motorola will exercise their respective de-orbit rights. As a result, the Company believes the likelihood of any future cash outflows associated with the mass de-orbit obligation is remote and has recorded an asset retirement obligation with respect to the potential mass de-orbit of approximately $0.2 million.
There are other circumstances in which the Company could be required, either by the U.S. government or for technical reasons, to de-orbit an individual satellite; however, the Company believes that any related costs would not be significant or incremental relative to the costs associated with the ordinary operations of the satellite constellation.
The Company derives its revenue primarily as a wholesaler of satellite communications products and services. The primary types of revenue include (i) services revenue (access and usage-based airtime fees), (ii) subscriber equipment revenue, and (iii) revenue generated by providing engineering and support services to commercial and government customers.
Wholesaler of satellite communications products and services
Pursuant to wholesale agreements, the Company sells its products and services to service providers who, in turn, sell the products and services to other distributors or directly to the end-users. The Company recognizes revenue when services are performed or delivery has occurred, evidence of an arrangement exists, the fee is fixed or determinable, and collection is probable, as follows:
Contracts with multiple elements
At times, the Company sells services and equipment through multi-element arrangements that bundle equipment, airtime and other services. For multi-element revenue arrangements entered into or materially modified after January 1, 2011, when the Company sells services and equipment in bundled arrangements that include guaranteed minimum orders and determines that it has separate units of accounting, the Company allocates the bundled contract price among the various contract deliverables based on each deliverable's relative selling price. The selling price used for each deliverable is based on vendor-specific objective evidence when available, third-party evidence when vendor-specific evidence is not available, or the estimated selling price when neither vendor-specific evidence nor third-party evidence is available. The Company determines vendor-specific objective evidence of selling price by assessing sales prices of subscriber equipment, airtime and other services when they are sold to customers on a stand-alone basis. When the Company determines the elements are not separate units of accounting, the Company recognizes revenue on a combined basis as the last element is delivered. For similar multi-element revenue arrangements entered into prior to January 1, 2011, when the Company determined that it had separate units of accounting, the Company allocated the bundled contract price among the various contract deliverables based on each deliverable's objectively determined and relative fair value. The Company determined vendor specific objective evidence of fair value by assessing sales prices of subscriber equipment, airtime and other services when they are sold to customers on a stand-alone basis. When the Company determined the elements are not separate units of accounting, the Company recognized revenue on a combined basis as the last element is delivered.
Services revenue is generated from the Company's service providers through usage of its satellite system and through fixed monthly access fees per user charged to service providers. Revenue for usage is recognized when usage occurs. Revenue for fixed-per-user access fees is recognized ratably over the period in which the services are provided to the end-user. The Company sells prepaid services in the form of e-vouchers and prepaid cards. A liability is established for the cash paid for the e-voucher or prepaid card on purchase. The Company recognizes revenue from the prepaid services (i) upon the use of the e-voucher or prepaid card by the customer; (ii) upon the expiration of the right to access the prepaid service; or (iii) when it is determined that the likelihood of the prepaid card being redeemed by the customer is remote ("Prepaid Card Breakage"). The Company has determined the recognition of Prepaid Card Breakage based on its historical redemption patterns. The Company does not offer refund privileges for unused prepaid services.
The Company recognizes subscriber equipment sales and the related costs when title to the equipment (and the risks and rewards of ownership) passes to the customer, typically upon shipment.
Services sold to the U.S. government
The Company provides airtime to U.S. government subscribers through (i) fixed monthly fees on a per user basis for unlimited voice services; (ii) fixed monthly fees per user for unlimited paging services; (iii) a tiered pricing plan (based on usage) per device for data services; (iv) fixed monthly fees on a per user basis for unlimited beyond-line-of-sight push-to-talk voice services to user-defined groups ("Netted Iridium"); and (v) a monthly fee for active user-defined groups using Netted Iridium. Revenue related to these services is recognized ratably over the periods in which the services are provided, and the related costs are expensed as incurred. The U.S. government purchases its subscriber equipment from third-party distributors and not directly from the Company.
Government engineering and support services
The Company provides maintenance services to the U.S. government's dedicated gateway. This revenue is recognized ratably over the periods in which the services are provided; the related costs are expensed as incurred.
Other government and commercial engineering and support services
The Company also provides certain engineering services to assist customers in developing new technologies for use on the Company's satellite system. The revenue associated with these services is recorded when the services are rendered, typically using a proportional performance method of accounting based on the Company's estimate of total costs expected to complete the contract, and the related costs are expensed as incurred. Revenue on cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts is recognized to the extent of estimated costs incurred plus the applicable fees earned. The Company considers fixed fees under cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts to be earned in proportion to the allowable costs incurred in performance of the contract. The portion of revenue on research and development arrangements that is contingent upon the achievement of substantive milestone events is recognized in the period in which the milestone is achieved.
The Company provides the first end-user purchaser of its subscriber equipment a warranty for one to five years from the date of purchase by such first end-user, depending on the product. A warranty reserve is maintained based on historical experience of warranty costs and expected occurrences of warranty claims on equipment. Costs associated with warranties are recorded as cost of subscriber equipment sales and include equipment replacements, repairs, freight and program administration.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are charged as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability approach, which requires the recognition of tax benefits or expenses on the temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of its assets and liabilities. For interim periods, the Company recognizes a provision (benefit) for income taxes based on an estimated annual effective tax rate expected for the entire year. A valuation allowance is established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized. The Company also recognizes a tax benefit from uncertain tax positions only if it is "more likely than not" that the position is sustainable based on its technical merits. The Company's policy is to recognize interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions as a component of income tax expense.
Net Income Per Share
The Company calculates basic net income per share by dividing net income available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of Common Stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share takes into account the effect of potential dilutive common shares when the effect is dilutive. The effect of potential dilutive common shares, consisting of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options and stock purchase warrants, is computed using the treasury stock method. Unvested RSUs contain non-forfeitable rights to dividends and therefore are considered to be participating securities; the calculation of basic and diluted net income per share excludes net income attributable to the unvested RSUs from the numerator and excludes the impact of unvested RSUs from the denominator (see Note 6).
In October 2009, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update 2009-13, "Revenue Recognition (Topic 605) Multiple-Deliverable Revenue Arrangements, a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force" ("ASU 2009-13"). ASU 2009-13 amends existing accounting guidance for separating consideration in multiple-deliverable arrangements. ASU 2009-13 establishes a selling price hierarchy for determining the selling price of a deliverable. The selling price used for each deliverable will be based on vendor-specific objective evidence if available, third-party evidence if vendor-specific evidence is not available, or the estimated selling price if neither vendor-specific evidence nor third-party evidence is available. ASU 2009-13 eliminates the residual method of allocation and requires that consideration be allocated at the inception of the arrangement to all deliverables using the "relative selling price method." The relative selling price method allocates any discount in the arrangement proportionately to each deliverable on the basis of each deliverable's selling price. ASU 2009-13 requires that a vendor determine its best estimate of selling price in a manner that is consistent with that used to determine the price to sell the deliverable on a stand-alone basis. The Company adopted the provisions of ASU 2009-13 effective January 1, 2011 for revenue arrangements entered into or materially modified beginning on or after that date.
The adoption of ASU 2009-13 did not have any effect on the Company's consolidated balance sheets, statements of operations and statements of cash flows as of or for the three and six months ended June 30, 2011. The Company is not able to reasonably estimate the effect of adopting this standard on future periods because the impact will vary based on the nature and volume of new or materially modified revenue arrangements in any given period.
In April 2010, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2010-17, "Revenue Recognition—Milestone Method (Topic 605) Milestone Method of Revenue Recognition, a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force" ("ASU 2010-17"). ASU 2010-17 provides guidance on the criteria that should be met for determining whether the milestone method of revenue recognition is appropriate. A vendor can recognize consideration that is contingent upon achievement of a milestone in its entirety as revenue in the period in which the milestone is achieved only if the milestone meets all criteria to be considered substantive. For the milestone to be considered substantive, the considerations earned by achieving the milestone should meet all of the following criteria: (i) be commensurate with either the vendor's performance to achieve the milestone or the enhancement of the value of the item delivered as a result of a specific outcome resulting from the vendor's performance to achieve the milestone, (ii) relate solely to past performance, and (iii) be reasonable relative to all deliverables and payment terms in the arrangement. An individual milestone may not be bifurcated, and an arrangement may include more than one milestone. Accordingly, an arrangement may contain both substantive and nonsubstantive milestones.
The Company adopted the provisions of ASU 2010-17 effective January 1, 2011 for milestones achieved on or after that date. The adoption of ASU 2010-17 did not have any effect on the Company's consolidated balance sheets, statements of operations and statements of cash flows as of or for the three and six months ended June 30, 2011. The Company is not able to reasonably estimate the effect of adopting this standard on future periods because the impact will vary based on the accomplishment of any future milestones achieved and on the nature and volume of new research and development arrangements in any given period.
This element may be used to describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef