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EX-23.0 - EX-23.0 - OFG BANCORPg26134exv23w0.htm
EX-31.2 - EX-31.2 - OFG BANCORPg26134exv31w2.htm
EX-32.1 - EX-32.1 - OFG BANCORPg26134exv32w1.htm
EX-32.2 - EX-32.2 - OFG BANCORPg26134exv32w2.htm
EX-10.16 - EX-10.16 - OFG BANCORPg26134exv10w16.htm
EX-10.17 - EX-10.17 - OFG BANCORPg26134exv10w17.htm
Table of Contents

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
 
     
þ
  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2010,
or
o
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the Transition Period from to          to          .
 
Commission File No. 001-12647
 
ORIENTAL FINANCIAL GROUP INC.
Incorporated in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
 
IRS Employer Identification No. 66-0538893
 
Principal Executive Offices:
997 San Roberto Street
Oriental Center 10th Floor
Professional Office Park
San Juan, Puerto Rico 00926
Telephone Number: (787) 771-6800
 
 
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock
($1.00 par value per share)
7.125% Noncumulative Monthly Income Preferred Stock, Series A
($1.00 par value per share, $25.00 liquidation preference per share)
7.0% Noncumulative Monthly Income Preferred Stock, Series B
($1.00 par value per share, $25.00 liquidation preference per share)
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes o     No þ
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes o     No þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes þ     No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes o     No o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filings pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer o Accelerated filer þ Non-accelerated filer o Smaller reporting company o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes o     No þ
 
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of Oriental Financial Group Inc. (the “Group”) was approximately $417.6 million as of June 30, 2010 based upon 32,987,907 shares outstanding and the reported closing price of $12.66 on the New York Stock Exchange on that date.
 
As of February 28, 2011, the Group had 45,885,371 shares of common stock outstanding.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Portions of the Group’s definitive proxy statement relating to the 2011 annual meeting of shareholders are incorporated herein by reference in response to Items 10 through 14 of Part III.
 


 

 
ORIENTAL FINANCIAL GROUP INC.
 
FORM 10-K
 
For the Year Ended December 31, 2010
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
         
  Business   4-19
  Risk Factors   20-29
  Unresolved Staff Comments   29
  Properties   29
  Legal Proceedings   29
 
  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities   29-31
  Selected Financial Data   32
  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations   34-85
  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk   85-89
  Financial Statements and Supplementary Data   89-178
  Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure   179
  Controls and Procedures   179
  Other Information   179
 
Item 10.
  Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance   179
Item 11.
  Executive Compensation   179
Item 12.
  Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters   179
Item 13.
  Certain Relationships, Related Transactions, and Director Independence   179
Item 14.
  Principal Accountant Fees and Services   179
 
  Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules   180
 EX-10.16
 EX-10.17
 EX-21.0
 EX-23.0
 EX-31.1
 EX-31.2
 EX-32.1
 EX-32.2


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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
The information included in this annual report on Form 10-K contains certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements may relate to Oriental Financial Group Inc. (the “Group”) financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance and business, including, but not limited to, statements with respect to the adequacy of the allowance for loan losses, delinquency trends, market risk and the impact of interest rate changes, capital markets conditions, capital adequacy and liquidity, and the effect of legal proceedings and new accounting standards on the Group’s financial condition and results of operations. All statements contained herein that are not clearly historical in nature are forward-looking, and the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continues,” “expect,” “estimate,” “intend,” “project” and similar expressions and future or conditional verbs such as “will,” “would,” “should,” “could,” “might,” “can,” “may,” or similar expressions are generally intended to identify forward-looking statements.
 
These statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain risks, uncertainties, estimates and assumptions by management that are difficult to predict. Various factors, some of, by their nature and which are beyond our control, could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, such forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to:
 
•  the rate of growth in the economy and employment levels, as well as general business and economic conditions;
 
•  changes in interest rates, as well as the magnitude of such changes;
 
•  the fiscal and monetary policies of the federal government and its agencies;
 
•  changes in federal bank regulatory and supervisory policies, including required levels of capital;
 
•  the impact of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) on our businesses, business practices and cost of operations;
 
•  the relative strength or weakness of the consumer and commercial credit sectors and of the real estate market in Puerto Rico;
 
•  the performance of the stock and bond markets;
 
•  competition in the financial services industry;
 
•  additional Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) assessments; and
 
•  possible legislative, tax or regulatory changes;
 
Other possible events or factors that could cause results or performance to differ materially from those expressed in these forward-looking statements include the following: negative economic conditions that adversely affect the general economy, housing prices, the job market, consumer confidence and spending habits which may affect, among other things, the level of non-performing assets, charge-offs and provision expense; changes in interest rates and market liquidity which may reduce interest margins, impact funding sources and affect the ability to originate and distribute financial products in the primary and secondary markets; adverse movements and volatility in debt and equity capital markets; changes in market rates and prices which may adversely impact the value of financial assets and liabilities; liabilities resulting from litigation and regulatory investigations; changes in accounting standards, rules and interpretations; increased competition; the Group’s ability to grow its core businesses; decisions to downsize, sell or close units or otherwise change the Group’s business mix; and management’s ability to identify and manage these and other risks.
 
All forward-looking statements included in this annual report on Form 10-K are based upon information available to the Group as of the date of this report, and other than as required by law, including the requirements of applicable securities laws, the Group assumes no obligation to update or revise any such forward-looking statements to reflect occurrences or unanticipated events or circumstances after the date of such statements.


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PART I
 
ITEM 1.   BUSINESS
 
General
 
The Group is a publicly-owned financial holding company incorporated on June 14, 1996 under the laws of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, providing a full range of banking and wealth management services through its subsidiaries. The Group is subject to the provisions of the U.S. Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, (the “BHC Act”) and, accordingly, subject to the supervision and regulation of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve Board”).
 
The Group provides comprehensive banking and wealth management services to its clients through a complete range of banking and financial solutions, including mortgage, commercial and consumer lending; leasing; checking and savings accounts; financial planning, insurance, wealth management, and investment brokerage; and corporate and individual trust and retirement services. The Group operates through three major business segments: Banking, Wealth Management, and Treasury, and distinguishes itself based on quality service and marketing efforts focused on mid and high net worth individuals and families, including professionals and owners of small and mid-sized businesses, primarily in Puerto Rico. The Group has 30 financial centers in Puerto Rico and a subsidiary, Caribbean Pension Consultants Inc. (“CPC”), based in Boca Raton, Florida. The Group’s long-term goal is to strengthen its banking and wealth management franchise by expanding its lending businesses, increasing the level of integration in the marketing and delivery of banking and wealth management services, maintaining effective asset-liability management, growing non-interest revenues from banking and wealth management services, and improving operating efficiencies.
 
The Group’s strategy involves:
 
(1) Strengthening its banking and wealth management franchise by expanding its ability to attract deposits and build relationships with individual customers and professionals and mid-market commercial businesses through aggressive marketing and expansion of its sales force;
 
(2) Focusing on greater growth in mortgage, commercial and consumer lending; trust and wealth management services, insurance products; and increasing the level of integration in the marketing and delivery of banking and wealth management services;
 
(3) Matching its portfolio of investment securities with the related funding to achieve favorable spreads, and primarily investing in U.S. government agency obligations.
 
(4) Improving operating efficiencies, and continuing to maintain effective asset-liability management; and
 
(5) Implementing a broad ranging effort to instill in employees and make customers aware of the Group’s determination to effectively serve and advise its customer base in a responsive and professional manner.
 
Together with a highly experienced group of senior and mid level executives and benefits from the Eurobank FDIC-assisted acquisition, this strategy has resulted in sustained growth in the Group’s mortgage, commercial, consumer lending and wealth-management activities, allowing the Group to distinguish itself in a highly competitive industry. The Group is not immune from general and local financial and economic conditions. Past experience is not necessarily indicative of future performance, especially given market uncertainties, but based on a reasonable time horizon of three to five years, the strategy is expected to maintain its steady progress towards the Group’s long-term goal.
 
The Group’s principal funding sources are securities sold under agreements to repurchase, branch deposits, Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) advances, Federal Reserve Bank (“FRB”) advances, wholesale deposits, and subordinated capital notes. Through its branch network, the Bank offers personal non-interest and interest-bearing checking accounts, savings accounts, certificates of deposit, individual retirement accounts (“IRAs”) and commercial non-interest bearing checking accounts. The FDIC insures the Bank’s deposit accounts up to applicable limits. Management makes retail deposit pricing decisions periodically, adjusting the rates paid on retail deposits in


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response to general market conditions and local competition. Pricing decisions take into account the rates being offered by other local banks, the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), and mainland U.S. market interest rates.
 
Significant Transactions During 2010
 
Capital Raise.
 
At the beginning of 2010, it was apparent that the FDIC was likely to take action against various Puerto Rico commercial banks that were experiencing serious financial difficulties and were operating under cease and desist orders with their banking regulators, which actions could include placing the banks into an FDIC-administered receivership. Management decided that the Group’s participation in the consolidation of the Puerto Rico banking industry that would result from any such action was in the Group’s best interest to potentially benefit from acquiring assets and liabilities at an attractive price and with FDIC assistance to mitigate the risk of credit losses. As part of the Group’s capital plan, on March 19, 2010, the Group completed the public offering of 8,740,000 shares of its common stock. The offering resulted in net proceeds of $94.6 million after deducting offering costs. The Group made a capital contribution of $93.0 million to its banking subsidiary. At the annual meeting of shareholders held on April 30, 2010, the shareholders approved an increase in the number of authorized shares of common stock, par value $1.00 per share, from 40 million to 100 million, and an increase in the number of authorized shares of preferred stock, par value $1.00 per share, from 5 million to 10 million. On April 30, 2010, the Group issued 200,000 shares of Mandatorily Convertible Non-Cumulative Non-Voting Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series C (the “Series C Preferred Stock”), through a private placement. The preferred stock had a liquidation preference of $1,000 per share. The offering resulted in net proceeds of $189.4 million after deducting offering costs. The Group made a capital contribution of $179.0 million to its banking subsidiary. At a special meeting of shareholders of the Group held on June 30, 2010, the majority of the shareholders approved the issuance of 13,320,000 shares of the Group’s common stock upon the conversion of the Series C Preferred Stock, which was converted on July 8, 2010 at a conversion price of $15.015 per share. The difference between the $15.015 per share conversion price and the market price of the common stock on April 30, 2010 ($16.72) was considered a contingent beneficial conversion feature on June 30, 2010, when the conversion was approved by the majority of the shareholders. Such feature amounted to $22.7 million at June 30, 2010 and was recorded as a deemed dividend on preferred stock. These transactions strengthened the Group’s capital base and facilitated its participation in the FDIC-assisted transaction described below.
 
Eurobank FDIC-Assisted Acquisition.
 
On April 30, 2010, Oriental Bank and Trust (“the Bank”) acquired certain assets and assumed certain deposits and liabilities of Eurobank, a Puerto Rico state-chartered bank headquartered in San Juan, Puerto Rico, from the FDIC in an FDIC-assisted transaction (the “FDIC-assisted transaction”). Eurobank was a wholly-owned commercial bank subsidiary of Eurobancshares, Inc. and operated through a network of 22 branches located throughout Puerto Rico. On May 1, 2010, Eurobank’s branches reopened as branches of the Bank; however, the physical branch locations and leases were not immediately acquired by the Bank. The Bank had the option to acquire, at fair market value, any bank premises that were owned, or any leases relating to bank premises held, by Eurobank (including automated teller machine “ATMs” locations). Due to bank synergies, out of the 22 Eurobank branches, the Bank retained 9 branches and consolidated certain other branches with existing Bank’s branches. The integration of Eurobank’s operations into the Bank was substantially completed by the fourth quarter of 2010.
 
Under the terms of the Bank’s purchase and assumption agreement with the FDIC, excluding the effects of purchase accounting adjustments, the Bank acquired approximately $1.5 billion in assets, including approximately $857.0 million in loans and foreclosed real estate, and assumed $729.4 million of deposits of Eurobank. The deposits were acquired with a premium of 1.25% on approximately $400 million in core retail deposits, and the assets were acquired at a discount of 13.8% to the former Eurobank’s historic book value. In connection with the transaction, the Bank issued a $715.5 million promissory note to the FDIC (the “Note”) bearing interest at an annual rate of 0.881% due one year from issuance, and the Bank had the option to extend the Note’s maturity date for up to four additional one-year periods. The Note was collateralized by certain loans and foreclosed real estate acquired by the Bank from the FDIC that were subject to loss sharing agreements. On September 27, 2010, the Group made the


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strategic decision to repay the Note prior to maturity. At the time of repayment, the Note had an outstanding principal balance of $595.0 million. As part of the consideration for the transaction, the Group issued to the FDIC a value appreciation instrument (“VAI”). Under the terms of the VAI, the FDIC had the opportunity to obtain a cash payment equal to the product of (a) 334,000 and (b) the amount by which the average of the volume weighted average price of the Group’s common stock for each of the two NYSE trading days immediately prior to the exercise of the VAI exceeded $14.95. The VAI was not exercised by the FDIC. The equity appreciation instrument had a fair value of $909 thousand at April 30, 2010. In connection with the Eurobank FDIC-assisted transaction, the FDIC retained the investment securities, outstanding borrowings and substantially all of the brokered certificates of deposit of Eurobank.
 
Simultaneously with the acquisition, the Bank entered into loss sharing agreements with the FDIC, whereby the FDIC agreed to cover a substantial portion of any future losses on acquired loans and foreclosed real estate, as long as the Bank complies with the requirements stipulated in the agreements. The Group refers to the acquired assets subject to the loss sharing agreements collectively as “covered assets.” Under the terms of the loss sharing agreements, the FDIC absorbs 80% of losses with respect to the covered assets. The term of the single-family residential mortgage loss sharing agreement is 10 years, and under this agreement the reimbursable losses, computed monthly, are offset by any recoveries with respect to such losses. The term of the commercial loans loss sharing agreement is 8 years, comprised of a 5-year shared-loss period followed by a 3-year recovery period. During the 5-year shared-loss period, the FDIC reimburses the Bank for 80% of losses, net of recoveries during each quarter. During the 3-year recovery period, the Group is required to reimburse the FDIC for 80% of all new recoveries attributable to commercial loans for which reimbursement had been granted during the shared-loss period.
 
The Bank has agreed to make a true-up payment, also known as clawback liability, to the FDIC on the date that is 45 days following the last day (the “True-up Measurement Date”) of the final shared loss month, or upon the final disposition of all covered assets under the loss sharing agreements in the event losses thereunder fail to reach expected levels. Under the loss sharing agreements, the Bank would pay to the FDIC 50% of the excess, if any, of: (i) 20% of the Intrinsic Loss Estimate of $906.0 million (or $181.2 million) (as determined by the FDIC) less (ii) the sum of: (A) 25% of the asset discount (per bid) (or ($227.5 million)); plus (B) 25% of the cumulative shared-loss payments (defined as the aggregate of all of the payments made or payable to the Bank minus the aggregate of all of the payments made or payable to the FDIC); plus (C) the sum of the period servicing amounts for every consecutive twelve-month period prior to and ending on the True-Up Measurement Date in respect of each of the loss sharing agreements during which the loss sharing provisions of the applicable loss sharing agreement is in effect (defined as the product of the simple average of the principal amount of shared loss loans and shared loss assets at the beginning and end of such period times 1%). The true-up payment represents an estimated liability of $13.8 million at April 30, 2010. This estimated liability is accounted for as a reduction of the indemnification asset. The indemnification asset represents the portion of estimated losses covered by the loss sharing agreements between the Bank and the FDIC. The Group recorded goodwill of $1.7 million as part of the transaction. Refer to the Note 2, “FDIC-assisted acquisition”, to the consolidated financial statements for additional information on the Eurobank FDIC-assisted transaction, including the accounting for assets acquired and liabilities assumed as well as information on the breakdown and accounting of the acquired loan portfolio.
 
Segment Disclosure
 
The Group has three reportable segments: Banking, Wealth Management, and Treasury. Management established the reportable segments based on the internal reporting used to evaluate performance and to assess where to allocate resources. Other factors such as the Group’s organizational structure, nature of products, distribution channels and economic characteristics of the products were also considered in the determination of the reportable segments. The Group measures the performance of these reportable segments based on pre-established goals involving different financial parameters such as net income, interest spread, loan production, and fees generated.
 
For detailed information regarding performance of the Group’s operating segments, please refer to Note 19 to the Group’s accompanying consolidated financial statements.


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Banking Activities
 
Oriental Bank and Trust (the “Bank”), the Group’s main subsidiary, is a full-service Puerto Rico commercial bank with its main office located in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The Bank has 30 branches throughout Puerto Rico and was incorporated in 1964 as a federal mutual savings and loan association. It became a federal mutual savings bank in July 1983 and converted to a federal stock savings bank in April 1987. Its conversion from a federally-chartered savings bank to a commercial bank chartered under the banking law of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, on June 30, 1994, allowed the Bank to more effectively pursue opportunities in its market and obtain more flexibility in its businesses. As a Puerto Rico-chartered commercial bank, it is subject to examination by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) and the Office of the Commissioner of Financial Institutions of Puerto Rico (the “OCFI”). The Bank offers banking services such as commercial and consumer lending, savings and time deposit products, financial planning, and corporate and individual trust services, and capitalizes on its commercial banking network to provide mortgage lending products to its clients. The Bank operates an international banking entity (“IBE”) pursuant to the International Banking Center Regulatory Act of Puerto Rico, as amended (the “IBE Act”), which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Bank, named Oriental International Bank Inc. (the “IBE subsidiary”) organized in November 2003. The IBE subsidiary offers the Bank certain Puerto Rico tax advantages and its services are limited under Puerto Rico law to persons and assets/liabilities located outside of Puerto Rico.
 
Banking activities include the Bank’s branches and mortgage banking activities with traditional retail banking products such as deposits and mortgage, commercial, consumer loans, and leasing. The Bank’s lending activities are primarily with consumers located in Puerto Rico. The Bank’s loan and lease transactions include a diversified number of industries and activities, all of which are encompassed within four main categories: mortgage, commercial, consumer, and leasing.
 
The Group’s mortgage banking activities are conducted through a division of the Bank. The mortgage banking activities primarily consist of the origination and purchase of residential mortgage loans for the Group’s own portfolio and from time to time, if conditions so warrant, the Group may engage in the sale of such loans to other financial institutions in the secondary market. The Group originates Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”)-insured, Veterans Administration (“VA”)-guaranteed mortgages, and Rural Housing Service (“RHS”)-guaranteed loans that are primarily securitized for issuance of Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”) mortgage-backed securities which can be resold to individual or institutional investors in the secondary market. Conventional loans that meet the underwriting requirements for sale or exchange under standard Federal National Mortgage Association (the “FNMA”) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (the “FHLMC”) programs are referred to as conforming mortgage loans and are also securitized for issuance of FNMA or FHLMC mortgage-backed securities. The Group is an approved seller of FNMA, as well as FHLMC, mortgage loans for issuance of FNMA and FHLMC mortgage-backed securities. The Group is also an approved issuer of GNMA mortgage-backed securities. The Group outsources the servicing of the GNMA, FNMA and FHLMC pools that it issues, and its residential mortgage loan portfolio.
 
Servicing assets represent the contractual right to service loans and leases for others. Loan servicing fees, which are based on a percentage of the principal balances of the loans serviced, are credited to income as loan payments are collected. Servicing assets are initially recognized at fair value. For subsequent measurement of servicing rights, the Group has elected the fair value measurement method.
 
Loan Underwriting
 
All loan originations, regardless of whether originated through the Group’s retail banking network or purchased from third parties, must be underwritten in accordance with the Group’s underwriting criteria, including loan-to-value ratios, borrower income qualifications, debt ratios and credit history, investor requirements, and title insurance and property appraisal requirements. The Group’s mortgage underwriting standards comply with the relevant guidelines set forth by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (“HUD”), VA, FNMA, FHLMC, federal and Puerto Rico banking regulatory authorities, as applicable. The Group’s underwriting personnel, while operating within the Group’s loan offices, make underwriting decisions independent of the Group’s mortgage loan origination personnel.


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Commercial loans include lines of credit and term facilities to finance business operations and to provide working capital for specific purposes, such as to finance the purchase of assets, equipment or inventory. Since a borrower’s cash flow from operations is generally the primary source of repayment, the Group’s analysis of the credit risk focuses heavily on the borrower’s debt repayment capacity. Commercial term loans are typically made to finance the acquisition of fixed assets, provide permanent working capital or to finance the purchase of businesses. Commercial term loans generally have terms from one to five years, may be collateralized by the asset being acquired or other available assets, and bear interest rates that float with the prime rate, LIBOR or another established index, or are fixed for the term of the loan. Lines of credit are extended to businesses based on an analysis of the financial strength and integrity of the borrowers and are generally secured primarily by real estate, accounts receivable or inventory, and have a maturity of one year or less. Such lines of credit bear an interest rate that floats with a base rate, the prime rate, LIBOR, or another established index.
 
Sale of Loans and Securitization Activities
 
The Group may engage in the sale or securitization of a portion of the residential mortgage loans that it originates and purchases and utilizes various channels to sell its mortgage products. The Group is an approved issuer of GNMA-guaranteed mortgage-backed securities which involves the packaging of FHA loans, RHS loans or VA loans into pools of mortgage-backed securities for sale primarily to securities broker-dealers and other institutional investors. The Group can also act as issuer in the case of conforming conventional loans in order to group them into pools of FNMA or FHLMC-issued mortgage-backed securities which the Group then sells to securities broker-dealers. The issuance of mortgage-backed securities provides the Group with flexibility in selling the mortgage loans that it originates or purchases and also provides income by increasing the value and marketability of such loans. In the case of conforming conventional loans, the Group also has the option to sell such loans through the FNMA and FHLMC cash window programs.
 
Wealth Management Activities
 
Wealth management activities are generated by such businesses as securities brokerage, trust services, retirement planning, insurance, pension administration, and other wealth management services.
 
Oriental Financial Services Corp. (“OFSC”) is a Puerto Rico corporation and the Group’s subsidiary engaged in securities brokerage and investment banking activities in accordance with the Group’s strategy of providing fully integrated financial solutions to the Group’s clients. OFSC, a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) and the Securities Investor Protection Corporation, is a registered securities broker-dealer pursuant to Section 15(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. OFSC does not carry customer accounts and is, accordingly, exempt from the Customer Protection Rule (SEC Rule 15c3-3) pursuant to subsection (k)(2)(ii) of such rule. It clears securities transactions through Pershing LLC, a clearing agent that carries the accounts of OFSC’s customers on a “fully disclosed” basis.
 
OFSC offers securities brokerage services covering various investment alternatives such as tax-advantaged fixed income securities, mutual funds, stocks, and bonds to retail and institutional clients. It also offers separately managed accounts and mutual fund asset allocation programs sponsored by unaffiliated professional asset managers. These services are designed to meet each client’s specific needs and preferences, including transaction-based pricing and asset-based fee pricing.
 
OFSC also manages and participates in public offerings and private placements of debt and equity securities in Puerto Rico and engages in municipal securities business with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and its instrumentalities, municipalities, and public corporations. Investment banking revenue from such activities include gains, losses, and fees, net of syndicate expenses, arising from securities offerings in which OFSC acts as an underwriter or agent. Investment banking revenue also includes fees earned from providing merger-and-acquisition and financial restructuring advisory services. Investment banking management fees are recorded on the offering date, sales concessions on settlement date, and underwriting fees at the time the underwriting is completed and the income is reasonably determinable.
 
Oriental Insurance Inc. (“Oriental Insurance”) is a Puerto Rico corporation and the Group’s subsidiary engaged in insurance agency services. It was established by the Group to take advantage of the cross-marketing opportunities


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provided by financial modernization legislation. Oriental Insurance currently earns commissions by acting as a licensed insurance agent in connection with the issuance of insurance policies by unaffiliated insurance companies and anticipates continued growth as it expands the products and services it provides and continues to cross market its services to the Group’s existing customer base.
 
CPC, a Florida corporation, is the Group’s subsidiary engaged in the administration of retirement plans in the U.S., Puerto Rico, and the Caribbean.
 
Treasury Activities
 
Treasury activities encompass all of the Group’s treasury-related functions. The Group’s investment portfolio consists of mortgage-backed securities, obligations of U.S. Government sponsored agencies, Puerto Rico Government and agency obligations, structured credit investments, and money market instruments. Agency mortgage- backed securities, the largest component, consist principally of pools of residential mortgage loans that are made to consumers and then resold in the form of pass-through certificates in the secondary market, the payment of interest and principal of which is guaranteed by GNMA, FNMA or FHLMC.
 
Market Area and Competition
 
The main geographic business and service area of the Group is in Puerto Rico, where the banking market is highly competitive. Puerto Rico banks are subject to the same federal laws, regulations and supervision that apply to similar institutions in the United States of America. The Group also competes with brokerage firms with retail operations, credit unions, savings and loan cooperatives, small loan companies, insurance agencies, and mortgage banks in Puerto Rico. The Group encounters intense competition in attracting and retaining deposits and in its consumer and commercial lending activities. Management believes that the Group has been able to compete effectively for deposits and loans by offering a variety of transaction account products and loans with competitive terms, by emphasizing the quality of its service, by pricing its products at competitive interest rates, by offering convenient branch locations, and by offering financial planning and wealth management services at each of its branch locations. The Group’s ability to originate loans depends primarily on the service it provides to its borrowers, in making prompt credit decisions, and on the rates and fees that it charges.
 
Regulation and Supervision
 
General
 
The Group is a financial holding company subject to supervision and regulation by the Federal Reserve Board under the BHC Act, as amended by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”). The qualification requirements and the process for a bank holding company that elects to be treated as a financial holding company requires that a bank holding company and all of the subsidiary banks controlled by it at the time of election must be and remain at all times “well capitalized” and “well managed.”
 
The Group elected to be treated as a financial holding company as permitted by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. Under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, if the Group fails to meet the requirements for being a financial holding company and is unable to correct such deficiencies within certain prescribed time periods, the Federal Reserve Board could require the Group to divest control of its depository institution subsidiary or alternatively cease conducting activities that are not permissible for bank holding companies that are not financial holding companies.
 
Financial holding companies may engage, directly or indirectly, in any activity that is determined to be (i) financial in nature, (ii) incidental to such financial activity, or (iii) complementary to a financial activity provided it does not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system generally. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act specifically provides that the following activities have been determined to be “financial in nature”: (a) lending, trust and other banking activities; (b) insurance activities; (c) financial, investment or economic advisory services; (d) securitization of assets; (e) securities underwriting and dealing; (f) existing bank holding company domestic activities; (g) existing bank holding company foreign activities; and (h) merchant banking activities. A financial holding company may generally commence any activity, or acquire any company,


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that is financial in nature without prior approval of the Federal Reserve Board. As provided by the Dodd-Frank Act, a financial holding company may not acquire a company, without prior Federal Reserve Board approval, in a transaction in which the total consolidated assets to be acquired by the financial holding company exceed $10 billion.
 
In addition, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act specifically gives the Federal Reserve Board the authority, by regulation or order, to expand the list of financial or incidental activities, but requires consultation with the U.S. Treasury Department and gives the Federal Reserve Board authority to allow a financial holding company to engage in any activity that is complementary to a financial activity and does not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system.
 
The Group is required to file with the Federal Reserve Board and the SEC periodic reports and other information concerning its own business operations and those of its subsidiaries. In addition, Federal Reserve Board approval must also be obtained before a bank holding company acquires all or substantially all of the assets of another bank or merges or consolidates with another bank holding company. The Federal Reserve Board also has the authority to issue cease and desist orders against bank holding companies and their non-bank subsidiaries.
 
The Bank is regulated by various agencies in the United States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Its main regulators are the OCFI and the FDIC. The Bank is subject to extensive regulation and examination by the OCFI and the FDIC, and is subject to the Federal Reserve Board’s regulation of transactions between the Bank and its affiliates. The federal and Puerto Rico laws and regulations which are applicable to the Bank regulate, among other things, the scope of its business, its investments, its reserves against deposits, the timing of the availability of deposited funds, and the nature and amount of and collateral for certain loans. In addition to the impact of such regulations, commercial banks are affected significantly by the actions of the Federal Reserve Board as it attempts to control the money supply and credit availability in order to control inflation in the economy.
 
The Group’s mortgage banking business is subject to the rules and regulations of FHA, VA, RHS, FNMA, FHLMC, HUD and GNMA with respect to the origination, processing and selling of mortgage loans and the sale of mortgage-backed securities. Those rules and regulations, among other things, prohibit discrimination and establish underwriting guidelines which include provisions for inspections and appraisal reports, require credit reports on prospective borrowers and fix maximum loan amounts, and, with respect to VA loans, fix maximum interest rates. Mortgage origination activities are subject to, among others, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Federal Truth-in-Lending Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder which, among other things, prohibit discrimination and require the disclosure of certain basic information to mortgagors concerning credit terms and settlement costs. The Group is also subject to regulation by the OCFI with respect to, among other things, licensing requirements and maximum origination fees on certain types of mortgage loan products.
 
The Group and its subsidiaries are subject to the rules and regulations of certain other regulatory agencies. OFSC, as a registered broker-dealer, is subject to the supervision, examination and regulation of FINRA, the SEC, and the OCFI in matters relating to the conduct of its securities business, including record keeping and reporting requirements, supervision and licensing of employees, and obligations to customers.
 
Oriental Insurance is subject to the supervision, examination and regulation of the Office of the Commissioner of Insurance of Puerto Rico in matters relating to insurance sales, including but not limited to, licensing of employees, sales practices, charging of commissions and reporting requirements.
 
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
 
On July 21, 2010, President Barack Obama signed into law the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act. The Dodd-Frank Act implements a variety of far-reaching changes and has been described as the most sweeping reform of the financial services industry since the 1930’s. It has a broad impact on the wealth managements industry, including significant regulatory and compliance changes, such as: (1) enhanced resolution authority of troubled and failing banks and their holding companies; (2) enhanced lending limits strengthening the existing limits on a depository institution’s credit exposure to one borrower; (3) increased capital and liquidity requirements; (4) increased regulatory examination fees; (5) changes to assessments to be paid


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to the FDIC for federal deposit insurance; (6) prohibiting bank holding companies, such as the Group, from including in regulatory Tier 1 capital future issuances of trust preferred securities or other hybrid debt and equity securities; and (7) numerous other provisions designed to improve supervision and oversight of, and strengthening safety and soundness for, the wealth managements sector. Additionally, the Dodd-Frank Act establishes a new framework for systemic risk oversight within the financial system to be distributed among new and existing federal regulatory agencies, including the Financial Stability Oversight Council, the Federal Reserve Board, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the FDIC. Further, the Dodd-Frank Act addresses many corporate governance and executive compensation matters that will affect most U.S. publicly traded companies, including the Group. A few provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act are effective immediately, while various provisions are becoming effective in stages. Many of the requirements called for in the Dodd-Frank Act will be implemented over time and most will be subject to implementing regulations within 18 months of the law’s enactment.
 
The Dodd-Frank Act also creates a new consumer financial services regulator, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (the “Bureau”), which will assume most of the consumer financial services regulatory responsibilities currently exercised by federal banking regulators and other agencies. The Bureau’s primary functions include the supervision of “covered persons” (broadly defined to include any person offering or providing a consumer financial product or service and any affiliated service provider) for compliance with federal consumer financial laws. The Bureau will also have the broad power to prescribe rules applicable to a covered person or service provider identifying as unlawful, unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices in connection with any transaction with a consumer for a consumer financial product or service, or the offering of a consumer financial product or service.
 
Holding Company Structure
 
The Bank is subject to restrictions under federal laws that limit the transfer of funds to its affiliates (including the Group), whether in the form of loans, other extensions of credit, investments or asset purchases, among others. Such transfers are limited to 10% of the transferring institution’s capital stock and surplus with respect to any affiliate (including the Group), and, with respect to all affiliates, to an aggregate of 20% of the transferring institution’s capital stock and surplus. Furthermore, such loans and extensions of credit are required to be secured in specified amounts, carried out on an arm’s length basis, and consistent with safe and sound banking practices.
 
Under the Dodd-Frank Act, a bank holding company, such as the Group, must serve as a source of financial strength for any subsidiary depository institution. The term “source of financial strength” is defined as the ability of a company to provide financial assistance to its insured depository institution subsidiaries in the event of financial distress at such subsidiaries. This support may be required at times when, absent such requirement, the bank holding company might not otherwise provide such support. In the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and be entitled to a priority of payment. In addition, any capital loans by a bank holding company to any of its subsidiary banks are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary bank. The Bank is currently the only depository institution subsidiary of the Group.
 
Since the Group is a financial holding company, its right to participate in the assets of any subsidiary upon the latter’s liquidation or reorganization will be subject to the prior claims of the subsidiary’s creditors (including depositors in the case of depository institution subsidiaries) except to the extent that the Group is a creditor with recognized claims against the subsidiary.
 
Dividend Restrictions
 
The principal source of funds for the Group’s holding company is the dividends from the Bank. The ability of the Bank to pay dividends on its common stock is restricted by the Puerto Rico Banking Act of 1933, as amended (the Banking Act”), the FDIA and FDIC regulations. In general terms, the Banking Act provides that when the expenditures of a bank are greater than receipts, the excess of expenditures over receipts shall be charged against the undistributed profits of the bank and the balance, if any, shall be charged against the required reserve fund of the bank. If there is no sufficient reserve fund to cover such balance in whole or in part, the outstanding amount shall be charged against the bank’s capital account. The Banking Act provides that until said capital has been restored to its


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original amount and the reserve fund to 20% of the original capital, the bank may not declare any dividends. In general terms, the FDIA and the FDIC regulations restrict the payment of dividends when a bank is undercapitalized, when a bank has failed to pay insurance assessments, or when there are safety and soundness concerns regarding a bank. For more information see Note 15 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
 
The payment of dividends by the Bank may also be affected by other regulatory requirements and policies, such as maintenance of adequate capital. If, in the opinion of the regulatory authority, a depository institution under its jurisdiction is engaged in, or is about to engage in, an unsafe or unsound practice (that, depending on the financial condition of the depository institution, could include the payment of dividends), such authority may require, after notice and hearing, that such depository institution cease and desist from such practice. The Federal Reserve Board has issued a policy statement that provides that insured banks and bank holding companies should generally pay dividends only out of operating earnings for the current and preceding two years. In addition, all insured depository institutions are subject to the capital-based limitations required by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (“FDICIA”).
 
Federal Home Loan Bank System
 
The FHLB system, of which the Bank is a member, consists of 12 regional FHLBs governed and regulated by the Federal Housing Finance Agency. The FHLB serves as a credit facility for member institutions within their assigned regions. They are funded primarily from proceeds derived from the sale of consolidated obligations of the FHLB system. They make loans (i.e., advances) to members in accordance with policies and procedures established by the FHLB and the boards of directors of each regional FHLB.
 
As a system member, the Bank is entitled to borrow from the FHLB of New York (the “FHLB-NY”) and is required to invest in FHLB-NY stock in an amount equal to the greater of $500; 1% of the Bank’s aggregate unpaid principal of its home mortgage loans, home purchase contracts, and similar obligations; or 5% of the Bank’s aggregate amount of outstanding advances by the FHLB-NY. The Bank is in compliance with the stock ownership rules described above with respect to such advances, commitments, home mortgage loans and similar obligations. All loans, advances and other extensions of credit made by the FHLB-NY to the Bank are secured by a portion of the Bank’s mortgage loan portfolio, certain other investments, and the capital stock of the FHLB-NY held by the Bank. At no time may the aggregate amount of outstanding advances made by the FHLB-NY to the Bank exceed 20 times the amount paid in by the Bank for capital stock in the FHLB-NY.
 
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act
 
Under FDICIA the federal banking regulators must take prompt corrective action in respect to depository institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements. FDICIA, and the regulations issued thereunder, established five capital tiers: (i) “well capitalized,” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or more, has a Tier I risk-based capital ratio of 6.0% or more, has a Tier I leverage capital ratio of 5.0% or more, and is not subject to any written capital order or directive; (ii) “adequately capitalized,” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or more, a Tier I risk-based capital ratio of 4.0% or more and a Tier I leverage capital ratio of 4.0% or more (3.0% under certain circumstances) and does not meet the definition of “well capitalized,” (iii) “undercapitalized,” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio that is less than 8.0%, a Tier I risk-based ratio that is less than 4.0% or a Tier I leverage capital ratio that is less than 4.0% (3.0% under certain circumstances), (iv) “significantly undercapitalized,” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio that is less than 6.0%, a Tier I risk-based capital ratio that is less than 3.0% or a Tier I leverage capital ratio that is less than 3.0%, and (v) “critically undercapitalized,” if it has a ratio of tangible equity to total assets that is equal to or less than 2.0%. A depository institution may be deemed to be in a capitalization category that is lower than is indicated by its actual capital position if it receives a less than satisfactory examination rating in any of the following categories: asset quality, management, earnings, liquidity, and sensitivity to market risk. The Bank is a “well-capitalized” institution.
 
FDICIA generally prohibits a depository institution from making any capital distribution (including payment of a dividend) or paying any management fees to its holding company if the depository institution would thereafter be undercapitalized. Undercapitalized depository institutions are subject to restrictions on borrowing from the Federal Reserve System. In addition, undercapitalized depository institutions are subject to growth limitations and are


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required to submit capital restoration plans. A depository institution’s holding company must guarantee the capital plan, up to an amount equal to the lesser of 5% of the depository institution’s assets at the time it becomes undercapitalized or the amount of the capital deficiency when the institution fails to comply with the plan. The federal banking agencies may not accept a capital plan without determining, among other things, that the plan is based on realistic assumptions and is likely to succeed in restoring the depository institution’s capital. Significantly undercapitalized depository institutions may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become adequately capitalized, requirements to reduce total assets, and cessation of receipt of deposits from corresponding banks. Critically undercapitalized depository institutions are subject to the appointment of a receiver or conservator.
 
FDIC Insurance Assessments
 
The Bank is subject to FDIC deposit insurance assessments. The Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 (the “Reform Act”) merged the Bank Insurance Fund (“BIF”) and the Savings Association Insurance Fund (“SAIF”) into a single Deposit Insurance Fund, and increased the maximum amount of the insurance coverage for certain retirement accounts, and possible “inflation adjustments” in the maximum amount of coverage available with respect to other insured accounts. In addition, it granted a one-time initial assessment credit (of approximately $4.7 billion) to recognize institutions’ past contributions to the fund. As a result of the merger of the BIF and the SAIF, all insured institutions are subject to the same assessment rate schedule.
 
The Dodd-Frank Act contains several important deposit insurance reforms, including the following: (i) the maximum deposit insurance amount was permanently increased to $250,000; (ii) the deposit insurance assessment is now based on the insured depository institution’s average consolidated assets minus its average tangible equity, rather than on its deposit base; (iii) the minimum reserve ratio for the Deposit Insurance Fund was raised from 1.15% to 1.35% of estimated insured deposits by September 30, 2020; (iv) the FDIC is required to “offset the effect” of increased assessments on insured depository institutions with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion; (v) the FDIC is no longer required to pay dividends if the Deposit Insurance Fund’s reserve ratio is greater than the minimum ratio; and (vi) the FDIC will insure the full amount of qualifying “noninterest-bearing transaction accounts” for two years beginning December 31, 2010. As defined in the Dodd-Frank Act, a “noninterest-bearing transaction account” is a deposit or account maintained at a depository institution with respect to which interest is neither accrued nor paid; on which the depositor or account holder is permitted to make withdrawals by negotiable or transferrable instrument, payment orders of withdrawals, telephone or other electronic media transfers, or other similar items for the purpose of making payments or transfers to third parties or others; and on which the insured depository institution does not reserve the right to require advance notice of an intended withdrawal.
 
Effective April 1, 2011, the FDIC amended its regulations under the FDI Act, as amended by the Dodd-Frank Act, to modify the definition of a depository institution’s insurance assessment base; to revise the deposit insurance assessment rate schedules in light of the new assessment base and altered adjustments; to implement the dividend provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act; and to revise the large insured depository institution assessment system to better differentiate for risk and better take into account losses from large institution failures that the FDIC may incur. Since the new assessment base under the Dodd-Frank Act is larger than the current assessment base, the new assessment rates adopted by the FDIC are lower than the current rates.
 
The Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program (TLGP) of the FDIC provided two limited guarantee programs: the Debt Guarantee Program (“DGP”) and the Transaction Account Guarantee Program (“TAGP”). The DGP guarantees all newly issued senior unsecured debt (e.g., promissory notes, unsubordinated unsecured notes and commercial paper) up to prescribed limits issued by participating entities, including bank holding companies, in the period from October 14, 2008 through October 31, 2009. For eligible debt issued in that period, the FDIC provides the guarantee coverage until the earlier of the maturity date of the debt or December 31, 2012. The TAGP offered a full guarantee for non interest-bearing transaction deposit accounts held at FDIC-insured depository institutions. The unlimited deposit coverage was voluntary for eligible institutions and in addition to the $250,000 FDIC deposit insurance per depositor that was included as part of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008. The TAGP coverage became effective on October 14, 2008 and continued for participating institutions until December 31, 2010. The Group opted to become a participating entity on both of these programs and pays applicable fees for participation. Participants in the DGP program have a fee structure based on a sliding scale, depending on length of


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maturity. Shorter-term debt has a lower fee structure and longer-term debt has a higher fee. The range is 50 basis points on debt of 180 days or less, and a maximum of 100 basis points for debt with maturities of one year or longer, on an annualized basis. Any eligible entity that has not chosen to opt out of the TAGP was assessed, on a quarterly basis, an annualized 10 cents per $100 fee on balances in non-interest bearing transaction accounts that exceed the existing deposit insurance limit of $250,000. The Group’s banking subsidiary issued in March 2009 $105 million in notes guaranteed under the TLGP. These notes are due on March 16, 2012, bear interest at a 2.75% fixed rate, and are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. Interest on the notes is payable on the 16th of each March and September. An annual fee of 100 basis points is paid to the FDIC to maintain the FDIC guarantee coverage until the maturity of the notes.
 
Brokered Deposits
 
FDIC regulations adopted under the FDIA govern the receipt of brokered deposits by banks. Well capitalized institutions are not subject to limitations on brokered deposits, while adequately-capitalized institutions are able to accept, renew or rollover brokered deposits only with a waiver from the FDIC and subject to certain restrictions on the interest paid on such deposits. Undercapitalized institutions are not permitted to accept brokered deposits. As of December 31, 2010, the Bank was a well capitalized institution and was therefore not subject to these limitations on brokered deposits.
 
Regulatory Capital Requirements
 
The Federal Reserve Board has risk-based capital guidelines for bank holding companies. Under the guidelines, the minimum ratio of qualifying total capital to risk-weighted assets is 8%. At least half of the total capital is to be comprised of qualifying common stockholders’ equity, qualifying noncumulative perpetual preferred stock (including related surplus), minority interests related to qualifying common or noncumulative perpetual preferred stock directly issued by a consolidated U.S. depository institution or foreign bank subsidiary, and restricted core capital elements (collectively “Tier 1 Capital”). Banking organizations are expected to maintain at least 50 percent of their Tier 1 Capital as common equity. Not more than 25% of qualifying Tier 1 Capital may consist of qualifying cumulative perpetual preferred stock, trust preferred securities or other “so-called” restricted core capital elements. “Tier 2 Capital” may consist, subject to certain limitations, of allowance for loan and lease losses; perpetual preferred stock and related surplus; hybrid capital instruments, perpetual debt, and mandatory convertible debt securities; term subordinated debt and intermediate-term preferred stock, including related surplus; and unrealized holding gains on equity securities. “Tier 3 Capital” consists of qualifying unsecured subordinated debt. The sum of Tier 2 and Tier 3 Capital may not exceed the amount of Tier 1 Capital.
 
The Federal Reserve Board has regulations with respect to risk-based and leverage capital ratios that require most intangibles, including goodwill and core deposit intangibles, to be deducted from Tier 1 Capital. The only types of identifiable intangible assets that may be included in, that is, not deducted from, an organization’s capital are readily marketable mortgage servicing assets, nonmortgage servicing assets, and purchased credit card relationships.
 
In addition, the Federal Reserve Board has established minimum leverage ratio (Tier 1 Capital to total assets) guidelines for bank holding companies and member banks. These guidelines provide for a minimum leverage ratio of 3% for bank holding companies and member banks that meet certain specified criteria including that they have the highest regulatory rating. All other bank holding companies and member banks are required to maintain a minimum ratio of Tier 1 Capital to total assets of 4%. The guidelines also provide that banking organizations experiencing internal growth or making acquisitions are expected to maintain strong capital positions substantially above the minimum supervisory levels without significant reliance on intangible assets. Furthermore, the guidelines state that the Federal Reserve Board will continue to consider a “tangible Tier 1 leverage ratio” and other indicators of capital strength in evaluating proposals for expansion or new activities.
 
Under the Dodd-Frank Act, federal banking regulators are required to establish minimum leverage and risk-based capital requirements, on a consolidated basis, for insured institutions, depository institution holding companies, and non-bank financial companies supervised by the Federal Reserve Board. The minimum leverage and risk-based capital requirements are to be determined based on the minimum ratios established for insured depository institutions under prompt corrective action regulations. In effect, such provision of the Dodd-Frank Act, which


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is commonly known as the Collins Amendment, applies to bank holding companies the same leverage and risk-based capital requirements that will apply to insured depository institutions. Because the capital requirements must be the same for insured depository institutions and their holding companies, the Collins Amendment will generally exclude trust preferred securities from Tier 1 Capital, subject to a three-year phase-out from Tier 1 qualification for trust preferred securities issued before May 19, 2010, with the phase-out commencing on January 1, 2013. However, trust preferred securities issued before May 19, 2010, by a holding company, such as the Group, with total consolidated assets of less than $15 billion as of December 31, 2009, are not affected by the Collins Amendment and may continue to be included in Tier 1 Capital as a restricted core capital element.
 
Failure to meet the capital guidelines could subject an institution to a variety of enforcement actions including the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC and to certain restrictions on its business. At December 31, 2010, the Group was in compliance with all capital requirements. For more information, please refer to Note 15 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
 
Safety and Soundness Standards
 
Section 39 of the FDIA, as amended by FDICIA, requires each federal banking agency to prescribe for all insured depository institutions standards relating to internal control, information systems, and internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, compensation, fees and benefits, and such other operational and managerial standards as the agency deems appropriate. In addition, each federal banking agency also is required to adopt for all insured depository institutions standards relating to asset quality, earnings and stock valuation that the agency determines to be appropriate. Finally, each federal banking agency is required to prescribe standards for the employment contracts and other compensation arrangements of executive officers, employees, directors and principal stockholders of insured depository institutions that would prohibit compensation, benefits and other arrangements that are excessive or that could lead to a material financial loss for the institution. If an institution fails to meet any of the standards described above, it will be required to submit to the appropriate federal banking agency a plan specifying the steps that will be taken to cure the deficiency. If the institution fails to submit an acceptable plan or fails to implement the plan, the appropriate federal banking agency will require the institution to correct the deficiency and, until it is corrected, may impose other restrictions on the institution, including any of the restrictions applicable under the prompt corrective action provisions of FDICIA.
 
The FDIC and the other federal banking agencies have adopted Interagency Guidelines Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness that, among other things, set forth standards relating to internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit, underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth and employee compensation.
 
Activities and Investments of Insured State-Chartered Banks
 
Section 24 of the FDIA, as amended by FDICIA, generally limits the activities and equity investments of FDIC-insured, state-chartered banks to those that are permissible for national banks. Under FDIC regulations of equity investments, an insured state bank generally may not directly or indirectly acquire or retain any equity investment of a type, or in an amount, that is not permissible for a national bank. An insured state bank, such as the Bank, is not prohibited from, among other things, (i) acquiring or retaining a majority interest in a subsidiary engaged in permissible activities, (ii) investing as a limited partner in a partnership, or as a non-controlling interest holder of a limited liability company, the sole purpose of which is direct or indirect investment in the acquisition, rehabilitation or new construction of a qualified housing project, provided that such investments may not exceed 2% of the bank’s total assets, (iii) acquiring up to 10% of the voting stock of a company that solely provides or reinsures directors’, trustees’ and officers’ liability insurance coverage or bankers’ blanket bond group insurance coverage for insured depository institutions, and (iv) acquiring or retaining the voting stock of an insured depository institution if certain requirements are met.
 
Under the FDIC regulations governing the activities and investments of insured state banks which further implemented Section 24 of the FDIA, as amended by FDICIA, an insured state-chartered bank may not, directly, or indirectly through a subsidiary, engage as “principal” in any activity that is not permissible for a national bank unless the FDIC has determined that such activities would pose no risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund and the bank


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is in compliance with applicable regulatory capital requirements. Any insured state-chartered bank directly or indirectly engaged in any activity that is not permitted for a national bank must cease the impermissible activity.
 
Transactions with Affiliates and Related Parties
 
Transactions between the Bank and any of its affiliates are governed by sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act. These sections are important statutory provisions designed to protect a depository institution from transferring to its affiliates the subsidy arising from the institution’s access to the Federal safety net. An affiliate of a bank is any company or entity that controls, is controlled by or is under common control with the bank, including investment funds for which the bank or any of its affiliates is an investment advisor. Generally, sections 23A and 23B (1) limit the extent to which a bank or its subsidiaries may engage in “covered transactions” with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10% of the bank’s capital stock and surplus, and limit such transactions with all affiliates to an amount equal to 20% of such capital stock and surplus, and (2) require that all such transactions be on terms that are consistent with safe and sound banking practices. The term “covered transactions” includes the making of loans, purchase of or investment in securities issued by the affiliate, purchase of assets, issuance of guarantees and other similar types of transactions. The Dodd-Frank Act expanded the scope of transactions treated as “covered transactions” to include credit exposure on derivatives transactions, credit exposure resulting from securities, borrowings, and lending transactions, and acceptances of affiliate-issued debt obligations as collateral for a loan or extension of credit. Most loans by a bank to any of its affiliates must be secured by collateral in amounts ranging from 100 to 130 percent of the loan amount, depending on the nature of the collateral. In addition, any covered transaction by a bank with an affiliate and any sale of assets or provision of services to an affiliate must be on terms that are substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the bank, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with nonaffiliated companies. Regulation W of the Federal Reserve Board comprehensively implements sections 23A and 23B. The regulation unified and updated staff interpretations issued over the years prior to its adoption, incorporated several interpretative proposals (such as to clarify when transactions with an unrelated third party will be attributed to an affiliate), and addressed issues arising as a result of the expanded scope of non-banking activities engaged in by banks and bank holding companies and authorized for financial holding companies under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act.
 
Sections 22(g) and (h) of the Federal Reserve Act place restrictions on loans by a bank to executive officers, directors, and principal shareholders. Regulation O of the Federal Reserve Board implements these provisions. Under Section 22(h) and Regulation O, loans to a director, an executive officer and to greater-than-10% shareholders of a bank and certain of their related interests (“insiders”), and insiders of its affiliates, may not exceed, together with all other outstanding loans to such person and related interests, the bank’s single borrower limit (generally equal to 15% of the institution’s unimpaired capital and surplus). Section 22(h) and Regulation O also require that loans to insiders and to insiders of affiliates be made on terms substantially the same as offered in comparable transactions to other persons, unless the loans are made pursuant to a benefit or compensation program that (i) is widely available to employees of the bank and (ii) does not give preference to insiders over other employees of the bank. Section 22(h) and Regulation O also require prior board of directors’ approval for certain loans, and the aggregate amount of extensions of credit by a bank to all insiders cannot exceed the institution’s unimpaired capital and surplus. Furthermore, Section 22(g) and Regulation O place additional restrictions on loans to executive officers.
 
Community Reinvestment Act
 
Under the Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”), a financial institution has a continuing and affirmative obligation, consistent with its safe and sound operation, to help meet the credit needs of its entire community, including low and moderate income neighborhoods. The CRA does not establish specific lending requirements or programs for financial institutions nor does it limit an institution’s discretion to develop the types of products and services that it believes are best suited to its particular community, consistent with the CRA. The CRA requires federal examiners, in connection with the examination of a financial institution, to assess the institution’s record of meeting the credit needs of its community and to take such record into account in its evaluation of certain applications by such institution. The CRA also requires all institutions to make public disclosure of their CRA


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ratings. The Group has a Compliance Department, which oversees the planning of products and services offered to the community, especially those aimed to serve low and moderate income communities.
 
USA Patriot Act
 
Under Title III of the USA Patriot Act, also known as the International Money Laundering Abatement and Anti-Terrorism Financing Act of 2001, all financial institutions, including the Group, OFSC and the Bank, are required in general to identify their customers, adopt formal and comprehensive anti-money laundering programs, scrutinize or prohibit altogether certain transactions of special concern, and be prepared to respond to inquiries from U.S. law enforcement agencies concerning their customers and their transactions.
 
The U.S. Treasury Department (“US Treasury”) has issued a number of regulations implementing the USA Patriot Act that apply certain of its requirements to financial institutions. The regulations impose obligations on financial institutions to maintain appropriate policies, procedures and controls to detect, prevent and report money laundering and terrorist financing.
 
Failure of a financial institution to comply with the USA Patriot Act’s requirements could have serious legal consequences for the institution. The Group and its subsidiaries, including the Bank, have adopted policies, procedures and controls to address compliance with the USA Patriot Act under existing regulations, and will continue to revise and update their policies, procedures and controls to reflect changes required by the USA Patriot Act and US Treasury’s regulations.
 
Privacy Policies
 
Under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, all financial institutions are required to adopt privacy policies, restrict the sharing of nonpublic customer data with nonaffiliated parties at the customer’s request, and establish procedures and practices to protect customer data from unauthorized access. The Group and its subsidiaries have established policies and procedures to assure the Group’s compliance with all privacy provisions of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act.
 
Sarbanes-Oxley Act
 
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“SOX”) implemented a range of corporate governance and accounting measures to increase corporate responsibility, to provide for enhanced penalties for accounting and auditing improprieties at publicly traded companies, and to protect investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of disclosures under federal securities laws. In addition, SOX established membership requirements and responsibilities for the audit committee, imposed restrictions on the relationship between the Group and external auditors, imposed additional responsibilities for the external financial statements on the chief executive officer and the chief financial officer, expanded the disclosure requirements for corporate insiders, required management to evaluate its disclosure controls and procedures and its internal control over financial reporting, and required the auditors to issue a report on the internal control over financial reporting.
 
The Group has included in this annual report on Form 10-K the management assessment regarding the effectiveness of the Group’s internal control over financial reporting. The internal control report includes a statement of management’s responsibility for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting for the Group; management’s assessment as to the effectiveness of the Group’s internal control over financial reporting based on management’s evaluation as of year-end; and the framework used by management as criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the Group’s internal control over financial reporting. As of December 31, 2010, the Group’s management concluded that its internal control over financial reporting was effective.
 
Puerto Rico Banking Act
 
As a Puerto Rico-chartered commercial bank, the Bank is subject to regulation and supervision by the OCFI under the Banking Act, which contains provisions governing the incorporation and organization, rights and responsibilities of directors, officers and stockholders, as well as the corporate powers, savings, lending, capital and investment requirements and other aspects of the Bank and its affairs. In addition, the OCFI is given extensive


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rulemaking power and administrative discretion under the Banking Act. The OCFI generally examines the Bank at least once every year.
 
The Banking Act requires that a minimum of 10% of the Bank’s net income for the year be transferred to a reserve fund until such fund (legal surplus) equals the total paid-in capital on common and preferred stock. At December 31, 2010, legal surplus amounted to $46.3 million (December 31, 2009 — $45.3 million). The amount transferred to the legal surplus account is not available for the payment of dividends to shareholders. In addition, the Federal Reserve Board has issued a policy statement that bank holding companies should generally pay dividends only from operating earnings of the current and preceding two years.
 
The Banking Act also provides that when the expenditures of a bank are greater that the receipts, the excess of the former over the latter must be charged against the undistributed profits of the bank, and the balance, if any, must be charged against the reserve fund. If there is no reserve fund sufficient to cover such balance in whole or in part, the outstanding amount must be charged against the capital account and no dividend may be declared until said capital has been restored to its original amount and the reserve fund to 20% of the original capital.
 
The Banking Act further requires every bank to maintain a legal reserve which cannot be less than 20% of its demand liabilities, except government deposits (federal, commonwealth and municipal), which are secured by actual collateral.
 
The Banking Act also requires change of control filings. When any person or entity will own, directly or indirectly, upon consummation of a transfer, 5% or more of the outstanding voting capital stock of a bank, the acquiring parties must inform the OCFI of the details not less than 60 days prior to the date said transfer is to be consummated. The transfer will require the approval of the OCFI if it results in a change of control of the bank. Under the Banking Act, a change of control is presumed if an acquirer who did not own more than 5% of the voting capital stock before the transfer exceeds such percentage after the transfer.
 
The Banking Act permits Puerto Rico commercial banks to make loans to any one person, firm, partnership or corporation, up to an aggregate amount of 15% of the sum of: (i) the bank’s paid-in capital; (ii) the bank’s reserve fund; (iii) 50% of the bank’s retained earnings; subject to certain limitations; and (iv) any other components that the OCFI may determine from time to time. If such loans are secured by collateral worth at least 25% more than the amount of the loan, the aggregate maximum amount will include 33.33% of 50% of the bank’s retained earnings. There are no restrictions under the Banking Act on the amount of loans that are wholly secured by bonds, securities and other evidence of indebtedness of the Government of the United States or of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or by bonds, not in default, of municipalities or instrumentalities of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
 
The Puerto Rico Finance Board is composed of the Commissioner of Financial Institutions of Puerto Rico; the Presidents of the Government Development Bank for Puerto Rico, the Economic Development Bank for Puerto Rico and the Planning Board; the Puerto Rico Secretaries of Commerce and Economic Development, Treasury and Consumer Affairs; the Commissioner of Insurance; and the President of the Public Corporation for Insurance and Supervision of Puerto Rico Cooperatives. It has the authority to regulate the maximum interest rates and finance charges that may be charged on loans to individuals and unincorporated businesses in the Commonwealth, and promulgates regulations that specify maximum rates on various types of loans to individuals.
 
The current regulations of the Puerto Rico Finance Board provide that the applicable interest rate on loans to individuals and unincorporated businesses (including real estate development loans, but excluding certain other personal and commercial loans secured by mortgages on real estate property) is to be determined by free competition. The Puerto Rico Finance Board also has the authority to regulate maximum finance charges on retail installment sales contracts and for credit card purchases. There is presently no maximum rate for retail installment sales contracts and for credit card purchases.
 
Puerto Rico Internal Revenue Code
 
On January 31, 2011, the Governor of Puerto Rico signed into law the Internal Revenue Code for a New Puerto Rico (the “2011 Code”). As such, the Puerto Rico Internal Revenue Code of 1994, as amended, (the “1994 Code”) will no longer be in effect, except for transactions or taxable years that have commenced prior to January 1, 2011. For corporate taxpayers, the 2011 Code retains the 20% regular income tax rate but establishes significant lower surtax


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rates. The 1994 Code provided a surtax rate from 5% to 19% while the 2011 Code provides a surtax rate from 5% to 10% for years starting after December 31, 2010, but before January 1, 2014. That surtax rate may reduce to 5% after December 31, 2013, if certain economic tests are met by the Government of Puerto Rico. If such economic tests are not met, the reduction of the surtax rate will start when such economic tests are met. In the case of a controlled group of corporations the determination of which surtax rate applies will be made by adding the net taxable income of each of the entities members of the controlled group reduced by the surtax deduction. The 2011 Code also provides a significantly higher surtax deduction, the 1994 Code provided for a $25,000 surtax deduction which the 2011 Code increased it to $750,000. In the case of controlled group of corporations, the surtax deduction should be distributed among the members of the controlled group. The alternative minimum tax is also reduced from 22% to 20%. Apart from the reduced rates provided by the 2011 Code, it also eliminates the 5% additional surtax which was established by Act No. 7 of March 9, 2009, and the 5% recapture of the benefit of the income tax tables.
 
International Banking Center Regulatory Act of Puerto Rico
 
The business and operations of the Bank’s IBE subsidiary are subject to supervision and regulation by the OCFI. Under the IBE Act, no sale, encumbrance, assignment, merger, exchange or transfer of shares, interest or participation in the capital of an IBE may be initiated without the prior approval of the OCFI, if by such transaction a person would acquire, directly or indirectly, control of 10% or more of any class of stock, interest or participation in the capital of the IBE. The IBE Act and the regulations issued thereunder by the OCFI (the “IBE Regulations”) limit the business activities that may be carried out by an IBE. Such activities are limited in part to persons and assets/liabilities located outside of Puerto Rico. The IBE Act provides further that every IBE must have not less than $300 thousand of unencumbered assets or acceptable financial guarantees.
 
Pursuant to the IBE Act and the IBE Regulations, the Bank’s IBE subsidiary has to maintain books and records of all its transactions in the ordinary course of business. It is also required to submit quarterly and annual reports of their financial condition and results of operations to the OCFI, including annual audited financial statements.
 
The IBE Act empowers the OCFI to revoke or suspend, after notice and hearing, a license issued thereunder if, among other things, the IBE fails to comply with the IBE Act, the IBE Regulations or the terms of its license, or if the OCFI finds that the business or affairs of the IBE are conducted in a manner that is not consistent with the public interest.
 
Employees
 
At December 31, 2010, the Group had 717 employees. None of its employees is represented by a collective bargaining group. The Group considers its employee relations to be good.
 
Internet Access to Reports
 
The Group’s annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any and all amendments to such reports, filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, are available free of charge on or through the Group’s internet website at www.orientalfg.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after the Group electronically files such material with, or furnishes it to, the SEC.
 
The Group’s corporate governance principles and guidelines, code of business conduct and ethics, and the charters of its audit and compliance committee, compensation committee, and corporate governance and nominating committee are available free of charge on the Group’s website at www.orientalfg.com in the investor relations section under the corporate governance link. The Group’s code of business conduct and ethics applies to its directors, officers, employees and agents, including its principal executive, financial and accounting officers.


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ITEM 1A.   RISK FACTORS
 
In addition to the other information contained elsewhere in this report and our other filings with the SEC, the following risk factors should be carefully considered in evaluating us. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties, not presently known to us or otherwise, may also impair our business operations. If any of the risks described below or such other risks actually occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
 
Changes in interest rates may hurt the Group’s business.
 
Changes in interest rates are one of the principal market risks affecting the Group. The Group’s income and cash flows depend to a great extent on the difference between the interest rates earned on interest-earning assets such as loans and investment securities, and the interest rates paid on interest-bearing liabilities such as deposits and borrowings. These rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions and the policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies (in particular, the Federal Reserve Board). Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, will influence the origination of loans, the prepayment speed of loans, the value of loans and investment securities, the purchase of investments, the generation of deposits and the rates received on loans and investment securities and paid on deposits or other sources of funding.
 
The Group is at risk because most of its business is conducted in Puerto Rico, which is experiencing a downturn in the economy and in the real estate market.
 
Because most of the Group’s business activities are conducted in Puerto Rico and a significant portion of its credit exposure is concentrated in Puerto Rico, the Group’s profitability and financial condition may be adversely affected by an extended economic slowdown, adverse political or economic developments in Puerto Rico or the effects of a natural disaster, all of which could result in a reduction in loan originations, an increase in non-performing assets, an increase in foreclosure losses on mortgage loans, and a reduction in the value of its loans and loan servicing portfolio.
 
The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is in the fifth year of economic recession, and the central government is currently facing a significant fiscal deficit. The Commonwealth’s access to municipal bond market and its credit ratings depend, in part, on achieving a balanced budget. Some of the measures implemented by the Government include reducing spending by 10% in an attempt to control expenditures, including public-sector employment, raise revenues through selective tax increases, and stimulate the economy. Although the size of the Commonwealth’s deficit has been reduced by the central government, the Puerto Rico economy continues to struggle.
 
A period of reduced economic growth or a recession has historically resulted in a reduction in lending activity and an increase in the rate of defaults in commercial loans, consumer loans and residential mortgages. A recession may have a significant adverse impact on the Group’s net interest income and fee income. The Group may also experience significant losses on the loan portfolio due to a higher level of defaults on commercial loans, consumer loans and residential mortgages.
 
The decline in Puerto Rico’s economy has had an adverse effect in the credit quality of the Group’s loan portfolios as delinquency rates have increased in the short-term and may continue to increase until the economy stabilizes. Among other things, the Group has experienced an increase in the level of non-performing assets and loan loss provision, which adversely affects the Group’s profitability. If the decline in economic activity continues, additional increases in the allowance for loan and lease losses could be necessary, and there could be further adverse effects on the Group’s profitability. The reduction in consumer spending may also continue to impact growth in the Group’s other interest and non-interest revenue sources.
 
The level of real estate prices in Puerto Rico had been more stable than in other U.S. markets, but the current economic environment has accelerated the devaluation of properties and has increased portfolio delinquency when compared with previous periods. Additional economic weakness in Puerto Rico and the U.S. mainland could further pressure residential property values, loan delinquencies, foreclosures and the cost of repossessing and disposing of real estate collateral.


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On March 7, 2011, Standard & Poor’s upgraded Puerto Rico’s credit rating in recognition of an improvement in the Commonwealth’s public finances and economic outlook. The upgrade was made based on a review of Puerto Rico’s recent revenue performance and continued efforts to achieve fiscal and budgetary balance.
 
Financial results are constantly exposed to market risk.
 
Market risk refers to the probability of variations in the net interest income or the fair value of assets and liabilities due to changes in interest rates, currency exchange rates or equity prices. Despite the varied nature of market risks, the primary source of this risk to the Group is the impact of changes in interest rates on net interest income.
 
Net interest income is the difference between the revenue generated on earning assets and the interest cost of funding those assets. Depending on the duration and repricing characteristics of the assets, liabilities and off-balance sheet items, changes in interest rates could either increase or decrease the level of net interest income. For any given period, the pricing structure of the assets and liabilities is matched when an equal amount of such assets and liabilities mature or reprice in that period.
 
The Group uses an asset-liability management software to project future movements in the balance sheet and income statement. The starting point of the projections generally corresponds to the actual values of the balance sheet on the date of the simulations. These simulations are highly complex, and use many simplifying assumptions.
 
The Group is subject to interest rate risk because of the following factors:
 
•  Assets and liabilities may mature or reprice at different times. For example, if assets reprice slower than liabilities and interest rates are generally rising, earnings may initially decline.
 
•  Assets and liabilities may reprice at the same time but by different amounts. For example, when the general level of interest rates is rising, the Group may increase rates charged on loans by an amount that is less than the general increase in market interest rates because of intense pricing competition. Also, basis risk occurs when assets and liabilities have similar repricing frequencies but are tied to different market interest rate indices that may not move in tandem.
 
•  Short-term and long-term market interest rates may change by different amounts, i.e., the shape of the yield curve may affect new loan yields and funding costs differently.
 
•  The remaining maturity of various assets and liabilities may shorten or lengthen as interest rates change. For example, if long-term mortgage interest rates decline sharply, mortgage-backed securities portfolio may prepay significantly earlier than anticipated, which could reduce portfolio income. If prepayment rates increase, we would be required to amortize net premiums into income over a shorter period of time, thereby reducing the corresponding asset yield and net interest income. Prepayment risk also has a significant impact on mortgage-backed securities and collateralized mortgage obligations, since prepayments could shorten the weighted average life of these portfolios.
 
•  Interest rates may have an indirect impact on loan demand, credit losses, loan origination volume, the value of financial assets and financial liabilities, gains and losses on sales of securities and loans, the value of mortgage servicing rights and other sources of earnings.
 
In limiting interest rate risk to an acceptable level, management may alter the mix of floating and fixed rate assets and liabilities, change pricing schedules, adjust maturities through sales and purchases of investment securities, and enter into derivative contracts, among other alternatives. The Group may suffer losses or experience lower spreads than anticipated in initial projections as management implement strategies to reduce future interest rate exposure.
 
The hedging transactions the Group enters into may not be effective in managing the exposure to market risk, including interest rate risk.
 
The Group offers certificates of deposit with an option tied to the performance of the Standard & Poor’s 500 stock market index and uses derivatives, such as option agreements with major broker-dealer companies, to manage the exposure to changes in the value of the index. The Group may also use derivatives, such as interest rate swaps and options on interest rate swaps, to manage part of its exposure to market risk caused by changes in interest rates. The


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derivative instruments that the Group may utilize also have their own risks, which include: (1) basis risk, which is the risk of loss associated with variations in the spread between the asset yield and the funding and/or hedge cost; (2) credit or default risk, which is the risk of insolvency or other inability of the counterparty to a particular transaction to perform its obligations thereunder; and (3) legal risk, which is the risk that the Group is unable to enforce certain terms of such instruments. All or any of such risks could expose the Group to losses. There were no derivatives designated as a hedge as of December 31, 2010 and 2009.
 
If the counterparty to a derivative contract fails to perform, the Group’s credit risk is equal to the net fair value of the contract. Although the Group deals with counterparties that have high quality credit ratings at the time the Group enters into the counterparty relationships, there can be no assurances that the counterparties will have the ability to perform under their contracts. If the counterparty fails to perform, including as a result of the bankruptcy or insolvency of the counterparty, the Group would incur losses as a result.
 
The Group may incur a significant impairment charge in connection with a decline in the market value of its investment securities portfolio.
 
The majority of the Group’s earnings come from the Treasury business segment, which encompasses the investment securities portfolio. The determination of fair value for investment securities involves significant judgment due to the complexity of factors contributing to the valuation, many of which are not readily observable in the market. In addition, the Group utilizes and reviews information obtained from third-party sources to measure fair values. Third-party sources also use assumptions, judgments and estimates in determining securities values, and different third parties may provide different prices for securities. Moreover, depending upon, among other things, the measurement date of the security, the subsequent sale price of the security may be different from its recorded fair value. These differences may be significant, especially if the security is sold during a period of illiquidity or market disruption.
 
When the fair value of a security declines, management must assess whether the decline is “other-than-temporary.” When the decline in fair value is deemed “other-than-temporary,” the amortized cost basis of the investment security is reduced to its then current fair value. The term “other-than-temporary impairments” is not intended to indicate that the decline is permanent, but indicates that the prospects for a near-term recovery of value is not necessarily favorable, or that there is a lack of evidence to support a realizable value equal to or greater than the carrying value of the investment. Any portion of a decline in value associated with credit loss is recognized in income with the remaining noncredit-related component being recognized in other comprehensive income. A credit loss is determined by assessing whether the amortized cost basis of the security will be recovered, by comparing the present value of cash flows expected to be collected from the security, computed using original yield as the discount rate, to the amortized cost basis of the security. The shortfall of the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected in relation to the amortized cost basis is considered to be the “credit loss.” Such impairment charges reflect non-cash losses at the time of recognition. Subsequent disposition or sale of such assets could further affect the Group’s future results of operations, as they are based on the difference between the sale prices received and adjusted amortized cost of such assets at the time of sale. The review of whether a decline in fair value is other-than-temporary considers numerous factors and many of these factors involve significant judgment.
 
The Group’s risk management policies, procedures and systems may be inadequate to mitigate all risks inherent in the Group’s various businesses.
 
A comprehensive risk management function is essential to the financial and operational success of the Group’s business. The types of risk the Group monitors and seeks to manage include, but are not limited to, operational risk, market risk, fiduciary risk, legal and compliance risk, liquidity risk and credit risk. The Group has adopted various policies, procedures and systems to monitor and manage risk. There can be no assurance that those policies, procedures and systems are adequate to identify and mitigate all risks inherent in the Group’s various businesses. In addition, the Group’s businesses and the markets in which the Group operates are continuously evolving. If the Group fails to fully understand the implications of changes in the Group’s business or the financial markets and to adequately or timely enhance the risk framework to address those changes, the Group could incur losses.


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A prolonged economic downturn or recession or a continuing decline in the real estate market would likely result in an increase in delinquencies, defaults and foreclosures and in a reduction in loan origination activity which would adversely affect the Group’s financial results.
 
The residential mortgage loan origination business has historically been cyclical, enjoying periods of strong growth and profitability followed by periods of lower volumes and industry-wide losses. The market for residential mortgage loan originations is currently in decline, and this trend could also reduce the level of mortgage loans that the Group may originate in the future and may adversely impact its business. During periods of rising interest rates, refinancing originations for many mortgage products tend to decrease as the economic incentives for borrowers to refinance their existing mortgage loans are reduced. In addition, the residential mortgage loan origination business is impacted by home values. A significant trend of decreasing values in certain housing segments in Puerto Rico has also been noted. There is a risk that a reduction in housing values could negatively impact the Group’s loss levels on the mortgage portfolio because the value of the homes underlying the loans is a primary source of repayment in the event of foreclosure.
 
Any sustained period of increased delinquencies, foreclosures or losses could harm the Group’s ability to sell loans, the price received on the sale of such loans, and the value of the mortgage loan portfolio, all of which could have a negative impact on the Group’s results of operations and financial condition. In addition, any material decline in real estate values would weaken the Group’s collateral loan-to-value ratios and increase the possibility of loss if a borrower defaults.
 
A continuing decline in the real estate market in the U.S. mainland and ongoing disruptions in the capital markets may harm the Group’s investment securities and wholesale funding portfolios.
 
The housing market in the U.S. is undergoing a correction of historic proportions. After a period of several years of booming housing markets, fueled by liberal credit conditions and rapidly rising property values, the sector has been in the midst of a substantial correction since early 2007. The general level of property values in the U.S., as measured by several indices widely followed by the market, has declined. These declines are the result of ongoing market adjustments that are aligning property values with income levels and home inventories. The supply of homes in the market has increased substantially, and additional property value decreases may be required to clear the overhang of excess inventory in the U.S. market.
 
The Group’s business could be adversely affected if the Group cannot maintain access to stable funding sources.
 
The Group’s business requires continuous access to various funding sources. While the Group is able to fund its operations through deposits as well as through advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of New York and other alternative sources, the Group’s business is significantly dependent upon other wholesale funding sources, such as repurchase agreements and brokered deposits. While most of the Group’s repurchase agreements have been structured with initial terms to maturity of between three and ten years, the counterparties have the right to exercise put options before the contractual maturities.
 
Brokered deposits are typically sold through an intermediary to small retail investors. The Group’s ability to continue to attract brokered deposits is subject to variability based upon a number of factors, including volume and volatility in the global securities markets, the Group’s credit rating and the relative interest rates that the Group is prepared to pay for these liabilities. Brokered deposits are generally considered a less stable source of funding than core deposits obtained through retail bank branches. Investors in brokered deposits are generally more sensitive to interest rates and will generally move funds from one depository institution to another based on small differences in interest rates offered on deposits.
 
Although the Group expects to have continued access to credit from the foregoing sources of funds, there can be no assurance that such financing sources will continue to be available or will be available on favorable terms. In a period of financial disruption, or if negative developments occur with respect to the Group, the availability and cost of funding sources could be adversely affected. In that event, the Group’s cost of funds may increase, thereby reducing the net interest income, or the Group may need to dispose of a portion of the investment portfolio, which, depending upon market conditions, could result in realizing a loss or experiencing other adverse accounting


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consequences upon the dispositions. The Group’s efforts to monitor and manage liquidity risk may not be successful to deal with dramatic or unanticipated changes in the global securities markets or other reductions in liquidity driven by the Group or market related events. In the event that such sources of funds are reduced or eliminated and the Group is not able to replace them on a cost-effective basis, the Group may be forced to curtail or cease its loan origination business and treasury activities, which would have a material adverse effect on operations and financial condition.
 
The Group’s decisions regarding credit risk and the allowance for loan and lease losses may materially and adversely affect the Group’s business and results of operations.
 
Making loans is an essential element of the Group’s business and there is a risk that the loans will not be repaid. This default risk is affected by a number of factors, including:
 
•  the duration of the loan;
 
•  credit risks of a particular borrower;
 
•  changes in economic or industry conditions; and
 
•  in the case of a collateralized loan, risks resulting from uncertainties about the future value of the collateral.
 
The Group strives to maintain an appropriate allowance for loan and lease losses to provide for probable losses inherent in the loan portfolio. The Group periodically determines the amount of the allowance based on consideration of several factors such as default frequency, internal risk ratings, expected future cash collections, loss recovery rates and general economic factors, among others, as are the size and diversity of individual credits. The Group’s methodology for measuring the adequacy of the allowance relies on several key elements which include a specific allowance for identified problem loans, a general systematic allowance, and an unallocated allowance.
 
Although the Group believes that its allowance for loan and lease losses is currently sufficient given the constant monitoring of the risk inherent in the loan portfolio, there is no precise method of predicting loan losses and therefore the Group always faces the risk that charge-offs in future periods will exceed the allowance for loan and lease losses and that additional increases in the allowance for loan and lease losses will be required. In addition, the FDIC as well as the Office of the Commissioner of Financial Institutions of Puerto Rico may require the Group to establish additional reserves. Additions to the allowance for loan and lease losses would result in a decrease of net earnings and capital and could hinder the Group’s ability to pay dividends.
 
The Group is subject to default and other risks in connection with mortgage loan originations.
 
From the time that the Group funds the mortgage loans originated to the time that they are sold, the Group is generally at risk for any mortgage loan defaults. Once the Group sells the mortgage loans, the risk of loss from mortgage loan defaults and foreclosures passes to the purchaser or insurer of the mortgage loans. However, in the ordinary course of business, the Group makes representations and warranties to the purchasers and insurers of mortgage loans relating to the validity of such loans. If there is a breach of any of these representations or warranties, the Group may be required to repurchase the mortgage loan and bear any subsequent loss on the mortgage loan. In addition, the Group incurs higher liquidity risk with respect to the non-conforming mortgage loans originated by the Group, because of the lack of a favorable secondary market in which to sell them.
 
Competition with other financial institutions could adversely affect the Group’s profitability.
 
The Group faces substantial competition in originating loans and in attracting deposits and assets to manage. The competition in originating loans and attracting assets comes principally from other U.S., Puerto Rico and foreign banks, investment advisors, broker/dealers, mortgage banking companies, consumer finance companies, credit unions, insurance companies, and other institutional lenders and purchasers of loans. The Group will encounter greater competition as it expands its operations. Increased competition may require the Group to increase the rates paid on deposits or lower the rates charged on loans which could adversely affect the Group’s profitability.


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The Group operates in a highly regulated environment and may be adversely affected by changes in federal and local laws and regulations.
 
The Group’s operations are subject to extensive regulation by federal, state and local governmental authorities and are subject to various laws and judicial and administrative decisions imposing requirements and restrictions on part or all of the Group’s operations. Because the Group’s business is highly regulated, the laws, rules and regulations applicable to the Group are subject to regular modification and change. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act will have a broad impact on the wealth managements industry, including significant regulatory and compliance changes, such as: (1) enhanced resolution authority of troubled and failing banks and their holding companies; (2) enhanced lending limits strengthening the existing limits on a depository institution’s credit exposure to one borrower; (3) increased capital and liquidity requirements; (4) increased regulatory examination fees; (5) changes to assessments to be paid to the FDIC for federal deposit insurance; (6) prohibiting bank holding companies, such as the Group, from including in regulatory Tier 1 capital future issuances of trust preferred securities or other hybrid debt and equity securities; and (7) numerous other provisions designed to improve supervision and oversight of, and strengthening safety and soundness for, the wealth managements sector. Additionally, the Dodd-Frank Act establishes a new framework for systemic risk oversight within the financial system to be distributed among new and existing federal regulatory agencies, including the Financial Stability Oversight Council, the Federal Reserve Board, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the FDIC. It also creates a new consumer financial services regulator, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, which will assume most of the consumer financial services regulatory responsibilities currently exercised by federal banking regulators and other agencies. Further, the Dodd-Frank Act addresses many corporate governance and executive compensation matters that will affect most U.S. publicly traded companies, including the Group. Many of the requirements called for in the Dodd-Frank Act will be implemented over time and most will be subject to implementing regulations within 18 months after its enactment.
 
Given the uncertainty associated with the manner in which the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act will be implemented by the various regulatory agencies and through regulations, the full extent of the impact such requirements will have on the Group’s operations is unclear. The changes resulting from the Dodd-Frank Act may impact the profitability of the Group’s business activities, require changes to certain of the Group’s business practices, impose upon the Group more stringent capital, liquidity and leverage ratio requirements or otherwise adversely affect the Group’s business. In particular, the potential impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on the Group’s operations and activities, both currently and prospectively, include, among others:
 
•  a reduction in the Group’s ability to generate or originate revenue-producing assets as a result of compliance with heightened capital standards;
 
•  increased cost of operations due to greater regulatory oversight, supervision and examination of banks and bank holding companies, and higher deposit insurance premiums;
 
•  the limitation on the Group’s ability to raise capital through the use of trust preferred securities as these securities may no longer be included as Tier I capital going forward; and
 
•  the limitation on the Group’s ability to expand consumer product and service offerings due to anticipated stricter consumer protection laws and regulations.
 
Further, the Group may be required to invest significant management attention and resources to evaluate and make necessary changes in order to comply with new statutory and regulatory requirements. Failure to comply with the new requirements may negatively impact the Group’s results of operations and financial condition. While the Group cannot predict what effect any presently contemplated or future changes in the laws or regulations or their interpretations would have on the Group, these changes could be materially adverse to the Group’s investors.
 
Legislative and other measures that may be taken by Puerto Rico governmental authorities could materially increase the Group’s tax burden or otherwise adversely affect the Group’s financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
 
The Group operates an international banking entity pursuant to the International Banking Center Regulatory Act of Puerto Rico that provides the Group with significant tax advantages. The international banking entity has the


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benefits of exemptions from Puerto Rico income taxes on interest earned on, or gain realized from the sale of, non-Puerto Rico assets, including U.S. government obligations and certain mortgage backed securities. This exemption has allowed the Group to have effective tax rates significantly below the maximum statutory tax rates. In the past, the legislature of Puerto Rico has considered proposals to curb the tax benefits afforded to international banking entities. In the event legislation passed in Puerto Rico to eliminate or modify the tax exemption enjoyed by international banking entities, the consequences could have a materially adverse impact on the Group, including increasing the tax burden or otherwise adversely affecting the Group’s financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
 
Competition in attracting talented people could adversely affect the Group’s operations.
 
The Group depends on its ability to attract and retain key personnel and the Group relies heavily on its management team. The inability to recruit and retain key personnel or the unexpected loss of key managers may adversely affect the operations. The Group’s success to date has been influenced strongly by the ability to attract and retain senior management experienced in banking and wealth management. Retention of senior managers and appropriate succession planning will continue to be critical to the successful implementation of the Group’s strategies.
 
The Group may fail to realize the anticipated benefits of the FDIC-assisted acquisition.
 
The success of the FDIC-assisted acquisition will depend on, among other things, the Group’s ability to realize anticipated cost savings in a manner that permits growth opportunities and does not materially disrupt the Group’s existing customer relationships or result in decreased revenues resulting from any loss of customers. If the Group is not able to successfully achieve these objectives, the anticipated benefits of the acquisition may not be realized fully or at all or may take longer to realize than expected. Additionally, the Group made fair value estimates of certain assets and liabilities in recording the acquisition. Actual values of these assets and liabilities could differ from the Group’s estimates, which could result in not achieving the anticipated benefits of the acquisition.
 
The Group cannot assure that the FDIC-assisted acquisition will have positive results, including results relating to: correctly assessing the asset quality of the assets acquired; management attention and resources; the amount of longer-term cost savings; being able to profitably deploy funds acquired in the transaction; or the overall performance of the combined business. The Group’s future growth and profitability depend, in part, on the ability to successfully manage the combined operations.
 
Given the continued economic recession in Puerto Rico, notwithstanding the shared-loss agreements with the FDIC with respect to certain Eurobank assets that the Group acquired, the Group may continue to experience increased credit costs or need to take additional markdowns and make additional provisions to the allowance for loan and lease losses on the assets and loans acquired that could adversely affect the Group’s financial condition and results of operations in the future. There is no assurance that other unanticipated costs or losses will not be incurred.
 
To the extent credit deterioration occurs in covered loans after the date of acquisition, the Group would record an allowance for loan and lease losses. Also, the Group would record an increase in the FDIC loss-share indemnification asset for the expected reimbursement from the FDIC under the shared-loss agreements. For the year ended December 31, 2010, there have been deviations between actual and expected cash flows in several pools of loans acquired under the FDIC-assisted acquisition. These deviations are both positive and negative in nature. Even though actual cash flows for the aggregate pools acquired, were more than the expected cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2010 the Group continues to evaluate these deviations to assess whether there have been additional deterioration since the acquisition on specific pools. At December 31, 2010, the Group concluded that certain pools reflect a higher than expected credit deterioration and as such has recorded impairment on the pools impacted. In the event that negative trends continue, these could lead to additional recognition of a provision for loan and lease losses and increasing the allowance for loan and lease losses. Inversely, if in the future there are positive trends, there could be the need to adjust the accretable discount which will increase the interest income prospectively on the pools prospectively.


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Loans that the Group acquired in the FDIC-assisted acquisition may not be covered by the shared-loss agreements if the FDIC determines that the Group has not adequately performed under these agreements or if the shared-loss agreements have ended.
 
Although the FDIC has agreed to reimburse the Group for 80% of qualifying losses on covered loans, the Group is not protected for all losses resulting from charge-offs with respect to such loans. Also, the FDIC has the right to refuse or delay payment for loan and lease losses if the shared-loss agreements are not performed by the Group in accordance with their terms. Additionally, the shared-loss agreements have limited terms. Therefore, any charge-offs that the Group experiences after the terms of the shared-loss agreements have ended would not be recoverable from the FDIC.
 
Certain provisions of the shared-loss agreements entered into with the FDIC may have anti-takeover effects and could limit the Group’s ability to engage in certain strategic transactions that the Group’s Board of Directors believes would be in the best interests of shareholders.
 
The FDIC’s agreement to bear 80% of qualifying losses on single family residential loans for ten years and commercial loans for five years is a significant asset of the Group and a feature of the FDIC-assisted acquisition without which the Group would not have entered into the transaction. The Group’s agreement with the FDIC requires that the Group receive prior FDIC consent, which may be withheld by the FDIC in its sole discretion, prior to the Group or the Group’s shareholders engaging in certain transactions. If any such transaction is completed without prior FDIC consent, the FDIC would have the right to discontinue the loss sharing arrangement.
 
Among other things, prior FDIC consent is required for (a) a merger or consolidation of the Group with or into another company if the Group’s shareholders will own less than 2/3 of the combined company and (b) a sale of shares by one or more of the Group’s shareholders that will effect a change in control of Oriental Bank, as determined by the FDIC with reference to the standards set forth in the Change in Bank Control Act (generally, the acquisition of between 10% and 25% the Group’s voting securities where the presumption of control is not rebutted, or the acquisition of more than 25% the Group’s voting securities). Such a sale by shareholders may occur beyond the Group’s control. If the Group or any shareholder desired to enter into any such transaction, there can be no assurances that the FDIC would grant its consent in a timely manner, without conditions, or at all. If one of these transactions were to occur without prior FDIC consent and the FDIC withdrew its loss share protection, there could be a material adverse impact on the Group.
 
The FDIC-assisted acquisition increases the Group’s commercial real estate and construction loan portfolio, which have a greater credit risk than residential mortgage loans.
 
With the acquisition of most of the former Eurobank’s loan portfolios, the commercial real estate loan and construction loan portfolios represent a larger portion of the Group’s total loan portfolio than prior to such transaction. This type of lending is generally considered to have more complex credit risks than traditional single-family residential or consumer lending because the principal is concentrated in a limited number of loans with repayment dependent on the successful operation or completion of the related real estate or construction project. Consequently, these loans are more sensitive to the current adverse conditions in the real estate market and the general economy. These loans are generally less predictable, more difficult to evaluate and monitor, and their collateral may be more difficult to dispose of in a market decline. Although the negative economic aspects of these risks are substantially reduced as a result of the FDIC shared-loss agreements, changes in national and local economic conditions could lead to higher loan charge-offs in connection with the FDIC-assisted acquisition, all of which would not be supported by the shared-loss agreements with the FDIC.
 
Loans that the Group acquired in the FDIC-assisted acquisition may be subject to impairment.
 
Although the loan portfolios acquired by the Group were initially accounted for at fair value, there is no assurance that such loans will not become impaired, which may result in additional provision for loan and lease losses related to these portfolios. The fluctuations in economic conditions, including those related to the Puerto Rico residential, commercial real estate and construction markets, may increase the level of provision for credit losses that the Group makes to its loan portfolio, portfolios acquired in the FDIC-assisted acquisition, and consequently, reduce its net


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income. These fluctuations are not predictable, cannot be controlled, and may have a material adverse impact on the Group’s operations and financial condition even if other favorable events occur.
 
The Group’s decisions regarding the fair value of assets acquired could be inaccurate and its estimated FDIC shared-loss indemnification asset may be inadequate, which could materially and adversely affect the Group’s business, financial condition, results of operations, and future prospects.
 
The Group makes various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of the acquired loan portfolios, including the creditworthiness of borrowers and the value of the real estate and other assets serving as collateral for the repayment of secured loans. In the FDIC-assisted acquisition, the Group recorded a shared-loss indemnification asset that it considers adequate to absorb future losses which may occur in the acquired loan portfolios. In determining the size of the shared-loss indemnification asset, the Group analyzed the loan portfolios based on historical loss experience, volume and classification of loans, volume and trends in delinquencies, and nonaccruals, local economic conditions, and other pertinent information. If the Group’s assumptions are incorrect, the current shared-loss indemnification asset may be insufficient to cover future loan losses, and increased loss reserves may be needed to respond to different economic conditions or adverse developments in the acquired loan portfolios. However, in the event expected losses from the acquired loan portfolios were to increase more than originally expected, the related increase in loss reserves would be largely offset by higher than expected indemnity payments from the FDIC. Any increase in future loan losses could have a negative effect on our operating results.
 
The Group’s common stock may be affected by stock price volatility.
 
The trading price of the Group’s common stock could be subject to significant fluctuations due to a change in sentiment in the market regarding the operations, business prospects or industry outlook. Risk factors may include the following:
 
•  operating results that may be worse than the expectations of management, securities analysts and investors;
 
•  developments in the business or in the financial sector in general;
 
•  regulatory changes affecting the industry in general or the business and operations;
 
•  the operating and securities price performance of peer financial institutions;
 
•  announcements of strategic developments, acquisitions and other material events by the Group or its competitors;
 
•  changes in the credit, mortgage and real estate markets, including the markets for mortgage-related securities; and
 
•  changes in global financial markets and global economies and general market conditions.
 
Dividends on the Group’s common stock are payable if and when declared by the Board of Directors.
 
Holders of the Group’s common stock are only entitled to receive such dividends as the board of directors may declare out of funds legally available for such payments. Although the Group has historically declared cash dividends on its common stock, the Group is not required to do so. The Group expects to continue to pay dividends but its ability to pay future dividends at current levels will necessarily depend upon its earnings, financial condition, and market conditions.
 
Changes in accounting standards issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) or other standard-setting bodies may adversely affect the Group’s financial statements.
 
The Group’s financial statements are subject to the application of accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”), which are periodically revised and/or expanded. Accordingly, from time to time the Group is required to adopt new or revised accounting standards issued by FASB. Market conditions have prompted accounting standard setters to promulgate new guidance which further interprets or seeks to revise accounting pronouncements related to financial instruments, structures or transactions as well as to issue new standards expanding disclosures. The impact of accounting developments that have been issued but not yet implemented is disclosed in the Group’s annual reports on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q. An assessment of


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proposed standards is not provided as such proposals are subject to change through the exposure process and, therefore, the effects on the Group’s financial statements cannot be meaningfully assessed. It is possible that future accounting standards that the Group is required to adopt could change the current accounting treatment that it applies to the consolidated financial statements and that such changes could have a material effect on the Group’s financial condition and results of operations.
 
ITEM 1B.   UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
None.
 
ITEM 2.   PROPERTIES
 
The Group leases its main offices located at 997 San Roberto Street, Oriental Center, Professional Offices Park, San Juan, Puerto Rico. The executive office, treasury, trust division, brokerage, investment banking, commercial banking, insurance services, and back-office support departments are maintained at such location.
 
The Bank owns seven branch premises and leases twenty three branch commercial offices throughout Puerto Rico. The Bank’s management believes that each of its facilities is well maintained and suitable for its purpose and can readily obtain appropriate additional space as may be required at competitive rates by extending expiring leases or finding alternative space.
 
At December 31, 2010, the aggregate future rental commitments under the terms of the leases, exclusive of taxes, insurance and maintenance expenses payable by the Group was $40.9 million.
 
The Group’s investment in premises and equipment, exclusive of leasehold improvements at December 31, 2010, was $37.8 million.
 
ITEM 3.   LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
The Group and its subsidiaries are defendants in a number of legal proceedings incidental to their business. The Group is vigorously contesting such claims. Based upon a review by legal counsel and the development of these matters to date, management is of the opinion that the ultimate aggregate liability, if any, resulting from these claims will not have a material adverse effect on the Group’s financial condition or results of operations.
 
PART II
 
ITEM 5.   MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
The Group’s common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “OFG”. Information concerning the range of high and low sales prices for the Group’s common stock for each quarter in the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, as well as cash dividends declared for such periods are contained in Table 7 (“Capital, Dividends and Stock Data”) and under the “Stockholders’ Equity” caption in the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”).
 
Information concerning legal or regulatory restrictions on the payment of dividends by the Group and the Bank is contained under the caption “Dividend Restrictions” in Item 1 of this report.
 
As of December 31, 2010, the Group had approximately 4,400 holders of record of its common stock, including all directors and officers of the Group, and beneficial owners whose shares are held in “street” name by securities broker-dealers or other nominees.
 
The Group’s Amended and Restated 2007 Omnibus Performance Incentive Plan (the “Omnibus Plan”) provides for equity-based compensation incentives through the grant of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, restricted units, and dividend equivalents, as well as equity-based performance awards. The purpose of the Omnibus Plan is to provide flexibility to the Group to attract, retain and motivate directors, officers, and key employees through the grant of awards based on performance and to adjust its compensation practices to the best compensation


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practice and corporate governance trends as they develop from time to time. The Omnibus Plan is further intended to motivate high levels of individual performance coupled with increased shareholder returns. Therefore, awards under the Omnibus Plan (each, an “Award”) are intended to be based upon the recipient’s individual performance, level of responsibility and potential to make significant contributions to the Group. Generally, the Omnibus Plan will terminate as of (a) the date when no more of the Group’s shares of common stock are available for issuance under the Omnibus Plan, or, if earlier, (b) the date the Omnibus Plan is terminated by the Group’s Board of Directors. The Omnibus Plan replaced and superseded the Group’s Stock Option Plans. All outstanding stock options under the Group’s Stock Option Plans continue in full force and effect, subject to their original terms.
 
The following table shows certain information pertaining to the awards under Omnibus Plan and the Stock Option Plans as of December 31, 2010:
 
                         
    (a)   (b)   (c)
            Number of Securities
            Remaining Available for
    Number of Securities to
  Weighted-Average
  Future Issuance Under
    Be Issued Upon Exercise of
  Exercise Price of
  Equity Compensation Plans
    Outstanding Options,
  Outstanding Options,
  (excluding those reflected in
    warrants and
  warrants and
  column
Plan Category
  rights   rights   (a))
 
Equity compensation plans approved by shareholders:
                       
Omnibus Plan
    575,651 (1)   $ 12.20 (2)     365,156 (3)
Other non-active stock option plans
    433,863     $ 17.58 (2)      
                         
      1,009,514     $ 15.25       365,156  
                         
 
 
(1) Includes 332,126 stock options and 243,525 restricted stock units.
 
(2) Exercise price related to stock options.
 
(3) On April 30, 2010 an additional 420,807 shares of common stock were reserved for issuance under the Omnibus Plan.
 
The Group recorded approximately $1.194 million, $742,000 and $559,000 related to stock-based compensation expense during the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively.
 
Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers
 
In February 2011, the Group announced that its Board of Directors had approved a new stock repurchase program pursuant to which the Group is authorized to purchase in the open market up to $30 million of its outstanding shares of common stock. Any shares of common stock repurchased are to be held by the Group as treasury shares. The new program replaced the prior $15.0 million program, that had unused repurchase authority of $11.3 million as of December 31, 2010, which will no longer be available. There were no repurchases under the previous program in 2009 or 2010.
 
Stock Performance Graph
 
The graph below compares the Group’s cumulative total stockholder return during the measurement period with the cumulative total return, assuming reinvestment of dividends, of the Russel 2000 Index and the SNL Bank Index.
 
The cumulative total stockholder return was obtained by dividing (i) the cumulative amount of dividends per share, assuming dividend reinvestment since the measurement point, December 31, 2005, plus (ii) the change in the per share price since the measurement date, by the share price at the measurement date.


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Comparison of 5 Year Cumulative Total Return
Assumes Initial Investment of $100
 
Total Return Performance
 
(PERFORMANCE GRAPH)
                                                 
    Period Ending
  Index   12/31/05   12/31/06   12/31/07   12/31/08   12/31/09   12/31/10
Oriental Financial Group Inc. 
    100.00       109.42       118.69       56.07       102.05       119.56  
                                                 
Russell 2000
    100.00       118.37       116.51       77.15       98.11       124.46  
                                                 
SNL Bank
    100.00       116.98       90.90       51.87       51.33       57.52  
                                                 


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ITEM 6.   SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
The following selected financial data should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under Item 7 and “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” under Item 8 of this report.
 
ORIENTAL FINANCIAL GROUP INC.
 
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007 AND 2006
 
                                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008     2007     2006  
    (Dollars in thousands)  
 
EARNINGS DATA:
                                       
Interest income
  $ 303,801     $ 319,480     $ 339,039     $ 289,364     $ 232,311  
Interest expense
    168,601       188,468       227,728       215,634       188,185  
                                         
Net interest income
    135,200       131,012       111,311       73,730       44,126  
Provision for non-covered loan and lease losses
    15,914       15,650       8,860       6,550       4,388  
Provision for covered loan and lease losses, net
    6,282                          
                                         
Net interest income after provision for loan and lease losses
    113,004       115,362       102,451       67,180       39,738  
Non-interest income (loss)
    5,130       (2,067 )     (12,242 )     42,502       17,238  
Non-interest expenses
    112,598       83,378       72,742       66,859       63,713  
                                         
Income before taxes
    5,536       29,917       17,467       42,823       (6,737 )
Income tax expense (benefit)
    (4,298 )     6,972       (9,323 )     1,558       (1,631 )
                                         
Net income (loss)
    9,834       22,945       26,790       41,265       (5,106 )
Less: Dividends on preferred stock
    (5,334 )     (4,802 )     (4,802 )     (4,802 )     (4,802 )
Less: Deemed dividend on preferred stock beneficial conversion feature
    (22,711 )                        
                                         
Income available (loss) to common shareholders
  $ (18,211 )   $ 18,143     $ 21,988     $ 36,463     $ (9,908 )
                                         
PER SHARE DATA:
                                       
Basic
  $ (0.50 )   $ 0.75     $ 0.91     $ 1.50     $ (0.40 )
                                         
Diluted
  $ (0.50 )   $ 0.75     $ 0.90     $ 1.50     $ (0.40 )
                                         
Average common shares outstanding and equivalents
    36,810       24,306       24,327       24,367       24,663  
                                         
Book value per common share
  $ 14.33     $ 10.82     $ 7.96     $ 12.08     $ 10.98  
                                         
Market price at end of period
  $ 12.49     $ 10.80     $ 6.05     $ 13.41     $ 12.95  
                                         
Cash dividends declared per common share
  $ 0.17     $ 0.16     $ 0.56     $ 0.56     $ 0.56  
                                         
Cash dividends declared on common shares
  $ 6,820     $ 3,888     $ 13,608     $ 13,611     $ 13,753  
                                         
PERFORMANCE RATIOS:
                                       
Return on average assets (ROA)
    0.14 %     0.35 %     0.43 %     0.76 %     −0.11 %
                                         
Return on average common equity (ROE)
    −3.63 %     7.16 %     9.51 %     13.52 %     −3.59 %
                                         
Equity-to-assets ratio
    10.01 %     5.04 %     4.21 %     5.99 %     7.69 %
                                         
Efficiency ratio
    64.53 %     51.74 %     52.65 %     65.93 %     84.69 %
                                         
Expense ratio
    1.14 %     0.87 %     0.77 %     0.77 %     0.73 %
                                         
Interest rate spread
    2.17 %     2.00 %     1.62 %     1.27 %     0.70 %
                                         
Interest rate margin
    2.11 %     2.14 %     1.86 %     1.44 %     0.98 %
                                         


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    December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008     2007     2006  
    (In thousands, except per share data)  
 
PERIOD END BALANCES AND CAPITAL RATIOS:
                                       
Investments and loans
                                       
Investments securities
  $ 4,413,957     $ 4,974,269     $ 3,945,626     $ 4,585,610     $ 2,992,236  
Non-covered loans
    1,151,838       1,140,069       1,219,112       1,179,566       1,212,370  
Covered loans
    620,732                          
Securities and loans sold but not yet delivered
                834,976             6,430  
                                         
    $ 6,186,527     $ 6,114,338     $ 5,999,714     $ 5,765,176     $ 4,211,036  
Deposits and borrowings
                                       
Deposits
  $ 2,588,887     $ 1,745,501     $ 1,785,300     $ 1,246,420     $ 1,232,988  
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase
    3,456,781       3,557,308       3,761,121       3,861,411       2,535,923  
Other borrowings
    466,140       472,888       373,718       395,441       247,140  
Securities purchased but not yet received
          413,359       398       111,431        
                                         
    $ 6,511,808     $ 6,189,056     $ 5,920,537     $ 5,614,703     $ 4,016,051  
Stockholders’ equity
                                       
Preferred equity
    68,000       68,000       68,000       68,000       68,000  
Common equity
    664,331       262,166       193,317       291,461       268,426  
                                         
    $ 732,331     $ 330,166     $ 261,317     $ 359,461     $ 336,426  
                                         
Capital ratios
                                       
Leverage capital
    9.56 %     6.52 %     6.38 %     6.69 %     8.42 %
                                         
Tier 1 risk-based capital
    30.98 %     18.79 %     17.11 %     18.59 %     21.57 %
                                         
Total risk-based capital
    32.26 %     19.84 %     17.73 %     19.06 %     22.04 %
                                         
Other ratios
                                       
Tangible common equity to total assets
    9.02 %     3.97 %     3.08 %     4.82 %     6.09 %
                                         
Tangible common equity to total risk weighted assets
    29.23 %     11.79 %     8.40 %     13.48 %     12.49 %
                                         
Total equity to total assets
    10.01 %     5.04 %     4.21 %     5.99 %     7.70 %
                                         
Total equity to risk weighted assets
    32.47 %     14.96 %     11.47 %     16.74 %     15.78 %
                                         
Financial assets managed
                                       
Trust assets managed
  $ 2,175,270     $ 1,818,498     $ 1,706,286     $ 1,962,226     $ 1,848,596  
                                         
Broker-dealer assets gathered
  $ 1,695,635     $ 1,269,284     $ 1,195,739     $ 1,281,168     $ 1,143,668  
                                         


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The ratios shown below demonstrate the Group’s ability to generate sufficient earnings to pay the fixed charges or expenses of its debt and preferred stock dividends. The Group’s consolidated ratios of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends were computed by dividing earnings by combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends, as specified below, using two different assumptions, one excluding interest on deposits and the second including interest on deposits:
 
                                         
Consolidated Ratios of Earnings to Combined
  Year Ended December 31,
Fixed Charges and Preferred Stock Dividends:
  2010   2009   2008   2007   2006
 
Excluding Interest on Deposits
    (A )     1.18 x     1.07 x     1.22 x     (A )
Including Interest on Deposits
    (A )     1.13 x     1.05 x     1.17 x     (A )
 
 
(A) In 2010 and 2006, earnings were not sufficient to cover preferred dividends, and the ratio was less than 1:1. The Group would have had to generate additional earnings of $15.0 million and $10.0 million to achieve a ratio of 1:1 in 2010 and 2006, respectively.
 
For purposes of computing these consolidated ratios, earnings represent income before income taxes plus fixed charges and amortization of capitalized interest, less interest capitalized. Fixed charges consist of interest expensed and capitalized, amortization of debt issuance costs, and the Group’s estimate of the interest component of rental expense. The term “preferred stock dividends” is the amount of pre-tax earnings that is required to pay dividends on the Group’s outstanding preferred stock. As of the dates presented above, the Group had noncumulative perpetual preferred stock issued and outstanding amounting to $68.0 million, as follows: (1) Series A amounting to $33.5 million or 1,340,000 shares at a $25 liquidation value; and (2) Series B amounting to $34.5 million or 1,380,000 shares at a $25 liquidation value.
 
ITEM 7.   MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2010
 
OVERVIEW OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE
 
The following discussion of the Group’s financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with Item 6, “Selected Financial Data,” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes in Item 8. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements. Please see “Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” for discussions of the uncertainties, risks and assumptions associated with these statements.
 
From time to time, the Group uses certain non-GAAP measures of financial performance to supplement the financial statements presented in accordance with GAAP. The Group presents non-GAAP measures when its management believes that the additional information is useful and meaningful to investors. Non-GAAP measures do not have any standardized meaning and are therefore unlikely to be comparable to similar measures presented by other companies. The presentation of non-GAAP measures is not intended to be a substitute for, and should not be considered in isolation from, the financial measures reported in accordance with GAAP.
 
The Group’s management has reported and discussed the results of operations herein both on a GAAP basis and on a pre-tax operating income basis (defined as net interest income, less provision for non-covered loan and lease losses, plus banking and wealth management revenues, less non-interest expenses, and calculated on the accompanying table). The Group’s management believes that, given the nature of the items excluded from the definition of pre-tax operating income, it is useful to state what the results of operations would have been without these so that investors can see the financial trends from the Group’s continuing business.
 
Tangible common equity consists of common equity less goodwill and core deposit intangibles. Management believes that the ratios of tangible common equity to total assets and to risk-weighted assets assist investors in analyzing the Group’s capital position.


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Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009:
 
During the year ended December 31, 2010, the Group continued to perform well despite the turbulent credit market and the recession in Puerto Rico. Highlights of the year included:
 
•  Pre-tax operating income (net interest income after provision for non-covered loan and lease losses, core non-interest income from banking and wealth management revenues, less non-interest expenses) of approximately $46.0 million decreased 26.0% compared to $62.1 million in the previous year. Pre-tax operating income is calculated as follows:
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
 
PRE-TAX OPERATING INCOME
                       
Net interest income
  $ 135,200     $ 131,012     $ 111,311  
Less provision for non-covered loan and lease losses
    (15,914 )     (15,650 )     (8,860 )
Core non-interest income
                       
Wealth management revenues
    17,849       14,473       16,481  
Banking service revenues
    11,772       5,942       5,726  
Mortgage banking activities
    9,554       9,728       3,685  
Investment banking revenues (losses)
    118       (4 )     950  
                         
Total core non-interest income
    39,293       30,139       26,842  
Less non-interest expenses
    (112,598 )     (83,378 )     (72,742 )
                         
Total Pre-tax operating income
  $ 45,981     $ 62,123     $ 56,551  
                         
 
•  With the FDIC-assisted acquisition on April 30, 2010, the Group added total loans with a fair value of $785.9 million. In addition to these loans, the Group acquired $10.1 million in Federal Home Loan Bank stock, foreclosed real estate and other repossessed properties of $17.7 million and recorded an FDIC loss-share indemnification asset of $545.2 million.
 
•  Net credit impairment of $6.3 million, attributable to various pools of loans covered under the shared-loss agreements with the FDIC, was recorded during the quarter ended December 31, 2010.
 
•  Net interest income increased 3.2%, to $135.2 million, due to an improvement in the net interest spread to 2.17% from 2.00%, primarily reflecting the addition of covered loans from the FDIC-assisted acquisition. In addition, the Group paid off a 4.39%, $100.0 million repurchase agreement that matured on August 16, 2010 and redeemed the $595.0 million remaining balance of its 0.88% note to the FDIC, which originated as part of the FDIC-assisted acquisition.
 
•  Core banking and wealth management revenues increased 30.4%, to $39.3 million, primarily reflecting a $5.8 million increase in banking service revenues, to $11.8 million and a $3.4 million increase in wealth management revenues, to $17.9 million.
 
•  Retail deposits, reflecting growth in both Group customers and core deposits assumed on the FDIC-assisted acquisition, grew 44.2% or $621.6 million, to $2.0 billion, enabling the Group to reduce higher cost deposits.
 
•  Non-interest expenses increased 35.0%, to $112.6 million, largely the result of expenses associated with the former Eurobank operations. As of year end 2010, the Group had achieved approximately 30% annualized Eurobank cost savings, as previously planned.
 
•  Results for the year also include gains on sales of agency securities of $15.0 million, and losses in derivative activities of $36.9 million.
 
•  Strategic decision in December 2010 to sell the remaining balance of the BALTA private label collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO). The proceeds from such sale amounted to approximately $63.5 million, which were slightly higher than the $63.2 million fair value at which this instrument was carried in books. This $300,000 difference represents a positive effect on stockholders’ equity of this transaction for the Group. A loss of


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  $22.8 million was recorded in the fourth quarter of 2010 for the difference between the amortized cost and the sales price.
 
•  In early January 2010, the Group sold $374.3 million of non-agency CMOs at a loss of $45.8 million. This loss was accounted for as other-than-temporary impairment in the fourth quarter of 2009 and no additional gain or loss was realized on the sale in January 2010, since these assets were sold at the same value reflected at December 31, 2009.
 
•  After giving effect to these transactions approximately 98% of the Group’s investment securities portfolio consist of fixed-rate mortgage-backed securities or notes, guaranteed or issued by FNMA, FHLMC or GNMA, and U.S. agency senior debt obligations, backed by a U.S. government sponsored entity or the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. This compares to 89% at December 31, 2009.
 
•  Stockholders’ equity increased $402.2 million, or 121.8%, to $732.3 million, at December 31, 2010, compared to a year ago. This increase reflects capital raises of $94.5 million in March 2010 and $189.4 million in April 2010, the net income for the year, and an improvement of approximately $119.7 million in the fair value of the investment securities portfolio.
 
•  On March 19, 2010, the Group completed the public offering of 8,740,000 shares of its common stock. The offering resulted in net proceeds of $94.5 million after deducting offering costs. The Group made a capital contribution of $93.0 million to its banking subsidiary.
 
•  On April 30, 2010, the Group issued 200,000 shares of Series C Preferred Stock, through a private placement. The preferred stock had a liquidation preference of $1,000 per share. The offering resulted in net proceeds of $189.4 million, after deducting offering costs. On May 13, 2010, the Group made a capital contribution of $179.0 million to its banking subsidiary. At a special meeting of shareholders of the Group held on June 30, 2010, the shareholders approved the issuance of 13,320,000 shares of the Group’s common stock upon the conversion of the Series C Preferred Stock, which was converted on July 8, 2010 at a conversion price of $15.015 per share. The difference between the $15.015 per share conversion price and the market price of the common stock on April 30, 2010 ($16.72) was considered a contingent beneficial conversion feature on June 30, 2010, when the conversion was approved by the shareholders. Such feature amounted to $22.7 million at June 30, 2010 and was recorded as a dividend of preferred stock.
 
Income Available (Loss) to Common Shareholders
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, the Group’s loss to common shareholders totaled $18.2 million, compared to income available to common shareholders of $18.1 million a year-ago. Earnings per basic and fully diluted common share were ($0.50) and ($0.50), respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to earnings per basic and fully diluted common share of $0.75, in the year ended December 31, 2009.
 
Return on Average Assets and Common Equity
 
Return on average common equity (ROE) for the year ended December 31, 2010 was (3.63%), down from 7.16% for the year ended December 31, 2009. Return on average assets (ROA) for the year ended December 31, 2010 was 0.14%, down from 0.35% for the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease is mostly due to a 57.1% decrease in net income from $22.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2009 to $9.8 million in 2010.
 
Net Interest Income after Provision for Loan and Lease Losses
 
Net interest income after provision for loan and lease losses decreased 2.0% for the year ended December 31, 2010, totaling $113.0 million, compared with $115.3 million last year. Decrease is mostly due to the provision for covered loan and lease losses amounting to $6.3 million, attributable to credit impairment in various pools of loans covered under the shared-loss agreements with the FDIC. Taking out this provision from the total amount, the growth in net interest income reflects the significant reduction in cost of funds, which has declined more rapidly than the yield on interest-earning assets.


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Non-Interest Expenses
 
Non-interest expenses increased 35.0% to $112.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $83.4 million in the previous year, largely the result of expenses associated with the former Eurobank operations, resulting in an efficiency ratio of 64.53% for the year ended December 31, 2010 (compared to 51.74% for the year ended December 31, 2009).
 
Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
 
Income tax benefit was $4.3 million for 2010, compared to an income tax expense of $7.0 million for 2009.
 
Assets Managed
 
Assets managed by the trust division, the pension plan administration subsidiary, and the broker-dealer subsidiary increased from $3.088 billion as of December 31, 2009 to $3.871 billion as of December 31, 2010. The Group’s trust division offers various types of individual retirement accounts (“IRA”) and manages 401(K) and Keogh retirement plans and custodian and corporate trust accounts, while CPC manages the administration of private retirement plans. At December 31, 2010, total assets managed by the Group’s trust division and CPC amounted to $2.175 billion, compared to $1.819 billion at December 31, 2009. At December 31, 2010, total assets gathered by the broker-dealer from its customer investment accounts increased to $1.696 billion, compared to $1.269 billion at December 31, 2009.
 
Interest Earning Assets
 
The investment portfolio amounted to $4.414 billion at December 31, 2010, an 11.3% decrease compared to $4.974 billion at December 31, 2009, while the loan portfolio increased 55.5% to $1.773 billion at December 31, 2010, compared to $1.140 billion at December 31, 2009. The increase in assets owned is mostly due to assets acquired as part of the FDIC-assisted acquisition on April 30, 2010 with total fair value of $909.9 million at acquisition date.
 
The mortgage loan portfolio totaled $872.5 million at December 31, 2010, a 5.1% decrease from $918.9 million at December 31, 2009. Mortgage loan production for the year ended December 31, 2010, totaled $220.3 million, which represents a decrease of 9.6% from the preceding year. The Group sells most of its conforming mortgages, which represented 89% of 2010 production, into the secondary market, retaining servicing rights.
 
During the quarter ended December 31, 2010, the Group purchased FNMA and FHLMC certificates and categorized these as held-to-maturity. At December 31, 2010 the Group’s investment in held-to-maturity FNMA and FHLMC certificates was $689.9 million.
 
Interest Bearing Liabilities
 
Total deposits amounted to $2.589 billion at December 31, 2010, an increase of 48.3% compared to $1.746 billion at December 31, 2009, reflecting growth in both Group customers and core deposits assumed on the FDIC-assisted acquisition. Core deposits assumed on the FDIC-assisted acquisition had a fair value of $729.6 million at April 30, 2010.
 
The Group paid off a 4.39%, $100.0 million repurchase agreement that matured on August 16, 2010 and redeemed the $595.0 million remaining balance of its 0.88% note to the FDIC, which originated as part of the FDIC-assisted acquisition.
 
Stockholders’ Equity
 
Stockholders’ equity at December 31, 2010, was $732.3 million, compared to $330.2 million at December 31, 2009, an increase of $402.2 million or 121.8%. This increase reflects issuances of common and preferred stock, the net income for the year, and an improvement of approximately $119.7 million in the fair value of investment securities portfolio.


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Tangible common equity to risk-weighted assets and total equity to risk-weighted assets at December 31, 2010 increased to 29.23% and 32.47%, respectively, from 11.79% and 14.96% respectively, at December 31, 2009.
 
The Group maintains capital ratios in excess of regulatory requirements. At December 31, 2010, Tier 1 Leverage Capital Ratio was 9.56% (2.39 times the requirement of 4.00%), Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio was 30.98% (7.75 times the requirement of 4.00%), and Total Risk-Based Capital Ratio was 32.26% (4.04 times the requirement of 8.00%).
 
Wealth Management and Banking Franchise
 
The Group’s niche market approach to the integrated delivery of services to mid and high net worth clients performed well as the Group expanded market share in light of the FDIC-assisted acquisition and the Group’s service proposition and capital strength, as opposed to using rates to attract loans or deposits.
 
Lending
 
Total loan production and purchases of $371.6 million for the year remained strong compared to $323.3 million in the previous year, as the Group’s capital levels and low credit losses enabled it to continue prudent lending.
 
The Group sells most of its conforming mortgages, which represented 89% of 2010 production, into the secondary market, and retains servicing rights. As a result, mortgage banking activities now reflect originations as well as a growing servicing portfolio, a source of recurring revenue.
 
Deposits
 
Retail deposits, reflecting growth in both Group customers and core deposits assumed on the FDIC-assisted acquisition, grew 44.2% or $621.6 million, to $2.0 billion, enabling the Group to reduce higher cost deposits. Higher cost brokered deposits and other wholesale institutional deposits also increased 36.8% and 107.6%, respectively, to $278.0 million and $283.7 million, respectively, in December 31, 2010, from $203.3 million and $136.7 million, respectively, in December 31, 2009.
 
Assets Under Management
 
Total client assets managed increased 25.4%, to $3.871 billion as of December 31, 2010, as a result of the FDIC-assisted acquisition and the opening of new trust, Keogh, 401K and wealth management accounts.
 
Credit Quality on Non-Covered Loans
 
Net credit losses increased $1.1 million, to $7.6 million, representing 0.67% of average non-covered loans outstanding, versus 0.57% in 2009. The allowance for loan and lease losses on non-covered loans increased to $31.4 million (2.66% of total non-covered loans) at December 31, 2010, compared to $23.3 million (2.00% of total non-covered loans) a year ago.
 
Non-performing loans (“NPLs”) increased 17.7% or $18.4 million in the year. The Group’s NPLs generally reflect the recessionary economic environment in Puerto Rico. Nonetheless, the Group does not expect non-performing loans to result in significantly higher losses as most are well-collateralized with adequate loan-to-value ratios. In residential mortgage lending, more than 90% of the Group’s portfolio consists of fixed-rate, fully amortizing, fully documented loans that do not have the level of risk generally associated with subprime loans. In commercial lending, more than 90% of all loans are collateralized by real estate. Covered loans are considered to be performing due to the application of the accretion method under the ASC 310-30, as discussed in Note 2, “FDIC-assisted acquisition.”
 
The Investment Securities Portfolio
 
Results for the year also include gains on sales of agency securities of $15.0 million, and losses in derivative activities of $36.9 million.


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In December 2010, the Group made the strategic decision to sell the remaining balance of the BALTA private label CMO. The proceeds from such sale amounted to $63.2 million. A loss of $22.8 million was recorded in the fourth quarter of 2010 for the difference between the amortized cost and the sales price.
 
In early January 2010, the Group sold $374.3 million of non-agency CMOs at a loss of $45.8 million. This loss was accounted for as other-than-temporary impairment in the fourth quarter of 2009 and no additional gain or loss was realized on the sale in January 2010, since these assets were sold at the same value reflected at December 31, 2009.
 
After giving effect to these transactions approximately 98% of the Group’s investment securities portfolio consist of fixed-rate mortgage-backed securities or notes guaranteed or issued by FNMA, FHLMC or GNMA, and U.S. agency senior debt obligations, backed by a U.S. government sponsored entity or the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. This compares to 89% at December 31, 2009.
 
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008:
 
Highlights of the year ended December 31, 2009 compared to December 31, 2008 included:
 
•  Pre-tax operating income (net interest income after provision for loan losses, core non-interest income from banking and wealth management revenues, less non-interest expenses) of approximately $62.1 million increased 9.9% compared to $56.6 million in the previous year.
 
•  Net interest income increased 17.7%, to $131.0 million, due to an improvement in the net interest margin to 2.14% from 1.86%, primarily reflecting lower cost of funds.
 
•  Core banking and wealth management revenues increased 12.3%, to $30.1 million, primarily reflecting a $6.0 million increase in mortgage banking activities, to $9.7 million.
 
•  Retail deposits, benefiting from expanded market share, grew 29.8% or $323.0 million, to $1.4 billion, enabling the Group to reduce higher cost deposits.
 
•  Higher cost brokered deposits decreased 60.8% or $315.2 million, and other wholesale institutional deposits decreased 25.8% or $47.6 million.
 
•  Non-interest expenses increased 14.6%, to $83.4 million, largely the result of the industry-wide increase in Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) insurance assessments.
 
•  Results for the year also include gains on: (i) sales of agency securities of $78.3 million, (ii) derivative activities of $28.9 million, and (iii) trading activities of $12.6 million.
 
•  In December 2009, the Group made the strategic decision to sell $116.0 million of CDOs at a loss of $73.9 million, including non-credit portion of impairment value previously recorded as unrealized loss in other comprehensive loss.
 
•  For the same strategic reasons, in early January 2010, the Group sold $374.3 million of non-agency CMOs at a loss of $45.8 million. This loss was accounted for as other-than-temporary impairment in the fourth quarter of 2009 and no additional gain or loss was realized on the sale in January 2010, since these assets were sold at the same value reflected at December 31, 2009.
 
•  After giving effect to these transactions approximately 96% of the Group’s investment securities portfolio consist of fixed-rate mortgage-backed securities or notes, guaranteed or issued by FNMA, FHLMC or GNMA, and U.S. agency senior debt obligations, backed by a U.S. government sponsored entity or the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. This compares to 85% at September 30, 2009.
 
•  Stockholders’ equity increased $68.8 million or 26.3%, to $330.2 million, at December 31, 2009, compared to a year ago, due to earnings retention and improved mark to market valuation of the Group’s investment securities portfolio.


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TABLE 1 — YEAR-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF NET INTEREST
INCOME AND CHANGES DUE TO VOLUME/RATE
For the Years Ended December 31, 2010 and 2009
 
                                                 
    Interest     Average rate     Average balance  
    December
    December
    December
    December
    December
    December
 
    2010     2009     2010     2009     2010     2009  
    (Dollars in thousands)  
 
A — TAX EQUIVALENT SPREAD
                                               
Interest-earning assets
  $ 303,801     $ 319,480       4.74 %     5.22 %   $ 6,412,600     $ 6,117,104  
Tax equivalent adjustment
    99,071       105,407       1.54 %     1.72 %            
                                                 
Interest-earning assets — tax equivalent
    402,872       424,887       6.28 %     6.94 %     6,412,600       6,117,104  
Interest-bearing liabilities
    168,601       188,468       2.57 %     3.22 %     6,561,223       5,859,249  
                                                 
Tax equivalent net interest income / spread
    234,271       236,419       3.71 %     3.72 %     (148,623 )     257,855  
                                                 
Tax equivalent interest rate margin
                    3.65 %     3.86 %                
                                                 
B — NORMAL SPREAD
                                               
Interest-earning assets:
                                               
Investments:
                                               
Investment securities
    187,930       244,815       4.03 %     5.11 %     4,661,483       4,792,378  
Trading securities
    6       940       2.11 %     3.69 %     284       25,441  
Money market investments
    397       570       0.42 %     0.47 %     93,943       120,395  
                                                 
      188,333       246,325       3.96 %     4.99 %     4,755,710       4,938,214  
                                                 
Loans not covered under shared-loss agreements with the FDIC:
                                               
Mortgage
    56,406       60,743       6.11 %     6.27 %     923,345       968,400  
Commercial
    12,022       10,437       5.83 %     5.49 %     206,090       189,951  
Leasing
    319             6.22 %     0.00 %     5,129        
Consumer
    2,563       1,975       9.24 %     9.62 %     27,735       20,539  
                                                 
      71,310       73,155       6.14 %     6.21 %     1,162,299       1,178,890  
                                                 
Loans covered under shared-loss agreements with the FDIC:
                                               
Loans secured by residential properties
    10,029             7.66 %           130,863        
Commercial and construction
    23,331             8.36 %           278,925        
Leasing
    9,280             13.11 %           70,770        
Consumer
    1,518             10.82 %           14,033        
                                                 
      44,158             8.93 %           494,591        
                                                 
Total loans
    115,468       73,155       6.97 %     6.21 %     1,656,890       1,178,890  
                                                 
Total interest earning assets
    303,801       319,480       4.74 %     5.22 %     6,412,600       6,117,104  
                                                 
Interest-bearing liabilities:
                                               
Deposits:
                                               
Non-interest bearing deposits
                0.00 %     0.00 %     136,738       46,750  
Now accounts
    14,826       17,205       2.14 %     2.92 %     692,906       588,219  
Savings and money market
    3,055       910       1.67 %     1.43 %     182,973       63,439  
Certificates of deposit
    30,654       36,578       2.40 %     3.49 %     1,276,550       1,047,634  
                                                 
      48,535       54,693       2.12 %     3.13 %     2,289,167       1,746,042  
                                                 
Borrowings:
                                               
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase
    100,609       116,755       2.84 %     3.19 %     3,545,926       3,659,442  
Advances from FHLB and other borrowings
    12,248       12,380       3.77 %     3.76 %     324,847       328,969  
FDIC-guaranteed term notes
    4,084       3,175       3.87 %     3.58 %     105,597       88,713  
Purchase money note issued to the FDIC
    1,887             0.73 %           259,603        
Subordinated capital notes
    1,238       1,465       3.43 %     4.06 %     36,083       36,083  
                                                 
      120,066       133,775       2.81 %     3.25 %     4,272,056       4,113,207  
                                                 
Total interest bearing liabilities
    168,601       188,468       2.57 %     3.22 %     6,561,223       5,859,249  
                                                 
Net interest income/spread
  $ 135,200     $ 131,012       2.17 %     2.00 %                
                                                 
Interest rate margin
                    2.11 %     2.14 %                
                                                 
Excess of average interest-earning assets over
average interest-bearing liabilities
                                  $ (148,623 )   $ 257,855  
                                                 
Average interest-earning assets to average interest-
bearing liabilities ratio
                                    97.73 %     104.40 %
                                                 


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C — CHANGES IN NET INTEREST INCOME DUE TO:
 
                         
    Volume     Rate     Total  
 
Interest Income:
                       
Investments
  $ (9,104 )   $ (48,888 )   $ (57,992 )
Loans
    43,128       (815 )     42,313  
                         
      34,024       (49,703 )     (15,679 )
                         
Interest Expense:
                       
Deposits
    8,844       (15,002 )     (6,158 )
Repurchase agreements
    (3,622 )     (12,524 )     (16,146 )
Other borrowings
    2,366       71       2,437  
                         
      7,588       (27,455 )     (19,867 )
                         
Net Interest Income
  $ 26,436     $ (22,248 )   $ 4,188  
                         


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TABLE 1 A — ANALYSIS OF NET INTEREST INCOME AND CHANGES DUE TO VOLUME/RATE:
For the Years Ended December 31, 2009 and 2008
 
                                                 
    Interest     Average rate     Average balance  
    December 31,     December 31,     December 31,  
    2009     2008     2009     2008     2009     2008  
    (Dollars in thousands)  
 
A — TAX EQUIVALENT SPREAD
                                               
Interest-earning assets
  $ 319,480     $ 339,039       5.22 %     5.68 %   $ 6,117,104     $ 5,973,225  
Tax equivalent adjustment
    105,407       112,077       1.72 %     1.88 %            
                                                 
Interest-earning assets — tax equivalent
    424,887       451,116       6.94 %     7.56 %     6,117,104       5,973,225  
Interest-bearing liabilities
    188,468       227,728       3.22 %     4.06 %     5,859,249       5,602,622  
                                                 
Tax equivalent net interest income / spread
  $ 236,419     $ 223,388       3.72 %     3.50 %   $ 257,855     $ 370,603  
                                                 
Tax equivalent interest rate margin
                    3.86 %     3.74 %                
                                                 
B — NORMAL SPREAD
                                               
Interest-earning assets:
                                               
Investments:
                                               
Investment securities
  $ 244,815     $ 257,947       5.11 %     5.49 %   $ 4,792,378     $ 4,702,428  
Trading securities
    940       20       3.69 %     3.70 %     25,441       540  
Money market investments
    570       1,907       0.47 %     3.35 %     120,395       56,856  
                                                 
      246,325       259,874       4.99 %     5.46 %     4,938,214       4,759,824  
                                                 
Loans:
                                               
Mortgage
    60,743       66,087       6.27 %     6.44 %     968,400       1,026,779  
Commercial
    10,437       10,610       5.49 %     6.57 %     189,951       161,541  
Consumer
    1,975       2,468       9.62 %     9.84 %     20,539       25,081  
                                                 
      73,155       79,165       6.21 %     6.52 %     1,178,890       1,213,401  
                                                 
      319,480       339,039       5.22 %     5.68 %     6,117,104       5,973,225  
                                                 
Interest-bearing liabilities:
                                               
Deposits:
                                               
Non-interest bearing deposits
                            46,750       36,697  
Now accounts
    17,205       4,197       2.92 %     2.44 %     588,219       171,725  
Savings
    910       10,199       1.43 %     3.36 %     63,439       303,298  
Certificates of deposit
    36,578       35,385       3.49 %     3.96 %     1,047,634       894,209  
                                                 
      54,693       49,781       3.13 %     3.54 %     1,746,042       1,405,929  
                                                 
Borrowings:
                                               
Repurchase agreements
    115,653       161,363       3.16 %     4.25 %     3,659,442       3,800,673  
Interest rate risk management
    1,102             0.03 %                  
                                                 
Total repurchase agreements
    116,755       161,363       3.19 %     4.25 %     3,659,442       3,800,673  
FHLB advances
    12,074       13,457       4.18 %     4.20 %     288,830       320,594  
Subordinated capital notes
    1,465       2,304       4.06 %     6.39 %     36,083       36,083  
FDIC-guaranteed term notes
    3,175             3.58 %           88,713        
Other borrowings
    306       823       0.76 %     2.09 %     40,139       39,343  
                                                 
      133,775       177,947       3.25 %     4.24 %     4,113,207       4,196,693  
                                                 
      188,468       227,728       3.22 %     4.06 %     5,859,249       5,602,622  
                                                 
Net interest income/spread
  $ 131,012     $ 111,311       2.00 %     1.62 %                
                                                 
Interest rate margin
                    2.14 %     1.86 %                
                                                 
Excess of interest-earning assets over interest-bearing liabilities
                                  $ 257,855     $ 370,603  
                                                 
Interest-earning assets over interest-bearing liabilities ratio
                                    104.40 %     106.61 %
                                                 


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C.   CHANGES IN NET INTEREST INCOME DUE TO:
 
                         
    Volume     Rate     Total  
 
Interest Income:
                       
Investments
  $ 8,898     $ (22,447 )   $ (13,549 )
Loans
    (2,139 )     (3,871 )     (6,010 )
                         
      6,759       (26,318 )     (19,559 )
                         
Interest Expense:
                       
Deposits
    10,654       (5,742 )     4,912  
Repurchase agreements
    (4,506 )     (40,102 )     (44,608 )
Other borrowings
    2,166       (1,730 )     436  
                         
      8,314       (47,574 )     (39,260 )
                         
Net Interest Income
  $ (1,555 )   $ 21,256     $ 19,701  
                         


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Net Interest Income
 
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009:
 
Net interest income is a function of the difference between rates earned on the Group’s interest-earning assets and rates paid on its interest-bearing liabilities (interest rate spread) and the relative amounts of its interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities (interest rate margin). As further discussed in the Risk Management section of this report, the Group constantly monitors the composition and re-pricing of its assets and liabilities to maintain its net interest income at adequate levels. Table 1 shows the major categories of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, their respective interest income, expenses, yields and costs, and their impact on net interest income due to changes in volume and rates for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009.
 
Net interest income amounted to $135.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, an increase of 3.1% from $131.0 million in the same period of 2009. The increase for the year 2010 reflects a 10.5% decrease in interest expense, due to a negative rate variance of interest-bearing liabilities of $27.5 million, partially offset by a positive volume variance of interest-bearing liabilities of $7.6 million. The decrease of 4.9% in interest income for the year ended December 31, 2010 was primarily the result of a decrease of $49.7 million in rate variance, partially offset by an increase of $34.0 million in volume variance. Interest rate spread increased 17 basis points to 2.17% for the year ended December 31, 2010 from 2.0% for the same period of 2009. This increase reflects a 65 basis point decrease in the average cost of funds to 2.57% for the year ended December 31, 2010 from 3.22% for the same period of 2009, partially offset by a 48 basis point decrease in the average yield of interest earning assets to 4.74% for the year ended December 31, 2010 from 5.22% for the same period of 2009.
 
Interest income decreased 4.9% to $303.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to $319.5 million for the period of 2009, reflecting the decrease in yields. Interest income is generated by investment securities, which accounted for 62.0% of total interest income, and from loans, which accounted for 38.0% of total interest income. Interest income from investments decreased 23.5% to $188.3 million, due to a decrease in yield of 103 basis points from 4.99% to 3.96%. Decline of $36.5 million during the current year in interest income from mortgage-backed securities was primarily due to higher premium amortization, reflecting increases in pre-payment as well as lower average yield on recently purchased securities. Interest income from loans increased 57.8% to $115.5 million, mainly due to the contribution of loans acquired.
 
On April 30, 2010, the Bank acquired certain assets with a book value of $1.690 billion and a fair value of $909.9 million and assumed certain deposits and other liabilities with a book value of $731.9 million and a fair value of $739.0 million in the FDIC-assisted acquisition of Eurobank. Considering covered loans, the loan portfolio yield increased from 6.21% in 2009 to 6.97% in 2010.
 
Interest expense decreased 10.5%, to $168.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, from $188.5 million for the same period of 2009. The decrease is due to a significant reduction in cost of funds, which decreased 65 basis points from 3.22% to 2.57%. Reduction in the cost of funds is mostly due to a reduction in the rate paid on deposits, mainly due to the certificates of deposit assumed in the FDIC-assisted acquisition, which were recorded at fair value at the acquisition date. In addition, the reduction in cost of funds was also affected by the maturity of $100.0 million in securities sold under agreements to repurchase that occurred in August 2010. For the year 2010 the cost of deposits decreased 101 basis points to 2.12%, as compared to the period of 2009. For the year 2010 the cost of borrowings decreased 44 basis points to 2.81% from 3.25% in the same period of 2009. The net interest income also benefitted from a reduction in the interest expense with reductions of $13.7 million in securities sold under agreements to repurchase, and $6.2 million on deposits.
 
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008:
 
Table 1A shows the major categories of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, their respective interest income, expenses, yields and costs, and their impact on net interest income due to changes in volume and rates for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008.
 
Net interest income amounted to $131.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, an increase of 17.7% from $111.3 million in the same period of 2008. The increase for the year 2009 reflects a 17.2% decrease in interest expense, due to a negative rate variance of interest-bearing liabilities of $47.6 million, partially offset by a positive


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volume variance of interest-bearing liabilities of $8.3 million. The decrease of 5.8% in interest income for the year ended December 31, 2009 was primarily the result of a decrease of $26.3 million in rate variance, partially offset by an increase of $6.8 million in volume variance. Interest rate spread increased 38 basis points to 2.0% for the year ended December 31, 2009 from 1.62% for the same period of 2008. This increase reflects a 84 basis point decrease in the average cost of funds to 3.22% for the year ended December 31, 2009 from 4.06% for the same period of 2008, partially offset by a 46 basis point decrease in the average yield of interest earning assets to 5.22% for the year ended December 31, 2009 from 5.68% for the same period of 2008.
 
Interest income decreased 5.8% to $319.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to $339.0 million for the period of 2008, reflecting the decrease in yields. Interest income is generated by investment securities, which accounted for 77.1% of total interest income, and from loans, which accounted for 22.9% of total interest income. Interest income from investments decreased 5.2% to $246.3 million, due to a decrease in yield of 47 basis points from 5.46% to 4.99%. Interest income from loans decreased 7.7% to $73.1 million, mainly due to a 47.2% increase in loans on which the accrual of interest has been discontinued, which grew to $57.1 million from $38.8 million. In addition, yields on loans decreased from 6.52% in 2008 to 6.21% in 2009.
 
Interest expense decreased 17.2%, to $188.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, from $227.7 million for the same period of 2008. The decrease is due to a significant reduction in cost of funds, which has decreased 84 basis points from 4.06% to 3.25%. Reduction in the cost of funds is mostly due to structured repurchase agreements amounting to $1.25 billion, which reset at the put date at a formula which is based on the three-month LIBOR rate less fifteen times the difference between the ten-year swap rate and the two-year swap rate, with a minimum of 0.00% on $1.0 billion and 0.25% on $250 million, and a maximum of 10.6%. These repurchase agreements bear the respective minimum rates of 0.0% and 0.25% to at least their next put dates scheduled for June 2011. For the year 2009 the cost of deposits decreased 41 basis points to 3.13%, as compared to the period of 2008. The decrease reflects lower average rates paid on higher balances, most significantly in savings and certificates of deposit accounts. For the year 2009 the cost of borrowings decreased 99 basis points to 3.25% from the same period of 2008.


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TABLE 2 — NON-INTEREST INCOME(LOSS) SUMMARY
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2010, 2009, AND 2008
 
                                 
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     Variance %     2008  
    (Dollars in thousands)  
 
Wealth management revenues
  $ 17,849     $ 14,473       23.3 %   $ 16,481  
Banking service revenues
    11,772       5,942       98.1 %     5,726  
Investment banking revenues (losses)
    118       (4 )     −100.0 %     950  
Mortgage banking activities
    9,554       9,728       −1.8 %     3,685  
                                 
Total banking and wealth management revenues
    39,293       30,139       30.4 %     26,842  
                                 
Total other-than-temporarily impaired securities
    (39,674 )     (101,472 )     −60.9 %     (58,804 )
Portion of loss on securities recognized in other comprehensive income
    22,508       41,398       −45.6 %      
                                 
Other-than-temporary impairments on securities
    (17,166 )     (60,074 )     −71.4 %     (58,804 )
Accretion of FDIC loss-share indemnification asset
    4,330             100.0 %      
Fair value adjustment on FDIC equity appreciation instrument
    909             100.0 %      
Net gain (loss) on:
                               
Sale of securities
    15,032       4,385       242.8 %     35,070  
Derivatives
    (36,891 )     28,927       −227.5 %     (12,943 )
Early extinguishment of repurchase agreements
          (17,551 )     −100.0 %      
Mortgage tax credits
                0.0 %     (2,480 )
Trading securities
    23       12,564       −99.8 %     (13 )
Foreclosed real estate
    (524 )     (570 )     −8.1 %     (670 )
Other
    124       113       9.7 %     756  
                                 
      (34,163 )     (32,206 )     6.1 %     (39,084 )
                                 
Total non-interest income (loss)
  $ 5,130     $ (2,067 )     −348.2 %   $ (12,242 )
                                 
 
Non-Interest Income
 
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009:
 
Non-interest income is affected by the amount of securities, derivatives and trading transactions, the level of trust assets under management, transactions generated by the gathering of financial assets by the securities broker-dealer subsidiary, the level of investment and mortgage banking activities, and the fees generated from loans, deposit accounts, and insurance activities. As shown in Table 2, the Group recorded non-interest income in the amount of $5.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to a loss of $2.0 million during 2009.
 
Wealth management revenues, which consist of commissions and fees from fiduciary activities, and commissions and fees from securities brokerage and insurance activities, increased 23.3%, to $17.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, from $14.4 million in the same period of 2009. Banking service revenues, which consist primarily of fees generated by deposit accounts, electronic banking services, and customer services, increased 98.1% to $11.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, from $5.9 million in the same period of 2009. These increases are attributable to increases in electronic banking service fees and fees generated from the customers of former Eurobank banking business.


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Income generated from mortgage banking activities decreased 1.8% in the year ended December 31, 2010, from $9.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2009, to $9.6 million in the same period of 2010 mainly the result of a decrease in residential mortgage loan production.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, a loss from securities, derivatives, trading activities and other investment activities was $39.0 million, compared to a loss of $14.2 million in the same period of 2009. The decrease was mostly due to net loss of $36.9 million in derivatives during the year ended December 31, 2010, compared with gains of $28.9 million in the same period in 2009.
 
Net loss on derivative activities of $36.9 million in 2010 mainly reflected realized losses of $42.0 million due to the terminations of forward-settle swaps. These terminations allowed the Group to enter into new swap contracts, while effectively reducing the interest rate of the pay-fixed side of such swaps, from an average cost of 3.53% to an average cost of 1.83%. These swaps will enable the Group to fix, at 1.83%, the cost of $1.25 billion in repurchase agreements funding ($900 million maturing in December 2011 and $350 million maturing in May 2012) that currently have a blended cost of approximately 4.40%. These losses were partially offset, mainly by a gain of approximately $6.0 million in the valuation of interest rate swaps and options outstanding as of December 31, 2010.
 
Keeping with the Group’s investment strategy, during the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, there were certain sales of available-for-sale securities because the Group felt at the time of such sales that gains could be realized while at the same time having good opportunities to invest the proceeds in other investment securities with attractive yields and terms that would allow the Group to continue to protect its net interest margin. Sale of securities available-for-sale, which generated net gains of $15.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, increased 242.8% when compared to $4.4 million for the same period a year ago. Net gains for the year ended December 31, 2010 included gains of $4.7 million in sales of Obligations of U.S. government sponsored agencies and gains of $33.1 million in sales of FNMA, FHLMC, and GNMA mortgage-backed securities. The gains realized during the year in the sales of securities available-for-sale allowed the Group to make the strategic decision to sell the remaining balance of the BALTA private label collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO) in December 2010. The proceeds from such sale amounted to approximately $63.2 million. A loss of $22.8 million was recorded in the fourth quarter for the difference between the security’s amortized cost and the sales price.
 
During 2010, a gain of $23 thousand was recognized in trading securities, compared to a gain of $12.6 million in the previous year.
 
During 2010 and 2009, the Group recorded other-than-temporary impairment losses of $17.2 million and $60.1 million, respectively, for non-agency CMO pools sold during 2010.
 
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008:
 
As shown in Table 2, the Group recorded a loss in non-interest income in the amount of $2.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to a loss of $12.2 million in 2008.
 
Wealth management revenues, which consist of commissions and fees from fiduciary activities, and commissions and fees from securities brokerage and insurance activities, decreased 12.2%, to $14.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2009, from $16.5 million in the same period of 2008. Banking service revenues, which consist primarily of fees generated by deposit accounts, electronic banking services, and customer services, increased 5.1% to $6.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2009, from $5.7 million in the same period of 2008. Income generated from mortgage banking activities increased 164.0% in the year ended December 31, 2009, from $3.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2008, to $9.7 million in the same period of 2009 mainly the result of increased mortgage banking revenues due to the securitization and sale of mortgage loans held-for-sale into the secondary market and increase in residential mortgage loan production.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, a loss from securities, derivatives, trading activities and other investment activities was $32.2 million, compared to a loss of $39.1 million in the same period of 2008. During the year ended December 31, 2009, a gain of $28.9 million was recognized in derivatives, compared to a loss of $12.9 million in the year 2008. Gains for the year ended December 31, 2009, were mainly due to several interest-rate swap contracts that the Group entered to manage its interest rate risk exposure, which were terminated before December 31, 2009. During the third quarter of 2008, the Group charged $4.9 million as a loss in connection with equity indexed option


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agreements. Results for the year ended December 31, 2008 include an interest-rate swap contract that the Group entered into on January 2008 to manage the Group’s interest rate risk exposure with a notional amount of $500.0 million, which was subsequently terminated resulting in a loss to the Group of approximately $7.9 million.
 
Keeping with the Group’s investment strategy, during the year ended December 31, 2009 and 2008, there were certain sales of available-for-sale securities because the Group felt at the time of such sales that gains could be realized while at the same time having good opportunities to invest the proceeds in other investment securities with attractive yields and terms that would allow the Group to continue to protect its net interest margin. Sale of securities available-for-sale, which generated gains of $4.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, decreased 87.5% when compared to $35.1 million for the same period a year ago. Benefitting from the strategic positioning of its investment securities portfolio, the Group made the strategic decision to sell $116.0 million of CDOs at a loss of $73.9 million, including non-credit portion of impairment value previously recorded as unrealized loss in other comprehensive loss. For the same strategic reasons, in early January 2010, the Group sold $374.3 million of non-agency CMOs at a loss of $45.8 million. This loss was accounted for as other-than-temporary impairment in the fourth quarter of 2009 and no additional gain or loss was realized on the sale in January 2010, since these assets were sold at the same value reflected at December 31, 2009. During the year ended December 31, 2009, a gain of $12.6 million was recognized in trading securities, compared to a loss of $13 thousand in the previous year. During 2009 and 2008, the Group recorded other-than-temporary impairment losses of $60.1 million and $58.8 million, respectively.
 
The Group adopted the provisions of FASB ASC 320-10-65-1 as of April 1, 2009. For those debt securities for which the fair value of the security is less than its amortized cost, the Group does not intend to sell such security and it is more likely than not that it will not be required to sell such security prior to the recovery of its amortized cost basis less any current period credit losses. These provisions require that the credit-related portion of other-than-temporary impairment losses be recognized in earnings while the noncredit-related portion is recognized in other comprehensive income, net of related taxes. As a result of the adoption of FASB ASC 320-10-65-1, in the year 2009 a $60.1 million net credit-related impairment loss was recognized in earnings and a $41.4 million noncredit-related impairment loss was recognized in other comprehensive income for a non-agency collateralized mortgage obligation pool not expected to be sold. Also, during the second quarter of 2009, the Group reclassified the noncredit-related portion of an other-than-temporary impairment loss previously recognized in earnings in the third quarter of 2008. This reclassification was reflected as a cumulative effect adjustment of $14.4 million that increased retained earnings and increased accumulated other comprehensive loss. The amortized cost basis of this non-agency collateralized mortgage obligation pool for which other-than-temporary impairment losses was recognized in the third quarter of 2008 was adjusted by the amount of the cumulative effect adjustment.


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TABLE 3 — NON-INTEREST EXPENSES SUMMARY
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2010, 2009 AND 2008
 
                                 
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     Variance %     2008  
    (Dollars in thousands)  
 
Compensation and employee benefits
  $ 41,723     $ 32,020       30.3 %   $ 30,572  
Occupancy and equipment
    18,556       14,763       25.7 %     13,843  
Professional and service fees
    16,491       10,379       58.9 %     9,203  
Insurance
    7,006       7,233       −3.1 %     2,421  
Taxes, other than payroll and income taxes
    5,106       3,004       70.0 %     2,514  
Advertising and business promotion
    4,978       4,208       18.3 %     3,970  
Electronic banking charges
    4,504       2,194       105.3 %     1,726  
Loan servicing and clearing expenses
    3,051       2,390       27.7 %     2,633  
Foreclosure and repossession expenses
    2,830       929       204.6 %     637  
Communication
    2,561       1,567       63.4 %     1,292  
Director and investors relations
    1,463       1,374       6.5 %     1,159  
Other operating expenses
    4,329       3,317       30.5 %     2,772  
                                 
Total non-interest expenses
  $ 112,598     $ 83,378       35.0 %   $ 72,742  
                                 
Relevant ratios and data:
                               
Efficiency ratio
    64.53 %     51.74 %             52.65 %
                                 
Expense ratio
    1.14 %     0.87 %             0.77 %
                                 
Compensation and benefits to non- interest expense
    37.05 %     38.40 %             42.03 %
                                 
Compensation to total assets owned
    0.57 %     0.49 %             0.50 %
                                 
Average number of employees
    725       541               537  
                                 
Average compensation per employee
  $ 57.5     $ 59.2             $ 56.9  
                                 
Assets owned per average employee
  $ 10,087     $ 12,109             $ 11,552  
                                 
 
Non-Interest Expenses
 
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009:
 
Non-interest expenses for the year ended December 31, 2010 increased 35.0% to $112.6 million, compared to $83.4 million for the same period of 2009. The increase in non-interest expense is primarily driven by higher compensation and employees’ benefits, professional services fees, and occupancy and equipment expenses.
 
Compensation and employee benefits increased 30.3% to $41.7 million from $32.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase is mainly driven by the integration of employees of Eurobank since April 30, 2010. This factor represented an increase of approximately $7.2 million in payroll for the year ended December 31, 2010.
 
Occupancy and equipment expense increased 25.7% to $18.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. The increase is mainly driven by the integration of branches of Eurobank since April 30, 2010. This factor represented an increase of approximately $3.4 million in occupancy and equipment for the year ended December 31, 2010.
 
Professional and service fees increased 58.9% for the year ended December 31, 2010, mainly due to servicing expenses during the year for certain commercial and construction loans acquired from the FDIC-assisted acquisition amounting to $5.2 million. This fluctuation is also affected by a one-time professional expense amounting to approximately $1.2 million, as part of the FDIC-assisted acquisition.
 
Increases in taxes, other than payroll and income taxes of 70.0% for the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to same period of 2009, are principally due to increase in municipal license tax, based on business volume and assets, which increased compared to previous year. The increase in overall business volume and asset is also related to the addition of new branches and the assets acquired in the FDIC-assisted acquisition.


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Increase in electronic banking charges of 105.3% for the year ended December 31, 2010 against the same period of 2009, are mainly due to increase in point-of-sale (“POS”) transactions, in addition to Eurobank’s increased transactions as the result of the Group’s commercial POS cash management business.
 
In the year ended December 31, 2010, advertising and business promotion expenses, loan servicing and clearing expenses, communication expenses, director and investor relations expenses, foreclosure and repossession expenses, and other operating expenses increased 18.3%, 27.7%, 63.4%, 6.5%, 204.6% and 68.6%, respectively, compared to the year ended December 31, 2009.
 
The non-interest expense results reflect an efficiency ratio of 64.53% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 51.74% in 2009. The efficiency ratio measures how much of a Group’s revenue is used to pay operating expenses. The Group computes its efficiency ratio by dividing non-interest expenses by the sum of its net interest income and non-interest income, but excluding gains on sale of investments securities, derivatives gains or losses, credit-related other-than-temporary impairment losses, and other income that may be considered volatile in nature. Management believes that the exclusion of those items permit greater comparability. Amounts presented as part of non-interest income that are excluded from the efficiency ratio computation amounted to net losses of $34.2 million and $32.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
 
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008:
 
Non-interest expenses for the year ended December 31, 2009 increased 14.6% to $83.4 million, compared to $72.7 million for the same period of 2008, primarily as a result of higher insurance expense, compensation and employees’ benefits, professional services fees, and occupancy and equipment. During the year ended December 31, 2009, insurance expense increased 198.8% to $7.2 million from $2.4 million, as the result of the industry-wide increase in FDIC insurance assessments. Compensation and employees’ benefits increased 4.6% to $32.0 million from $30.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2008. Professional fees increased 13.3% from $9.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2008 to $10.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. Occupancy and equipment increased 6.6% from $13.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2008 to $14.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. In the year ended December 31, 2009, taxes, other than payroll and income taxes, electronic banking charges, communication, loan servicing expenses, director and investor relations expenses, and other operating expenses increased 19.5%, 27.1%, 21.3%, 14.7%, 18.6% and 13.6%, respectively, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008.
 
The non-interest expense results reflect an efficiency ratio of 51.74% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 52.65% in 2008. The efficiency ratio measures how much of a Group’s revenue is used to pay operating expenses. The Group computes its efficiency ratio by dividing non-interest expenses by the sum of its net interest income and non-interest income, but excluding gains on sale of investments securities, derivatives gains or losses, credit-related other-than-temporary impairment losses, and other income that may be considered volatile in nature. Management believes that the exclusion of those items permit greater comparability. Amounts presented as part of non-interest income that are excluded from the efficiency ratio computation amounted to net losses of $32.2 million and $39.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
 
Provision for Loan and Lease Losses
 
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009:
 
The provision for non-covered loan and lease losses for the year ended December 31, 2010 totaled $15.9 million, a 1.7% increase from the $15.7 million reported for 2009. Based on an analysis of the credit quality and the composition of the Group’s loan portfolio, management determined that the provision for 2010 was adequate in order to maintain the allowance for loan and lease losses at an adequate level.
 
Net credit losses increased $1.1 million, to $7.8 million, representing 0.67% of average non-covered loans outstanding, versus 0.57% in 2009. The allowance for non-covered loan and lease losses increased to $31.4 million (2.65% of total loans) at December 31, 2010, compared to $23.3 million (2.00% of total loans) a year ago.
 
The Group maintains an allowance for loan and lease losses at a level that management considers adequate to provide for probable losses based upon an evaluation of known and inherent risks. The Group’s allowance for loan and lease losses policy provides for a detailed quarterly analysis of probable losses.


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The Group follows a systematic methodology to establish and evaluate the adequacy of the allowance for non-covered loan and lease losses to provide for inherent losses in the loan portfolio. This methodology includes the consideration of factors such as economic conditions, portfolio risk characteristics, prior loss experience, and results of periodic credit reviews of individual loans. The provision for non-covered loan and lease losses charged to current operations is based on such methodology. Loan losses are charged and recoveries are credited to the allowance for loan and lease losses.
 
Larger commercial loans that exhibit potential or observed credit weaknesses are subject to individual review and grading. Where appropriate, allowances are allocated to individual loans based on management’s estimate of the borrower’s ability to repay the loan given the availability of collateral, other sources of cash flow and legal options available to the Group.
 
Included in the review of individual loans are those that are impaired. A loan is considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that the Group will be unable to collect the scheduled payments of principal or interest when due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. Impaired loans are measured based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate, or as a practical expedient, at the observable market price of the loan or the fair value of the collateral, if the loan is collateral dependent. Loans are individually evaluated for impairment, except large groups of small balance homogeneous loans that are collectively evaluated for impairment, and loans that are recorded at fair value or at the lower of cost or market. The portfolios of mortgage and consumer loans are considered homogeneous, and are evaluated collectively for impairment. For the commercial loans portfolio, all loans over $250 thousand and over 90-days past due are evaluated for impairment. At December 31, 2010, the total investment in impaired commercial loans was $25.9 million, compared to $15.6 million at December 31, 2009. Impaired commercial loans are measured based on the fair value of collateral method, since all impaired loans during the period were collateral dependant. The valuation allowance for impaired commercial loans amounted to approximately $823 thousand and $709 thousand at December 31, 2010 and December 31, 2009, respectively. Net credit losses on impaired commercial loans for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009 were $1.9 million and $776 thousand, respectively. At December 31, 2010, the total investment in impaired mortgage loans was $36.1 million (December 31, 2009 — $10.7 million). Impairment on mortgage loans assessed as troubled debt restructuring was measured using the present value of cash flows. The valuation allowance for impaired mortgage loans amounted to approximately $2.4 million and $683 thousand at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
 
The Group, using a rating system, applies an overall allowance percentage to each loan portfolio category based on historical credit losses adjusted for current conditions and trends. This calculation is the starting point for management’s systematic determination of the required level of the allowance for loan and lease losses. Other data considered in this determination includes: the credit grading assigned to commercial loans, delinquency levels, loss trends and other information including underwriting standards and economic trends.
 
Loan loss ratios and credit risk categories are updated quarterly and are applied in the context of GAAP and the Joint Interagency Guidance on the importance of depository institutions having prudent, conservative, but not excessive loan loss allowances that fall within an acceptable range of estimated losses. While management uses available information in estimating probable loan losses, future changes to the allowance may be necessary, based on factors beyond the Group’s control, such as factors affecting general economic conditions.
 
In the current year, the Group has not substantively changed in any material respect of its overall approach in the determination of the allowance for loan and lease losses. There have been no material changes in criteria or estimation techniques as compared to prior periods that impacted the determination of the current period allowance for loan and lease losses.
 
The loans covered by the FDIC shared-loss agreement were recognized at fair value as of April 30, 2010, which included the impact of expected credit losses. As a result of a net credit impairment attributable to various pools of loans covered under the shared-loss agreements with the FDIC, the Group recorded a provision for covered loan and lease losses of $6.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2010. This impairment consists of $49.3 million in gross estimated losses, less a $43.0 million increase in the FDIC shared-loss indemnification asset.
 
Each quarter, actual cash flows on covered loans are reviewed against the cash flows expected to be collected. If it is deemed probable that the Group will be unable to collect all of the cash flows previously expected (e.g., the cash flows expected to be collected at acquisition adjusted for any probable changes in estimate thereafter), the covered


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loans shall be deemed impaired and an allowance for covered loan and lease losses will be recorded. When there is a probable significant increase in cash flows expected to be collected or if the actual cash flows collected are significantly greater than those previously expected, the Group will reduce any allowance for loan and lease losses established after acquisition for the increase in the present value of cash flows expected to be collected, and recalculate the amount of accretable yield for the loan based on the revised cash flow expectations.
 
Please refer to the Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses and Non-Performing Assets section on Table 8 through Table 13 for a more detailed analysis of the allowances for loan and lease losses, net credit losses and credit quality statistics.
 
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008:
 
The provision for loan losses for the year ended December 31, 2009 totaled $15.7 million, a 76.6% increase from the $8.9 million reported for 2008. Based on an analysis of the credit quality and the composition of the Group’s loan portfolio, management determined that the provision for 2009 was adequate in order to maintain the allowance for loan and lease losses at an adequate level.
 
Net credit losses increased $1.9 million, to $6.7 million, representing 0.57% of average loans outstanding, versus 0.39% in 2008. The allowance for loan and lease losses stood at $23.3 million (2.00% of total loans) at December 31, 2009, compared to $14.3 million (1.16% of total loans) a year ago.
 
At December 31, 2009, the total investment in impaired commercial loans was $15.6 million, compared to $4.6 million at December 31, 2008. Impaired commercial loans are measured based on the fair value of collateral method, since all impaired loans during the period were collateral dependant. The valuation allowance for impaired commercial loans amounted to approximately $709 thousand and $1.1 million at December 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, respectively. Net credit losses on impaired commercial loans for the year ended December 31, 2009 were $776 thousand. There were no credit losses on impaired commercial loans for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007. At December 31, 2009, the total investment in impaired mortgage loans was $10.7 million (December 31, 2008 — $3.0 million). Impairment on mortgage loans assessed as troubled debt restructuring was measured using the present value of cash flows. The valuation allowance for impaired mortgage loans amounted to approximately $683 thousand and $45 thousand at December 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
 
Income Taxes
 
The income tax benefit was $4.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to an expense of $7.0 million for 2009, as a result of decreased operating income and investment gains. The effective income tax rate in 2010 was lower than the 40.95% statutory tax rate for the Group, due to the high level of tax-advantaged interest income earned on certain investments and loans, net of the disallowance of related expenses attributable to exempt income. Exempt interest relates principally to interest earned on obligations of the United States and Puerto Rico governments and certain mortgage-backed securities, including securities held by the Group’s international banking entity.
 
FINANCIAL CONDITION
 
Assets Owned
 
At December 31, 2010, the Group’s total assets amounted to $7.3 billion, an increase of 11.6% when compared to $6.6 billion at December 31, 2009, and interest-earning assets reached $6.2 billion, up 1.2%, versus $6.1 billion at December 31, 2009. This increase is mostly due to assets acquired as part of the FDIC-assisted acquisition on April 30, 2010.
 
As detailed in Table 4, investments are the Group’s largest interest-earning assets component. Investments principally consist of money market instruments, U.S. government and agency bonds, mortgage-backed securities and Puerto Rico government and agency bonds. At December 31, 2010, the investment portfolio decreased 11.3% from $5.0 billion to $4.4 billion. This decrease is mostly due to a decrease of $1.0 billion or 99.7% in U.S. Government sponsored-agency bonds, a decrease of $446.0 million or 100.0% in non-agency CMOs, a decrease of $218.4 million or 63.1% in GNMA certificates and a decrease of $108.7 million or 37.9% in CMOs issued by U.S. Government sponsored-agencies, partially offset by an increase of $1.2 billion or 43.7% in FNMA and FHLMC certificates, when compared with December 31, 2009.


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TABLE 4 — ASSETS SUMMARY AND COMPOSITION
AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2010 AND DECEMBER 31, 2009
 
                                 
    December 31,
    December 31,
    Variance
    December 31,
 
    2010     2009     %     2008  
    (Dollars in thousands)  
 
Investments:
                               
FNMA and FHLMC certificates
  $ 3,972,107     $ 2,764,172       43.7 %   $ 1,546,750  
Obligations of US Government sponsored agencies
    3,000       1,007,091       −99.7 %     941,916  
Non-agency collateralized mortgage obligations
          446,037       −100.0 %     529,664  
CMO’s issued by US Government sponsored agencies
    177,804       286,509       −37.9 %     351,027  
GNMA certificates
    127,714       346,103       —63.1 %     335,961  
Structured credit investments
    41,693       38,383       8.6 %     136,181  
Puerto Rico Government and agency obligations
    67,663       65,364       3.5 %     82,927  
FHLB stock
    22,496       19,937       12.8 %     21,013  
Other investments
    1,480       673       119.9 %     187  
                                 
      4,413,957       4,974,269       −11.3 %     3,945,626  
                                 
Loans:
                               
Loans not covered under shared-loss agreements with the FDIC:
                               
Loans receivable
    1,149,289       1,136,080       1.2 %     1,206,843  
Allowance for loan and lease losses
    (31,430 )     (23,272 )     35.1 %     (14,293 )
                                 
Loans receivable, net
    1,117,859       1,112,808       0.5 %     1,192,550  
Mortgage loans held for sale
    33,979       27,261       24.6 %     26,562  
                                 
Total loans not covered under shared-loss agreements with the FDIC, net
    1,151,838       1,140,069       1.0 %     1,219,112  
Loans covered under shared-loss agreements with the FDIC
    670,018             100.0 %      
Allowance for loan and lease losses on covered loans
    (49,286 )           −100.0 %      
                                 
Total loans covered under shared-loss agreements with the FDIC, net
    620,732             100.0 %      
                                 
Total loans, net
    1,772,570       1,140,069       55.5 %     1,219,112  
                                 
Securities sold but not yet delivered
                0.0 %     834,976  
                                 
Total securities and loans
    6,186,527       6,114,338       1.2 %     5,999,714  
                                 
Other assets:
                               
Cash and due from banks
    337,218       247,691       36.1 %     14,370  
Money market investments
    111,728       29,432       279.6 %     52,002  
Accrued interest receivable
    28,716       33,656       −14.7 %     43,914  
Deferred tax asset, net
    30,350       31,685       −4.2 %     28,463  
Premises and equipment, net
    23,941       19,775       21.1 %     21,184  
FDIC loss-share indemnification asset
    471,872             100.0 %      
Foreclosed real estate covered under shared-loss agreements with the FDIC
    15,962             100.0 %      
Foreclosed real estate not covered under share-loss agreements with the FDIC
    11,969       9,347       28.1 %     9,162  
Other assets
    94,494       64,909       45.6 %     33,908  
                                 
Total other assets
    1,126,250       436,495       158.0 %     203,003  
                                 
Total assets
  $ 7,312,777     $ 6,550,833       11.6 %   $ 6,202,717  
                                 
Investments portfolio composition:
                               
FNMA and FHLMC certificates
    90.1 %     55.5 %             39.2 %
Obligations of US Government sponsored agencies
    0.1 %     20.2 %             23.9 %
Non-agency collateralized mortgage obligations
    0.0 %     9.0 %             13.4 %
CMO’s issued by US Government sponsored agencies
    4.0 %     5.8 %             8.9 %
GNMA certificates
    2.9 %     7.0 %             8.5 %
Structured credit investments
    0.9 %     0.8 %             3.5 %
Puerto Rico Government and agency obligations
    1.5 %     1.3 %             2.1 %
FHLB stock
    0.5 %     0.4 %             0.5 %
Other investments
    0.0 %     0.0 %             0.0 %
                                 
      100.0 %     100.0 %             100.0 %
                                 


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At December 31, 2010, approximately 98% of the Group’s investment securities portfolio consist of fixed-rate mortgage-backed securities or notes, guaranteed or issued by FNMA, FHLMC or GNMA, and U.S. agency senior debt obligations, backed by a U.S. government-sponsored entity or the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. This compares to 89% at December 31, 2009.
 
The Group’s loan portfolio is mainly comprised of residential loans, home equity loans, commercial loans collateralized by mortgages on real estate located in Puerto Rico, and leases, the latter were added as part of the recent FDIC-assisted acquisition. At December 31, 2010, the Group’s loan portfolio, the second largest category of the Group’s interest-earning assets, amounted to $1.8 billion, an increase of 55.5% when compared to the $1.1 billion at December 31, 2009. The loan portfolio increase was mainly attributable to the $785.9 million in Eurobank loans acquired as part of the FDIC-assisted acquisition. At December 31, 2010, the balance of these loans amounted to $620.7 million. The fair values initially assigned to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed were preliminary and subject to refinement for up to one year after the closing date of the acquisition as new information relative to closing date fair values became available. During the year ended December 31, 2010, the Group recorded preliminary measurement period adjustments to the carrying value of loans, FDIC shared-loss indemnification asset, and deferred income tax liability. This was the result of additional analysis on the estimates of fair value, and the Group’s decision to account for all loans acquired in the FDIC-assisted acquisition, except for credit cards balances, in accordance with ASC 310-30, “Loans and Debt Securities Acquired with Deteriorated Credit Quality”. The Bank and the FDIC are engaged in ongoing discussions that may impact certain assets acquired or certain liabilities assumed by the Bank. The amount that the Group realizes on these assets could differ materially from the carrying value included in the consolidated statements of financial condition primarily as a result of changes in the timing and amount of collections on the acquired loans in future periods.
 
As shown in Table 5, the mortgage loan portfolio amounted to $868.1 million or 75.5% of the non-covered loan portfolio as of December 31, 2010, compared to $915.4 million or 80.6% of the non-covered loan portfolio at December 31, 2009. Mortgage production and purchases of $245.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 decreased 4.3%, from $256.3 million, when compared to the year ended December 31, 2009.
 
The second largest component of the Group’s non-covered loan portfolio is commercial loans. At December 31, 2010, the commercial loan portfolio totaled $235.0 million (2.4% of the Group’s total non-covered loan portfolio), in comparison to $197.8 million at December 31, 2009 (17.4% of the Group’s total non-covered loan portfolio). Commercial loan production increased 74.7% for the year ended December 31, 2010 from $57.9 million in 2009 to $101.0 million in 2010.
 
The consumer loan portfolio totaled $35.9 million (3.1% of total non-covered loan portfolio at December 31, 2010), in comparison to $22.9 million at December 31, 2009 (2.0% total non-covered loan portfolio at such date). Consumer loan production increased 49.6% for the year ended December 31, 2010 from $9.2 million in 2009 to $13.8 million in 2010.
 
The leasing portfolio totaled $10.3 million (0.9% of total non-covered loan portfolio at December 31, 2010). This business line was added as part of the FDIC-assisted acquisition on April 30, 2010. Leasing production was $11.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2010.


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The following table summarizes the remaining contractual maturities of the Group’s total gross non-covered loans segmented to reflect cash flows as of December 31, 2010. Contractual maturities do not necessarily reflect the actual term of a loan, considering prepayments.
 
                                                 
          Maturities  
                After One Year to
       
                Five Years     After Five Years  
    Balance
          Fixed
    Variable
    Fixed
    Variable
 
    Outstanding at
    One Year or
    Interest
    Interest
    Interest
    Interest
 
    December 31, 2010     Less     Rates     Rates     Rates     Rates  
    (In thousands)  
 
Non-covered loans
                                               
Mortgage
  $ 872,482     $ 8,399     $ 41,007     $     $ 823,076     $  
Commercial
    234,276       75,565       76,737       51,115       23,608       7,251  
Consumer
    36,628       11,562       22,473       15       1,234       1,344  
Leasing
    10,257       78       8,012             2,167        
                                                 
Total
  $ 1,153,643     $ 95,604     $ 148,229     $ 51,130     $ 850,085     $ 8,595  
                                                 


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TABLE 5 — LOANS RECEIVABLE COMPOSITION:
Selected Financial Data
As of December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008
 
                         
    December 31,
    December 31,
    December 31,
 
    2010     2009     2008  
    (In thousands)  
 
Loans not-covered under shared-loss agreements with FDIC:
                       
Mortgage, mainly residential
  $ 868,128     $ 915,439     $ 996,712  
Commercial
    234,992       197,777       187,077  
Consumer
    35,912       22,864       23,054  
Leasing
    10,257              
                         
Loans receivable
    1,149,289       1,136,080       1,206,843  
Allowance for loan and lease losses
    (31,430 )     (23,272 )     (14,293 )
                         
Loans receivable, net
    1,117,859       1,112,808       1,192,550  
Mortgage loans held-for-sale
    33,979       27,261       26,562  
                         
Total loans not-covered under shared-loss agreements with FDIC, net
    1,151,838       1,140,069       1,219,112  
Loans covered under shared-loss agreements with FDIC:
                       
Loans secured by 1-4 family residential properties
    166,865              
Construction and development secured by 1-4 family residential properties
    17,253              
Commercial and other construction
    388,261              
Leasing
    79,093              
Consumer
    18,546              
                         
Total loans covered under shared-loss agreements with FDIC
    670,018              
Allowance for loan and lease losses on covered loans
    (49,286 )              
                         
Total loans covered under shared-loss agreements with FDIC, net
    620,732              
                         
Total loans, net
  $ 1,772,570     $ 1,140,069     $ 1,219,112  
                         
Non-covered loans portfolio composition percentages:
                       
Mortgage
    75.5 %     80.6 %     82.6 %
Commercial, mainly real estate
    20.4 %     17.4 %     15.5 %
Consumer
    3.1 %     2.0 %     1.9 %
Leasing
    0.9 %     0.0 %     0.0 %
                         
Total non-covered loans
    100.0 %     100.0 %     100.0 %
                         
Covered loans portfolio composition percentages:
                       
Loans secured by 1-4 family residential properties
    24.9 %            
Construction and development secured by 1-4 family residential properties
    2.6 %            
Commercial and other construction
    57.9 %            
Leasing
    11.8 %            
Consumer
    2.8 %            
                         
Total covered loans
    100.0 %     0.0 %     0.0 %
                         


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Liabilities and Funding Sources
 
As shown in Table 6, at December 31, 2010, the Group’s total liabilities reached $6.6 billion, 5.8% higher than the $6.2 billion reported at December 31, 2009. This increase is mostly due to an increase of $843.4 million in deposits, resulting primarily from the FDIC-assisted acquisition. Deposits and borrowings, the Group’s funding sources, amounted to $6.5 billion at December 31, 2010 versus $5.8 billion at December 31, 2009, a 12.7% increase. Borrowings represented 60.2% of interest-bearing liabilities and deposits represented 37.8%. The increase in total liabilities was partially offset by securities purchased but not yet received at December 31, 2009 amounting to $413.4 million compared to none at December 31, 2010.
 
Borrowings consist mainly of funding sources through the use of repurchase agreements, FHLB advances, FDIC-guaranteed term notes (under the Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program), subordinated capital notes, and other borrowings. At December 31, 2010, borrowings amounted to $3.9 billion, 2.7% lower than the $4.0 billion recorded at December 31, 2009. Repurchase agreements as of December 31, 2010 amounted to $3.5 billion, a 2.8% decrease when compared to $3.6 billion as of December 31, 2009. The decrease is mainly due to the maturity and pay off of a repurchase agreement in August 2010 amounting to $100.0 million.
 
As part of the FDIC-assisted acquisition, the Bank issued to the FDIC a purchase money promissory note (the “Note”) in the amount of $715.5 million. The Note was secured by the loans (other than certain consumer loans) acquired under the agreement and all proceeds derived from such loans. The entire outstanding principal balance of the Note was due one year from issuance, or such earlier date as such amount became due and payable pursuant to the terms of the Note. The Bank paid interest in arrears on the Note at the annual rate of 0.881% on the 25th of each month or, if such day was not a business day, the next succeeding business day, commencing June 25, 2010, on the outstanding principal amount of the Note. Interest was calculated on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months. On September 27, 2010, the Group made the strategic decision to repay the Note prior to maturity. At the time of repayment the Note had an outstanding principal balance of $595.0 million. For the cancelation of the Note, the Group used approximately $200.0 million of proceeds from the sale of available for sale securities, brokered certificates of deposit amounting to $134.7 million, short-term repurchase agreements amounting to $85.0 million, and $175.3 million of cash.
 
The Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) system functions as a source of credit for financial institutions that are members of a regional FHLB. As a member of the FHLB, the Group can obtain advances from the FHLB, secured by the FHLB stock owned by the Group, as well as by certain of the Group’s mortgage loans and investment securities. Advances from FHLB amounted to $281.8 million as of December 31, 2010, and December 31, 2009. These advances mature from May 2012 through May 2014.
 
The Group’s banking subsidiary issued in March 2009 $105.0 million in notes guaranteed under the FDIC Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program. These notes are due on March 16, 2012, bear interest at a 2.75% fixed rate, and are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. Interest on the note is payable on the 16th of each March and September, beginning September 16, 2009. Shortly after issuance of the notes, the Group paid $3.2 million (equivalent to an annual fee of 100 basis points) to the FDIC to maintain the FDIC guarantee coverage until the maturity of the notes. This cost has been deferred and is being amortized over the term of the notes. The total cost of the notes for 2010 and 2009, including the amount of the debt issuance costs, was 3.87% and 3.58%, respectively.
 
At December 31, 2010, deposits, the second largest category of the Group’s interest-bearing liabilities reached $2.589 billion, up 48.3% from $1.746 billion at December 31, 2009. Deposits increase was mainly attributable to the $729.5 million in Eurobank deposits assumed as part of the FDIC-assisted acquisition. Retail deposits increased $621.6 million or 44.2% to $2.0 billion. Institutional deposits increased $147.0 million or 107.6% to $283.7 million. Brokered deposits increased $74.8 million or 36.8% to $278.0 million. This increase in brokered deposits was driven by $134.7 million in new brokered deposits issued during the quarter ended September 30, 2010.


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At December 31, 2010, the scheduled maturities of time deposits and individual retirement accounts of $100 thousand or more were as follows:
 
         
    (In thousands)  
 
Three (3) months or less
  $ 132,246  
Over 3 months through 6 months
    154,530  
Over 6 months through 12 months
    143,019  
Over 12 months
    160,212  
         
Total
  $ 590,007  
         


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TABLE 6 — LIABILITIES SUMMARY AND COMPOSITION
AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2010, 2009 AND 2008
                                 
    December 31,
    December 31,
    Variance
    December 31,
 
    2010     2009     %     2008  
    (Dollars in thousands)  
 
Deposits:
                               
Non-interest bearing deposits
  $ 170,705     $ 73,548       132.1 %   $ 53,165  
Now accounts
    783,744       619,947       26.4 %     400,623  
Savings and money market accounts
    235,690       86,791       171.6 %     50,152  
Certificates of deposit
    1,393,743       961,344       45.0 %     1,274,862  
                                 
      2,583,882       1,741,630       48.4 %     1,778,802  
                                 
Accrued interest payable
    5,005       3,871       29.3 %     6,498  
                                 
      2,588,887       1,745,501       48.3 %     1,785,300  
                                 
Borrowings:
                               
Short term borrowings
    42,470       49,218       −13.7 %     29,193  
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase
    3,456,781       3,557,308       −2.8 %     3,761,121  
Advances from FHLB
    281,753       281,753       0.0 %     308,442  
FDIC-guaranteed term notes
    105,834       105,834       0.0 %      
Subordinated capital notes
    36,083       36,083       0.0 %     36,083  
                                 
      3,922,921       4,030,196       —2.7 %     4,134,839  
                                 
Total deposits and borrowings
    6,511,808       5,775,697       12.7 %     5,920,139  
                                 
FDIC net settlement payable
    24,839             100.0 %      
Securities and loans purchased but not yet received
          413,359       −100.0 %     398  
Other liabilities
    43,799       31,611       38.4 %     23,682  
                                 
Total liabilities
  $ 6,580,446     $ 6,220,667       5.8 %   $ 5,944,219  
                                 
Deposits portfolio composition percentages:
                               
Non-interest bearing deposits
    6.6 %     4.2 %             3.0 %
Now accounts
    30.3 %     35.6 %             22.5 %
Savings accounts
    9.1 %     5.0 %             2.8 %
Certificates of deposit
    54.0 %     55.2 %             71.7 %
                                 
      100.0 %     100.0 %             100.0 %
                                 
Borrowings portfolio composition percentages:
                               
Federal funds purchases and other short term borrowings
    1.1 %     1.2 %             0.7 %
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase
    88.1 %     88.3 %             91.0 %
Advances from FHLB
    7.2 %     7.0 %             7.5 %
FDIC-guaranteed term notes
    2.7 %     2.6 %             0.0 %
Subordinated capital notes
    0.9 %     0.9 %             0.8 %
                                 
      100.0 %     100.0 %             100.0 %
                                 
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase
                               
Amount outstanding at year-end
  $ 3,456,781     $ 3,557,308             $ 3,761,121  
                                 
Daily average outstanding balance
  $ 3,545,926     $ 3,659,442             $ 3,800,673  
                                 
Maximum outstanding balance at any month-end
  $ 3,566,588     $ 3,762,353             $ 3,858,680  
                                 
 
Stockholders’ Equity
 
At December 31, 2010, the Group’s total stockholders’ equity was $732.3 million, a 121.8% increase when compared to $330.2 million at December 31, 2009. This increase reflects issuances of common and preferred stock,


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the net income for the year, and an improvement of approximately $119.7 million in the fair value of investment securities portfolio.
 
On March 19, 2010, the Group completed the public offering of 8,740,000 shares of its common stock. The offering resulted in net proceeds of $94.5 million after deducting offering costs. The net proceeds of this offering were intended for general corporate purposes, which including funding organic acquisition and acquisition growth opportunities, including the participation in government assisted transactions in Puerto Rico. The Group contributed $93.0 million of the net proceeds in the form of capital to the Group’s banking subsidiary, which used such amount for general corporate purposes and to bolster its regulatory capital needs.
 
On April 30, 2010, the Group issued 200,000 shares of the Series C Preferred Stock through a private placement. The Series C Preferred Stock had a liquidation preference of $1,000 per share. The offering resulted in net proceeds of $189.4 million, after deducting offering costs. On May 13, 2010, the Group made a capital contribution of $179.0 million to its banking subsidiary. At a special meeting of shareholders of the Group held on June 30, 2010, the shareholders approved the issuance of 13,320,000 shares of the Group’s common stock upon the conversion of the Series C Preferred Stock, which was converted on July 8, 2010 at a conversion price of $15.015 per share. The difference between the $15.015 per share conversion price and the market price of the common stock on April 30, 2010 ($16.72) was considered a contingent beneficial conversion feature on June 30, 2010, when the conversion was approved by the shareholders. Such feature amounted to $22.7 million at June 30, 2010 and was recorded as a deemed dividend on preferred stock.
 
Tangible common equity to risk-weighted assets and total equity to risk-weighted assets at December 31, 2010 increased to 29.23% and 32.47%, respectively, from 11.79% and 14.96% respectively, at December 31, 2009.
 
The Group maintains capital ratios in excess of regulatory requirements. At December 31, 2010, Tier 1 Leverage Capital Ratio was 9.56% (2.39 times the requirement of 4.00%), Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio was 30.98% (7.75 times the requirement of 4.00%), and Total Risk-Based Capital Ratio was 32.26% (4.04 times the requirement of 8.00%).
 
Taking into consideration the Group’s strong capital position the quarterly cash dividend per common share was increased by 25%, to $0.05 per share, on November 24, 2010. On an annualized basis, this represents an increase to $0.20 per share, from $0.16, or an estimated annual increase of $1.9 million, based on 46.3 million shares outstanding at December 31, 2010. In addition, on February 3, 2011, the Group’ Board of Directors approved a new stock repurchase program pursuant to which the Group is authorized to purchase in the open market up to $30.0 million of its outstanding shares of common stock. As part of this repurchase program, during 2011, up to the date of this report, the Group repurchased approximately 606,000 shares at an aggregate cost of $7.4 million, or $12.14 per share.


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The following are the consolidated capital ratios of the Group at December 31, 2010, 2009, and 2008:
 
TABLE 7 — CAPITAL, DIVIDENDS AND STOCK DATA
 
                                         
    December 31,
    December 31,
    Variance
    December 31,
       
    2010     2009     %     2008        
    (In thousands, except for per share data)  
 
Capital data:
                                       
Stockholders’ equity
  $ 732,331     $ 330,166       121.8 %   $ 261,317          
                                         
Regulatory Capital Ratios data:
                                       
Leverage Capital Ratio
    9.56 %     6.52 %     46.6 %     6.38 %        
                                         
Minimum Leverage Capital Ratio Required
    4.00 %     4.00 %             4.00 %        
                                         
Actual Tier 1 Capital
  $ 698,836     $ 414,702       68.5 %   $ 389,235          
                                         
Minimum Tier 1 Capital Required
  $ 292,449     $ 254,323       15.0 %   $ 244,101          
                                         
Excess over regulatory requirement
  $ 406,387     $ 160,379       153.4 %   $ 145,134          
                                         
Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio
    30.98 %     18.79 %     64.9 %     17.11 %        
                                         
Minimum Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio Required
    4.00 %     4.00 %             4.00 %        
                                         
Actual Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital
  $ 698,836     $ 414,702       68.5 %   $ 389,235          
                                         
Minimum Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Required
  $ 90,228     $ 88,295       2.2 %   $ 91,022          
                                         
Excess over regulatory requirement
  $ 608,608     $ 326,407       86.5 %   $ 298,213          
                                         
Risk-Weighted Assets
  $ 2,255,691     $ 2,207,383       2.2 %   $ 2,275,550          
                                         
Total Risk-Based Capital Ratio
    32.26 %     19.84 %     62.6 %     17.73 %        
                                         
Minimum Total Risk-Based Capital Ratio Required
    8.00 %     8.00 %             8.00 %        
                                         
Actual Total Risk-Based Capital
  $ 727,689     $ 437,975       66.1 %   $ 403,523          
                                         
Minimum Total Risk-Based Capital Required
  $ 180,455     $ 176,591       2.2 %   $ 182,044          
                                         
Excess over regulatory requirement
  $ 547,234     $ 261,384       109.4 %   $ 221,479          
                                         
Risk-Weighted Assets
  $ 2,255,691     $ 2,207,383       2.2 %   $ 2,275,550          
                                         
Other ratios:
                                       
Tangible common equity (common equity less goodwill and core deposit intangible) to total assets
    9.02 %     3.97 %     127.7 %     3.08 %        
                                         
Tangible common equity to risk-weighted assets
    29.23 %     11.79 %     148.5 %     8.40 %        
                                         
Total equity to total assets
    10.01 %     5.04 %     98.6 %     4.21 %        
                                         
Total equity to risk-weighted assets
    32.47 %     14.96 %     117.0 %     11.48 %        
                                         
Stock data:
                                       
Outstanding common shares
    46,349       24,235       91.2 %     24,297          
                                         
Book value per common share
  $ 14.33     $ 10.82       32.4 %   $ 7.96          
                                         
Market price at end of year
  $ 12.49     $ 10.80       15.6 %   $ 6.05          
                                         
Market capitalization at end of year
  $ 578,899     $ 261,738       121.2 %   $ 146,997          
                                         
Common dividend data:
                                       
Cash dividends declared
  $ 6,820     $ 3,888       75.4 %   $ 13,608          
                                         
Cash dividends declared per share
  $ 0.17     $ 0.16       6.0 %   $ 0.56          
                                         
Payout ratio
    −33.79 %     21.33 %     —258.4 %     61.89 %        
                                         
Dividend yield
    1.36 %     1.48 %     —8.0 %     9.26 %        
                                         
 
 
(1) Tangible common equity consists of common equity less goodwill, less core deposit intangible.


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The table that follows provides a reconciliation of the Group’s total stockholders’ equity to tangible common equity and total assets to tangible assets at December 31, 2010 and 2009:
 
                 
    2010     2009  
    (In thousands, except share or per share information)  
 
Total Stockholders’ equity
  $ 732,331     $ 330,166  
Less: Preferred stock
    (68,000 )     (68,000 )
Less: Goodwill
    (3,662 )     (2,006 )
Less: Other intangibles
    (1,328 )      
                 
Total tangible common equity
  $ 659,341     $ 260,160  
                 
Total assets
  $ 7,312,777     $ 6,55